syscalls(2) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

SYSCALLS(2)             Linux Programmer's Manual            SYSCALLS(2)

NAME         top

       syscalls - Linux system calls

SYNOPSIS         top

       Linux system calls.

DESCRIPTION         top

       The system call is the fundamental interface between an
       application and the Linux kernel.

   System calls and library wrapper functions
       System calls are generally not invoked directly, but rather via
       wrapper functions in glibc (or perhaps some other library).  For
       details of direct invocation of a system call, see intro(2).
       Often, but not always, the name of the wrapper function is the
       same as the name of the system call that it invokes.  For
       example, glibc contains a function chdir() which invokes the
       underlying "chdir" system call.

       Often the glibc wrapper function is quite thin, doing little work
       other than copying arguments to the right registers before
       invoking the system call, and then setting errno appropriately
       after the system call has returned.  (These are the same steps
       that are performed by syscall(2), which can be used to invoke
       system calls for which no wrapper function is provided.)  Note:
       system calls indicate a failure by returning a negative error
       number to the caller on architectures without a separate error
       register/flag, as noted in syscall(2); when this happens, the
       wrapper function negates the returned error number (to make it
       positive), copies it to errno, and returns -1 to the caller of
       the wrapper.

       Sometimes, however, the wrapper function does some extra work
       before invoking the system call.  For example, nowadays there are
       (for reasons described below) two related system calls,
       truncate(2) and truncate64(2), and the glibc truncate() wrapper
       function checks which of those system calls are provided by the
       kernel and determines which should be employed.

   System call list
       Below is a list of the Linux system calls.  In the list, the
       Kernel column indicates the kernel version for those system calls
       that were new in Linux 2.2, or have appeared since that kernel
       version.  Note the following points:

       *  Where no kernel version is indicated, the system call appeared
          in kernel 1.0 or earlier.

       *  Where a system call is marked "1.2" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 1.1.x kernel version, and first
          appeared in a stable kernel with 1.2.  (Development of the 1.2
          kernel was initiated from a branch of kernel 1.0.6 via the
          1.1.x unstable kernel series.)

       *  Where a system call is marked "2.0" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 1.3.x kernel version, and first
          appeared in a stable kernel with 2.0.  (Development of the 2.0
          kernel was initiated from a branch of kernel 1.2.x, somewhere
          around 1.2.10, via the 1.3.x unstable kernel series.)

       *  Where a system call is marked "2.2" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 2.1.x kernel version, and first
          appeared in a stable kernel with 2.2.0.  (Development of the
          2.2 kernel was initiated from a branch of kernel 2.0.21 via
          the 2.1.x unstable kernel series.)

       *  Where a system call is marked "2.4" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 2.3.x kernel version, and first
          appeared in a stable kernel with 2.4.0.  (Development of the
          2.4 kernel was initiated from a branch of kernel 2.2.8 via the
          2.3.x unstable kernel series.)

       *  Where a system call is marked "2.6" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 2.5.x kernel version, and first
          appeared in a stable kernel with 2.6.0.  (Development of
          kernel 2.6 was initiated from a branch of kernel 2.4.15 via
          the 2.5.x unstable kernel series.)

       *  Starting with kernel 2.6.0, the development model changed, and
          new system calls may appear in each 2.6.x release.  In this
          case, the exact version number where the system call appeared
          is shown.  This convention continues with the 3.x kernel
          series, which followed on from kernel 2.6.39; and the 4.x
          kernel series, which followed on from kernel 3.19; and the 5.x
          kernel series, which followed on from kernel 4.20.

       *  In some cases, a system call was added to a stable kernel
          series after it branched from the previous stable kernel
          series, and then backported into the earlier stable kernel
          series.  For example some system calls that appeared in 2.6.x
          were also backported into a 2.4.x release after 2.4.15.  When
          this is so, the version where the system call appeared in both
          of the major kernel series is listed.

