PROC(5) Linux Programmer's Manual PROC(5)
proc - process information pseudo-filesystem
The proc filesystem is a pseudo-filesystem which provides an interface to kernel data structures. It is commonly mounted at /proc. Typically, it is mounted automatically by the system, but it can also be mounted manually using a command such as: mount -t proc proc /proc Most of the files in the proc filesystem are read-only, but some files are writable, allowing kernel variables to be changed. Mount options The proc filesystem supports the following mount options: hidepid=n (since Linux 3.3) This option controls who can access the information in /proc/[pid] directories. The argument, n, is one of the fol‐ lowing values: 0 Everybody may access all /proc/[pid] directories. This is the traditional behavior, and the default if this mount option is not specified. 1 Users may not access files and subdirectories inside any /proc/[pid] directories but their own (the /proc/[pid] directories themselves remain visible). Sensitive files such as /proc/[pid]/cmdline and /proc/[pid]/status are now protected against other users. This makes it impossible to learn whether any user is running a specific program (so long as the program doesn't otherwise reveal itself by its behavior). 2 As for mode 1, but in addition the /proc/[pid] directories belonging to other users become invisible. This means that /proc/[pid] entries can no longer be used to discover the PIDs on the system. This doesn't hide the fact that a process with a specific PID value exists (it can be learned by other means, for example, by "kill -0 $PID"), but it hides a process's UID and GID, which could other‐ wise be learned by employing stat(2) on a /proc/[pid] directory. This greatly complicates an attacker's task of gathering information about running processes (e.g., dis‐ covering whether some daemon is running with elevated privileges, whether another user is running some sensitive program, whether other users are running any program at all, and so on). gid=gid (since Linux 3.3) Specifies the ID of a group whose members are authorized to learn process information otherwise prohibited by hidepid (i.e., users in this group behave as though /proc was mounted with hidepid=0). This group should be used instead of approaches such as putting nonroot users into the sudoers(5) file. Overview Underneath /proc, there are the following general groups of files and subdirectories: /proc/[pid] subdirectories Each one of these subdirectories contains files and subdirec‐ tories exposing information about the process with the corre‐ sponding process ID. Underneath each of the /proc/[pid] directories, a task subdi‐ rectory contains subdirectories of the form task/[tid], which contain corresponding information about each of the threads in the process, where tid is the kernel thread ID of the thread. The /proc/[pid] subdirectories are visible when iterating through /proc with getdents(2) (and thus are visible when one uses ls(1) to view the contents of /proc). /proc/[tid] subdirectories Each one of these subdirectories contains files and subdirec‐ tories exposing information about the thread with the corre‐ sponding thread ID. The contents of these directories are the same as the corresponding /proc/[pid]/task/[tid] directories. The /proc/[tid] subdirectories are not visible when iterating through /proc with getdents(2) (and thus are not visible when one uses ls(1) to view the contents of /proc). /proc/self When a process accesses this magic symbolic link, it resolves to the process's own /proc/[pid] directory. /proc/thread-self When a thread accesses this magic symbolic link, it resolves to the process's own /proc/self/task/[tid] directory. /proc/[a-z]* Various other files and subdirectories under /proc expose sys‐ tem-wide information. All of the above are described in more detail below. Files and directories The following list provides details of many of the files and directo‐ ries under the /proc hierarchy. /proc/[pid] There is a numerical subdirectory for each running process; the subdirectory is named by the process ID. Each /proc/[pid] subdirectory contains the pseudo-files and directories described below. The files inside each /proc/[pid] directory are normally owned by the effective user and effective group ID of the process. However, as a security measure, the ownership is made root:root if the process's "dumpable" attribute is set to a value other than 1. Before Linux 4.11, root:root meant the "global" root user ID and group ID (i.e., UID 0 and GID 0 in the initial user names‐ pace). Since Linux 4.11, if the process is in a noninitial user namespace that has a valid mapping for user (group) ID 0 inside the namespace, then the user (group) ownership of the files under /proc/[pid] is instead made the same as the root user (group) ID of the namespace. This means that inside a container, things