iopl(2) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | ERRORS | CONFORMING TO | NOTES | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

IOPL(2)                 Linux Programmer's Manual                IOPL(2)

NAME         top

       iopl - change I/O privilege level

SYNOPSIS         top

       #include <sys/io.h>

       int iopl(int level);

DESCRIPTION         top

       iopl() changes the I/O privilege level of the calling thread, as
       specified by the two least significant bits in level.

       The I/O privilege level for a normal thread is 0.  Permissions
       are inherited from parents to children.

       This call is deprecated, is significantly slower than ioperm(2),
       and is only provided for older X servers which require access to
       all 65536 I/O ports.  It is mostly for the i386 architecture.  On
       many other architectures it does not exist or will always return
       an error.

RETURN VALUE         top

       On success, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and
       errno is set to indicate the error.

ERRORS         top

       EINVAL level is greater than 3.

       ENOSYS This call is unimplemented.

       EPERM  The calling thread has insufficient privilege to call
              iopl(); the CAP_SYS_RAWIO capability is required to raise
              the I/O privilege level above its current value.

CONFORMING TO         top

       iopl() is Linux-specific and should not be used in programs that
       are intended to be portable.

NOTES         top

       Glibc2 has a prototype both in <sys/io.h> and in <sys/perm.h>.
       Avoid the latter, it is available on i386 only.

       Prior to Linux 5.5 iopl() allowed the thread to disable
       interrupts while running at a higher I/O privilege level.  This
       will probably crash the system, and is not recommended.

       Prior to Linux 3.7, on some architectures (such as i386),
       permissions were inherited by the child produced by fork(2) and
       were preserved across execve(2).  This behavior was inadvertently
       changed in Linux 3.7, and won't be reinstated.

SEE ALSO         top

       ioperm(2), outb(2), capabilities(7)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of release 5.12 of the Linux man-pages project.
       A description of the project, information about reporting bugs,
       and the latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux                          2021-03-22                        IOPL(2)

Pages that refer to this page: ioperm(2)outb(2)syscalls(2)unimplemented(2)systemd.exec(5)capabilities(7)