       The list of system calls that are available as at kernel 5.11 (or
       in a few cases only on older kernels) is as follows:

       System call                Kernel        Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

       _llseek(2)                 1.2
       _newselect(2)              2.0
       _sysctl(2)                 2.0           Removed in 5.5
       accept(2)                  2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       accept4(2)                 2.6.28
       access(2)                  1.0
       acct(2)                    1.0
       add_key(2)                 2.6.10
       adjtimex(2)                1.0
       alarm(2)                   1.0
       alloc_hugepages(2)         2.5.36        Removed in 2.5.44
       arc_gettls(2)              3.9           ARC only
       arc_settls(2)              3.9           ARC only
       arc_usr_cmpxchg(2)         4.9           ARC only
       arch_prctl(2)              2.6           x86_64, x86 since
                                                4.12
       atomic_barrier(2)          2.6.34        m68k only
       atomic_cmpxchg_32(2)       2.6.34        m68k only
       bdflush(2)                 1.2           Deprecated (does
                                                nothing) since 2.6
       bind(2)                    2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       bpf(2)                     3.18
       brk(2)                     1.0

       breakpoint(2)              2.2           ARM OABI only,
                                                defined with
                                                __ARM_NR prefix
       cacheflush(2)              1.2           Not on x86
       capget(2)                  2.2
       capset(2)                  2.2
       chdir(2)                   1.0
       chmod(2)                   1.0
       chown(2)                   2.2           See chown(2) for
                                                version details
       chown32(2)                 2.4
       chroot(2)                  1.0
       clock_adjtime(2)           2.6.39
       clock_getres(2)            2.6
       clock_gettime(2)           2.6
       clock_nanosleep(2)         2.6
       clock_settime(2)           2.6
       clone2(2)                  2.4           IA-64 only
       clone(2)                   1.0
       clone3(2)                  5.3
       close(2)                   1.0
       close_range(2)             5.9
       connect(2)                 2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       copy_file_range(2)         4.5
       creat(2)                   1.0
       create_module(2)           1.0           Removed in 2.6
       delete_module(2)           1.0
       dup(2)                     1.0
       dup2(2)                    1.0
       dup3(2)                    2.6.27
       epoll_create(2)            2.6
       epoll_create1(2)           2.6.27
       epoll_ctl(2)               2.6
       epoll_pwait(2)             2.6.19
       epoll_pwait2(2)            5.11
       epoll_wait(2)              2.6
       eventfd(2)                 2.6.22
       eventfd2(2)                2.6.27
       execv(2)                   2.0           SPARC/SPARC64
                                                only, for
                                                compatibility with
                                                SunOS
       execve(2)                  1.0
       execveat(2)                3.19
       exit(2)                    1.0
       exit_group(2)              2.6
       faccessat(2)               2.6.16
       faccessat2(2)              5.8
       fadvise64(2)               2.6
       fadvise64_64(2)            2.6
       fallocate(2)               2.6.23
       fanotify_init(2)           2.6.37
       fanotify_mark(2)           2.6.37
       fchdir(2)                  1.0
       fchmod(2)                  1.0
       fchmodat(2)                2.6.16
       fchown(2)                  1.0
       fchown32(2)                2.4
       fchownat(2)                2.6.16
       fcntl(2)                   1.0
       fcntl64(2)                 2.4
       fdatasync(2)               2.0
       fgetxattr(2)               2.6; 2.4.18
       finit_module(2)            3.8

