close_range(2) — Linux manual page


close_range(2)             System Calls Manual            close_range(2)

NAME         top

       close_range - close all file descriptors in a given range

LIBRARY         top

       Standard C library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS         top

       #include <linux/close_range.h>

       int close_range(unsigned int first, unsigned int last,
                       unsigned int flags);

DESCRIPTION         top

       The close_range() system call closes all open file descriptors
       from first to last (included).

       Errors closing a given file descriptor are currently ignored.

       flags is a bit mask containing 0 or more of the following:

       CLOSE_RANGE_CLOEXEC (since Linux 5.11)
              Set the close-on-exec flag on the specified file
              descriptors, rather than immediately closing them.

              Unshare the specified file descriptors from any other
              processes before closing them, avoiding races with other
              threads sharing the file descriptor table.

RETURN VALUE         top

       On success, close_range() returns 0.  On error, -1 is returned
       and errno is set to indicate the error.

ERRORS         top

       EINVAL flags is not valid, or first is greater than last.

       The following can occur with CLOSE_RANGE_UNSHARE (when
       constructing the new descriptor table):

       EMFILE The number of open file descriptors exceeds the limit
              specified in /proc/sys/fs/nr_open (see proc(5)).  This
              error can occur in situations where that limit was lowered
              before a call to close_range() where the
              CLOSE_RANGE_UNSHARE flag is specified.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

STANDARDS         top


HISTORY         top

       FreeBSD.  Linux 5.9, glibc 2.34.

NOTES         top

   Closing all open file descriptors
       To avoid blindly closing file descriptors in the range of
       possible file descriptors, this is sometimes implemented (on
       Linux) by listing open file descriptors in /proc/self/fd/ and
       calling close(2) on each one.  close_range() can take care of
       this without requiring /proc and within a single system call,
       which provides significant performance benefits.

   Closing file descriptors before exec
       File descriptors can be closed safely using

           /* we don't want anything past stderr here */
           close_range(3, ~0U, CLOSE_RANGE_UNSHARE);

       CLOSE_RANGE_UNSHARE is conceptually equivalent to

           close_range(first, last, 0);

       but can be more efficient: if the unshared range extends past the
       current maximum number of file descriptors allocated in the
       caller's file descriptor table (the common case when last is
       ~0U), the kernel will unshare a new file descriptor table for the
       caller up to first, copying as few file descriptors as possible.
       This avoids subsequent close(2) calls entirely; the whole
       operation is complete once the table is unshared.

   Closing files on exec
       This is particularly useful in cases where multiple pre-exec
       setup steps risk conflicting with each other.  For example,
       setting up a seccomp(2) profile can conflict with a close_range()
       call: if the file descriptors are closed before the seccomp(2)
       profile is set up, the profile setup can't use them itself, or
       control their closure; if the file descriptors are closed
       afterwards, the seccomp profile can't block the close_range()
       call or any fallbacks.  Using CLOSE_RANGE_CLOEXEC avoids this:
       the descriptors can be marked before the seccomp(2) profile is
       set up, and the profile can control access to close_range()
       without affecting the calling process.

EXAMPLES         top

       The program shown below opens the files named in its command-line
       arguments, displays the list of files that it has opened (by
       iterating through the entries in /proc/PID/fd), uses
       close_range() to close all file descriptors greater than or equal
       to 3, and then once more displays the process's list of open
       files.  The following example demonstrates the use of the

           $ touch /tmp/a /tmp/b /tmp/c
           $ ./a.out /tmp/a /tmp/b /tmp/c
           /tmp/a opened as FD 3
           /tmp/b opened as FD 4
           /tmp/c opened as FD 5
           /proc/self/fd/0 ==> /dev/pts/1
           /proc/self/fd/1 ==> /dev/pts/1
           /proc/self/fd/2 ==> /dev/pts/1
           /proc/self/fd/3 ==> /tmp/a
           /proc/self/fd/4 ==> /tmp/b
           /proc/self/fd/5 ==> /tmp/b
           /proc/self/fd/6 ==> /proc/9005/fd
           ========= About to call close_range() =======
           /proc/self/fd/0 ==> /dev/pts/1
           /proc/self/fd/1 ==> /dev/pts/1
           /proc/self/fd/2 ==> /dev/pts/1
           /proc/self/fd/3 ==> /proc/9005/fd

       Note that the lines showing the pathname /proc/9005/fd result
       from the calls to opendir(3).

   Program source

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include <dirent.h>
       #include <fcntl.h>
       #include <limits.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <sys/syscall.h>
       #include <unistd.h>

       /* Show the contents of the symbolic links in /proc/self/fd */

       static void
           DIR            *dirp;
           char           path[PATH_MAX], target[PATH_MAX];
           ssize_t        len;
           struct dirent  *dp;

           dirp = opendir("/proc/self/fd");
           if (dirp  == NULL) {

           for (;;) {
               dp = readdir(dirp);
               if (dp == NULL)

               if (dp->d_type == DT_LNK) {
                   snprintf(path, sizeof(path), "/proc/self/fd/%s",

                   len = readlink(path, target, sizeof(target));
                   printf("%s ==> %.*s\n", path, (int) len, target);


       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           int  fd;

           for (size_t j = 1; j < argc; j++) {
               fd = open(argv[j], O_RDONLY);
               if (fd == -1) {
               printf("%s opened as FD %d\n", argv[j], fd);


           printf("========= About to call close_range() =======\n");

           if (syscall(SYS_close_range, 3, ~0U, 0) == -1) {


SEE ALSO         top


Linux man-pages (unreleased)     (date)                   close_range(2)

Pages that refer to this page: close(2)syscalls(2)io_uring_close_ring_fd(3)