       flistxattr(2)              2.6; 2.4.18
       flock(2)                   2.0
       fork(2)                    1.0
       free_hugepages(2)          2.5.36        Removed in 2.5.44
       fremovexattr(2)            2.6; 2.4.18
       fsconfig(2)                5.2
       fsetxattr(2)               2.6; 2.4.18
       fsmount(2)                 5.2
       fsopen(2)                  5.2
       fspick(2)                  5.2
       fstat(2)                   1.0
       fstat64(2)                 2.4
       fstatat64(2)               2.6.16
       fstatfs(2)                 1.0
       fstatfs64(2)               2.6
       fsync(2)                   1.0
       ftruncate(2)               1.0
       ftruncate64(2)             2.4
       futex(2)                   2.6
       futimesat(2)               2.6.16
       get_kernel_syms(2)         1.0           Removed in 2.6
       get_mempolicy(2)           2.6.6
       get_robust_list(2)         2.6.17
       get_thread_area(2)         2.6
       get_tls(2)                 4.15          ARM OABI only, has
                                                __ARM_NR prefix
       getcpu(2)                  2.6.19
       getcwd(2)                  2.2
       getdents(2)                2.0
       getdents64(2)              2.4
       getdomainname(2)           2.2           SPARC, SPARC64;
                                                available as
                                                osf_getdomainname(2)
                                                on Alpha since
                                                Linux 2.0
       getdtablesize(2)           2.0           SPARC (removed in
                                                2.6.26), available
                                                on Alpha as
                                                osf_getdtablesize(2)
       getegid(2)                 1.0
       getegid32(2)               2.4
       geteuid(2)                 1.0
       geteuid32(2)               2.4
       getgid(2)                  1.0
       getgid32(2)                2.4
       getgroups(2)               1.0
       getgroups32(2)             2.4
       gethostname(2)             2.0           Alpha, was available
                                                on SPARC up to Linux
                                                2.6.26
       getitimer(2)               1.0
       getpeername(2)             2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       getpagesize(2)             2.0           Not on x86
       getpgid(2)                 1.0
       getpgrp(2)                 1.0
       getpid(2)                  1.0
       getppid(2)                 1.0
       getpriority(2)             1.0
       getrandom(2)               3.17
       getresgid(2)               2.2
       getresgid32(2)             2.4
       getresuid(2)               2.2
       getresuid32(2)             2.4
       getrlimit(2)               1.0

       getrusage(2)               1.0
       getsid(2)                  2.0
       getsockname(2)             2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       getsockopt(2)              2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       gettid(2)                  2.4.11
       gettimeofday(2)            1.0
       getuid(2)                  1.0
       getuid32(2)                2.4
       getunwind(2)               2.4.8         IA-64 only;
                                                deprecated
       getxattr(2)                2.6; 2.4.18
       getxgid(2)                 2.0           Alpha only; see
                                                NOTES
       getxpid(2)                 2.0           Alpha only; see
                                                NOTES
       getxuid(2)                 2.0           Alpha only; see
                                                NOTES
       init_module(2)             1.0
       inotify_add_watch(2)       2.6.13
       inotify_init(2)            2.6.13
       inotify_init1(2)           2.6.27
       inotify_rm_watch(2)        2.6.13
       io_cancel(2)               2.6
       io_destroy(2)              2.6
       io_getevents(2)            2.6
       io_pgetevents(2)           4.18
       io_setup(2)                2.6
       io_submit(2)               2.6
       io_uring_enter(2)          5.1
       io_uring_register(2)       5.1
       io_uring_setup(2)          5.1
       ioctl(2)                   1.0
       ioperm(2)                  1.0
       iopl(2)                    1.0
       ioprio_get(2)              2.6.13
       ioprio_set(2)              2.6.13
       ipc(2)                     1.0
       kcmp(2)                    3.5
       kern_features(2)           3.7           SPARC64 only
       kexec_file_load(2)         3.17
       kexec_load(2)              2.6.13
       keyctl(2)                  2.6.10
       kill(2)                    1.0
       lchown(2)                  1.0           See chown(2) for
                                                version details
       lchown32(2)                2.4
       lgetxattr(2)               2.6; 2.4.18
       link(2)                    1.0
       linkat(2)                  2.6.16
       listen(2)                  2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       listxattr(2)               2.6; 2.4.18
       llistxattr(2)              2.6; 2.4.18
       lookup_dcookie(2)          2.6
       lremovexattr(2)            2.6; 2.4.18
       lseek(2)                   1.0
       lsetxattr(2)               2.6; 2.4.18
       lstat(2)                   1.0
       lstat64(2)                 2.4
       madvise(2)                 2.4
       mbind(2)                   2.6.6
       memory_ordering(2)         2.2           SPARC64 only
       membarrier(2)              3.17

       memfd_create(2)            3.17
       migrate_pages(2)           2.6.16
       mincore(2)                 2.4
       mkdir(2)                   1.0
       mkdirat(2)                 2.6.16
       mknod(2)                   1.0
       mknodat(2)                 2.6.16
       mlock(2)                   2.0
       mlock2(2)                  4.4
       mlockall(2)                2.0
       mmap(2)                    1.0
       mmap2(2)                   2.4
       modify_ldt(2)              1.0
       mount(2)                   1.0
       move_mount(2)              5.2
       move_pages(2)              2.6.18
       mprotect(2)                1.0
       mq_getsetattr(2)           2.6.6
       mq_notify(2)               2.6.6
       mq_open(2)                 2.6.6
       mq_timedreceive(2)         2.6.6
       mq_timedsend(2)            2.6.6
       mq_unlink(2)               2.6.6
       mremap(2)                  2.0
       msgctl(2)                  2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       msgget(2)                  2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       msgrcv(2)                  2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       msgsnd(2)                  2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       msync(2)                   2.0
       munlock(2)                 2.0
       munlockall(2)              2.0
       munmap(2)                  1.0
       name_to_handle_at(2)       2.6.39
       nanosleep(2)               2.0
       newfstatat(2)              2.6.16        See stat(2)
       nfsservctl(2)              2.2           Removed in 3.1
       nice(2)                    1.0
       old_adjtimex(2)            2.0           Alpha only; see
                                                NOTES
       old_getrlimit(2)           2.4           Old variant of
                                                getrlimit(2) that
                                                used a different
                                                value for
                                                RLIM_INFINITY
       oldfstat(2)                1.0
       oldlstat(2)                1.0
       oldolduname(2)             1.0
       oldstat(2)                 1.0
       oldumount(2)               2.4.116       Name of the old
                                                umount(2) syscall on
                                                Alpha
       olduname(2)                1.0
       open(2)                    1.0
       open_by_handle_at(2)       2.6.39
       open_tree(2)               5.2
       openat(2)                  2.6.16
       openat2(2)                 5.6
       or1k_atomic(2)             3.1           OpenRISC 1000 only
       pause(2)                   1.0
       pciconfig_iobase(2)        2.2.15; 2.4   Not on x86
       pciconfig_read(2)          2.0.26; 2.2   Not on x86
       pciconfig_write(2)         2.0.26; 2.2   Not on x86

       perf_event_open(2)         2.6.31        Was
                                                perf_counter_open()
                                                in 2.6.31; renamed
                                                in 2.6.32
       personality(2)             1.2
       perfctr(2)                 2.2           SPARC only; removed
                                                in 2.6.34
       perfmonctl(2)              2.4           IA-64 only
       pidfd_getfd(2)             5.6
       pidfd_send_signal(2)       5.1
       pidfd_open(2)              5.3
       pipe(2)                    1.0
       pipe2(2)                   2.6.27
       pivot_root(2)              2.4
       pkey_alloc(2)              4.8
       pkey_free(2)               4.8
       pkey_mprotect(2)           4.8
       poll(2)                    2.0.36; 2.2
       ppoll(2)                   2.6.16
       prctl(2)                   2.2
       pread64(2)                               Added as "pread" in
                                                2.2; renamed
                                                "pread64" in 2.6
       preadv(2)                  2.6.30
       preadv2(2)                 4.6
       prlimit64(2)               2.6.36
       process_madvise(2)         5.10
       process_vm_readv(2)        3.2
       process_vm_writev(2)       3.2
       pselect6(2)                2.6.16
       ptrace(2)                  1.0
       pwrite64(2)                              Added as "pwrite" in
                                                2.2; renamed
                                                "pwrite64" in 2.6
       pwritev(2)                 2.6.30
       pwritev2(2)                4.6
       query_module(2)            2.2           Removed in 2.6
       quotactl(2)                1.0
       read(2)                    1.0
       readahead(2)               2.4.13
       readdir(2)                 1.0
       readlink(2)                1.0
       readlinkat(2)              2.6.16
       readv(2)                   2.0
       reboot(2)                  1.0
       recv(2)                    2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       recvfrom(2)                2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       recvmsg(2)                 2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       recvmmsg(2)                2.6.33
       remap_file_pages(2)        2.6           Deprecated since
                                                3.16
       removexattr(2)             2.6; 2.4.18
       rename(2)                  1.0
       renameat(2)                2.6.16
       renameat2(2)               3.15
       request_key(2)             2.6.10
       restart_syscall(2)         2.6
       riscv_flush_icache(2)      4.15          RISC-V only
       rmdir(2)                   1.0
       rseq(2)                    4.18
       rt_sigaction(2)            2.2
       rt_sigpending(2)           2.2

       rt_sigprocmask(2)          2.2
       rt_sigqueueinfo(2)         2.2
       rt_sigreturn(2)            2.2
       rt_sigsuspend(2)           2.2
       rt_sigtimedwait(2)         2.2
       rt_tgsigqueueinfo(2)       2.6.31
       rtas(2)                    2.6.2         PowerPC/PowerPC64
                                                only
       s390_runtime_instr(2)      3.7           s390 only
       s390_pci_mmio_read(2)      3.19          s390 only
       s390_pci_mmio_write(2)     3.19          s390 only
       s390_sthyi(2)              4.15          s390 only
       s390_guarded_storage(2)    4.12          s390 only
       sched_get_affinity(2)      2.6           Name of
                                                sched_getaffinity(2)
                                                on SPARC and SPARC64
       sched_get_priority_max(2)  2.0
       sched_get_priority_min(2)  2.0
       sched_getaffinity(2)       2.6
       sched_getattr(2)           3.14
       sched_getparam(2)          2.0
       sched_getscheduler(2)      2.0
       sched_rr_get_interval(2)   2.0
       sched_set_affinity(2)      2.6           Name of
                                                sched_setaffinity(2)
                                                on SPARC and SPARC64
       sched_setaffinity(2)       2.6
       sched_setattr(2)           3.14
       sched_setparam(2)          2.0
       sched_setscheduler(2)      2.0
       sched_yield(2)             2.0
       seccomp(2)                 3.17
       select(2)                  1.0
       semctl(2)                  2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       semget(2)                  2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       semop(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       semtimedop(2)              2.6; 2.4.22
       send(2)                    2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       sendfile(2)                2.2
       sendfile64(2)              2.6; 2.4.19
       sendmmsg(2)                3.0
       sendmsg(2)                 2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       sendto(2)                  2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       set_mempolicy(2)           2.6.6
       set_robust_list(2)         2.6.17
       set_thread_area(2)         2.6
       set_tid_address(2)         2.6
       set_tls(2)                 2.6.11        ARM OABI/EABI only
                                                (constant has
                                                __ARM_NR prefix)
       setdomainname(2)           1.0
       setfsgid(2)                1.2
       setfsgid32(2)              2.4
       setfsuid(2)                1.2
       setfsuid32(2)              2.4
       setgid(2)                  1.0
       setgid32(2)                2.4
       setgroups(2)               1.0
       setgroups32(2)             2.4
       sethae(2)                  2.0           Alpha only; see
                                                NOTES
       sethostname(2)             1.0

       setitimer(2)               1.0
       setns(2)                   3.0
       setpgid(2)                 1.0
       setpgrp(2)                 2.0           Alternative name for
                                                setpgid(2) on Alpha
       setpriority(2)             1.0
       setregid(2)                1.0
       setregid32(2)              2.4
       setresgid(2)               2.2
       setresgid32(2)             2.4
       setresuid(2)               2.2
       setresuid32(2)             2.4
       setreuid(2)                1.0
       setreuid32(2)              2.4
       setrlimit(2)               1.0
       setsid(2)                  1.0
       setsockopt(2)              2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       settimeofday(2)            1.0
       setuid(2)                  1.0
       setuid32(2)                2.4
       setup(2)                   1.0           Removed in 2.2
       setxattr(2)                2.6; 2.4.18
       sgetmask(2)                1.0
       shmat(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       shmctl(2)                  2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       shmdt(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       shmget(2)                  2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       shutdown(2)                2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       sigaction(2)               1.0
       sigaltstack(2)             2.2
       signal(2)                  1.0
       signalfd(2)                2.6.22
       signalfd4(2)               2.6.27
       sigpending(2)              1.0
       sigprocmask(2)             1.0
       sigreturn(2)               1.0
       sigsuspend(2)              1.0
       socket(2)                  2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       socketcall(2)              1.0
       socketpair(2)              2.0           See notes on
                                                socketcall(2)
       spill(2)                   2.6.13        Xtensa only
       splice(2)                  2.6.17
       spu_create(2)              2.6.16        PowerPC/PowerPC64
                                                only
       spu_run(2)                 2.6.16        PowerPC/PowerPC64
                                                only
       ssetmask(2)                1.0
       stat(2)                    1.0
       stat64(2)                  2.4
       statfs(2)                  1.0
       statfs64(2)                2.6
       statx(2)                   4.11
       stime(2)                   1.0
       subpage_prot(2)            2.6.25        PowerPC/PowerPC64
                                                only
       swapcontext(2)             2.6.3         PowerPC/PowerPC64
                                                only
       switch_endian(2)           4.1           PowerPC64 only
       swapoff(2)                 1.0
       swapon(2)                  1.0
       symlink(2)                 1.0

       symlinkat(2)               2.6.16
       sync(2)                    1.0
       sync_file_range(2)         2.6.17
       sync_file_range2(2)        2.6.22
       syncfs(2)                  2.6.39
       sys_debug_setcontext(2)    2.6.11        PowerPC only
       syscall(2)                 1.0           Still available on
                                                ARM OABI and MIPS
                                                O32 ABI
       sysfs(2)                   1.2
       sysinfo(2)                 1.0
       syslog(2)                  1.0
       sysmips(2)                 2.6.0         MIPS only
       tee(2)                     2.6.17
       tgkill(2)                  2.6
       time(2)                    1.0
       timer_create(2)            2.6
       timer_delete(2)            2.6
       timer_getoverrun(2)        2.6
       timer_gettime(2)           2.6
       timer_settime(2)           2.6
       timerfd_create(2)          2.6.25
       timerfd_gettime(2)         2.6.25
       timerfd_settime(2)         2.6.25
       times(2)                   1.0
       tkill(2)                   2.6; 2.4.22
       truncate(2)                1.0
       truncate64(2)              2.4
       ugetrlimit(2)              2.4
       umask(2)                   1.0
       umount(2)                  1.0
       umount2(2)                 2.2
       uname(2)                   1.0
       unlink(2)                  1.0
       unlinkat(2)                2.6.16
       unshare(2)                 2.6.16
       uselib(2)                  1.0
       ustat(2)                   1.0
       userfaultfd(2)             4.3
       usr26(2)                   2.4.8.1       ARM OABI only
       usr32(2)                   2.4.8.1       ARM OABI only
       utime(2)                   1.0
       utimensat(2)               2.6.22
       utimes(2)                  2.2
       utrap_install(2)           2.2           SPARC64 only
       vfork(2)                   2.2
       vhangup(2)                 1.0
       vm86old(2)                 1.0           Was "vm86"; renamed
                                                in 2.0.28/2.2
       vm86(2)                    2.0.28; 2.2
       vmsplice(2)                2.6.17
       wait4(2)                   1.0
       waitid(2)                  2.6.10
       waitpid(2)                 1.0
       write(2)                   1.0
       writev(2)                  2.0
       xtensa(2)                  2.6.13        Xtensa only

       On many platforms, including x86-32, socket calls are all
       multiplexed (via glibc wrapper functions) through socketcall(2)
       and similarly System V IPC calls are multiplexed through ipc(2).

       Although slots are reserved for them in the system call table,
       the following system calls are not implemented in the standard
       kernel: afs_syscall(2), break(2), ftime(2), getpmsg(2), gtty(2),
       idle(2), lock(2), madvise1(2), mpx(2), phys(2), prof(2),
       profil(2), putpmsg(2), security(2), stty(2), tuxcall(2),
       ulimit(2), and vserver(2) (see also unimplemented(2)).  However,
       ftime(3), profil(3), and ulimit(3) exist as library routines.
       The slot for phys(2) is in use since kernel 2.1.116 for
       umount(2); phys(2) will never be implemented.  The getpmsg(2) and
       putpmsg(2) calls are for kernels patched to support STREAMS, and
       may never be in the standard kernel.

       There was briefly set_zone_reclaim(2), added in Linux 2.6.13, and
       removed in 2.6.16; this system call was never available to user
       space.

   System calls on removed ports
       Some system calls only ever existed on Linux architectures that
       have since been removed from the kernel:

       AVR32 (port removed in Linux 4.12)
              * pread(2)
              * pwrite(2)

       Blackfin (port removed in Linux 4.17)
              * bfin_spinlock(2) (added in Linux 2.6.22)
              * dma_memcpy(2) (added in Linux 2.6.22)
              * pread(2) (added in Linux 2.6.22)
              * pwrite(2) (added in Linux 2.6.22)
              * sram_alloc(2) (added in Linux 2.6.22)
              * sram_free(2) (added in Linux 2.6.22)

       Metag (port removed in Linux 4.17)
              * metag_get_tls(2) (add in Linux 3.9)
              * metag_set_fpu_flags(2) (add in Linux 3.9)
              * metag_set_tls(2) (add in Linux 3.9)
              * metag_setglobalbit(2) (add in Linux 3.9)

       Tile (port removed in Linux 4.17)
              * cmpxchg_badaddr(2) (added in Linux 2.6.36)

NOTES         top

       Roughly speaking, the code belonging to the system call with
       number __NR_xxx defined in /usr/include/asm/unistd.h can be found
       in the Linux kernel source in the routine sys_xxx().  There are
       many exceptions, however, mostly because older system calls were
       superseded by newer ones, and this has been treated somewhat
       unsystematically.  On platforms with proprietary operating-system
       emulation, such as sparc, sparc64, and alpha, there are many
       additional system calls; mips64 also contains a full set of
       32-bit system calls.

       Over time, changes to the interfaces of some system calls have
       been necessary.  One reason for such changes was the need to
       increase the size of structures or scalar values passed to the
       system call.  Because of these changes, certain architectures
       (notably, longstanding 32-bit architectures such as i386) now
       have various groups of related system calls (e.g., truncate(2)
       and truncate64(2)) which perform similar tasks, but which vary in
       details such as the size of their arguments.  (As noted earlier,
       applications are generally unaware of this: the glibc wrapper
       functions do some work to ensure that the right system call is
       invoked, and that ABI compatibility is preserved for old
       binaries.)  Examples of systems calls that exist in multiple
       versions are the following:

       *  By now there are three different versions of stat(2):
          sys_stat() (slot __NR_oldstat), sys_newstat() (slot
          __NR_stat), and sys_stat64() (slot __NR_stat64), with the last
          being the most current.  A similar story applies for lstat(2)
          and fstat(2).

       *  Similarly, the defines __NR_oldolduname, __NR_olduname, and
          __NR_uname refer to the routines sys_olduname(), sys_uname(),
          and sys_newuname().

       *  In Linux 2.0, a new version of vm86(2) appeared, with the old
          and the new kernel routines being named sys_vm86old() and
          sys_vm86().

       *  In Linux 2.4, a new version of getrlimit(2) appeared, with the
          old and the new kernel routines being named
          sys_old_getrlimit() (slot __NR_getrlimit) and sys_getrlimit()
          (slot __NR_ugetrlimit).

       *  Linux 2.4 increased the size of user and group IDs from 16 to
          32 bits.  To support this change, a range of system calls were
          added (e.g., chown32(2), getuid32(2), getgroups32(2),
          setresuid32(2)), superseding earlier calls of the same name
          without the "32" suffix.

       *  Linux 2.4 added support for applications on 32-bit
          architectures to access large files (i.e., files for which the
          sizes and file offsets can't be represented in 32 bits.)  To
          support this change, replacements were required for system
          calls that deal with file offsets and sizes.  Thus the
          following system calls were added: fcntl64(2), getdents64(2),
          stat64(2), statfs64(2), truncate64(2), and their analogs that
          work with file descriptors or symbolic links.  These system
          calls supersede the older system calls which, except in the
          case of the "stat" calls, have the same name without the "64"
          suffix.

          On newer platforms that only have 64-bit file access and
          32-bit UIDs/GIDs (e.g., alpha, ia64, s390x, x86-64), there is
          just a single version of the UID/GID and file access system
          calls.  On platforms (typically, 32-bit platforms) where the
          *64 and *32 calls exist, the other versions are obsolete.

       *  The rt_sig* calls were added in kernel 2.2 to support the
          addition of real-time signals (see signal(7)).  These system
          calls supersede the older system calls of the same name
          without the "rt_" prefix.

       *  The select(2) and mmap(2) system calls use five or more
          arguments, which caused problems in the way argument passing
          on the i386 used to be set up.  Thus, while other
          architectures have sys_select() and sys_mmap() corresponding
          to __NR_select and __NR_mmap, on i386 one finds old_select()
          and old_mmap() (routines that use a pointer to an argument
          block) instead.  These days passing five arguments is not a
          problem any more, and there is a __NR__newselect that
          corresponds directly to sys_select() and similarly __NR_mmap2.
          s390x is the only 64-bit architecture that has old_mmap().

   Architecture-specific details: Alpha
       *  getxgid(2) returns a pair of GID and effective GID via
          registers r0 and r20; it is provided instead of getgid(2) and
          getegid(2).

       *  getxpid(2) returns a pair of PID and parent PID via registers
          r0 and r20; it is provided instead of getpid(2) and
          getppid(2).

       *  old_adjtimex(2) is a variant of adjtimex(2) that uses struct
          timeval32, for compatibility with OSF/1.

       *  getxuid(2) returns a pair of GID and effective GID via
          registers r0 and r20; it is provided instead of getuid(2) and
          geteuid(2).

       *  sethae(2) is used for configuring the Host Address Extension
          register on low-cost Alphas in order to access address space
          beyond first 27 bits.

SEE ALSO         top

       intro(2), syscall(2), unimplemented(2), errno(3), libc(7),
       vdso(7)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of release 5.11 of the Linux man-pages project.
       A description of the project, information about reporting bugs,
       and the latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux                          2021-03-22                    SYSCALLS(2)

Pages that refer to this page: intro(2)syscall(2)unimplemented(2)stapprobes(3stap)libc(7)man-pages(7)vdso(7)