work as expected for the container "root" user. The process's "dumpable" attribute may change for the follow‐ ing reasons: * The attribute was explicitly set via the prctl(2) PR_SET_DUMPABLE operation. * The attribute was reset to the value in the file /proc/sys/fs/suid_dumpable (described below), for the rea‐ sons described in prctl(2). Resetting the "dumpable" attribute to 1 reverts the ownership of the /proc/[pid]/* files to the process's effective UID and GID. Note, however, that if the effective UID or GID is sub‐ sequently modified, then the "dumpable" attribute may be reset, as described in prctl(2). Therefore, it may be desir‐ able to reset the "dumpable" attribute after making any desired changes to the process's effective UID or GID. /proc/[pid]/attr The files in this directory provide an API for security mod‐ ules. The contents of this directory are files that can be read and written in order to set security-related attributes. This directory was added to support SELinux, but the intention was that the API be general enough to support other security modules. For the purpose of explanation, examples of how SELinux uses these files are provided below. This directory is present only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_SECURITY. /proc/[pid]/attr/current (since Linux 2.6.0) The contents of this file represent the current security attributes of the process. In SELinux, this file is used to get the security context of a process. Prior to Linux 2.6.11, this file could not be used to set the security context (a write was always denied), since SELinux limited process security transitions to execve(2) (see the description of /proc/[pid]/attr/exec, below). Since Linux 2.6.11, SELinux lifted this restriction and began supporting "set" operations via writes to this node if authorized by pol‐ icy, although use of this operation is only suitable for applications that are trusted to maintain any desired separa‐ tion between the old and new security contexts. Prior to Linux 2.6.28, SELinux did not allow threads within a multithreaded process to set their security context via this node as it would yield an inconsistency among the security contexts of the threads sharing the same memory space. Since Linux 2.6.28, SELinux lifted this restriction and began sup‐ porting "set" operations for threads within a multithreaded process if the new security context is bounded by the old security context, where the bounded relation is defined in policy and guarantees that the new security context has a sub‐ set of the permissions of the old security context. Other security modules may choose to support "set" operations via writes to this node. /proc/[pid]/attr/exec (since Linux 2.6.0) This file represents the attributes to assign to the process upon a subsequent execve(2). In SELinux, this is needed to support role/domain transitions, and execve(2) is the preferred point to make such transitions because it offers better control over the initialization of the process in the new security label and the inheritance of state. In SELinux, this attribute is reset on execve(2) so that the new program reverts to the default behavior for any execve(2) calls that it may make. In SELinux, a process can set only its own /proc/[pid]/attr/exec attribute. /proc/[pid]/attr/fscreate (since Linux 2.6.0) This file represents the attributes to assign to files created by subsequent calls to open(2), mkdir(2), symlink(2), and mknod(2) SELinux employs this file to support creation of a file (using the aforementioned system calls) in a secure state, so that there is no risk of inappropriate access being obtained between the time of creation and the time that attributes are set. In SELinux, this attribute is reset on execve(2), so that the new program reverts to the default behavior for any file creation calls it may make, but the attribute will per‐ sist across multiple file creation calls within a program unless it is explicitly reset. In SELinux, a process can set only its own /proc/[pid]/attr/fscreate attribute. /proc/[pid]/attr/keycreate (since Linux 2.6.18) If a process writes a security context into this file, all subsequently created keys (add_key(2)) will be labeled with this context. For further information, see the kernel source file Documentation/security/keys/core.rst (or file Documenta‐ tion/security/keys.txt on Linux between 3.0 and 4.13, or Docu‐ mentation/keys.txt before Linux 3.0). /proc/[pid]/attr/prev (since Linux 2.6.0) This file contains the security context of the process before the last execve(2); that is, the previous value of /proc/[pid]/attr/current. /proc/[pid]/attr/socketcreate (since Linux 2.6.18) If a process writes a security context into this file, all subsequently created sockets will be labeled with this con‐ text. /proc/[pid]/autogroup (since Linux 2.6.38) See sched(7). /proc/[pid]/auxv (since 2.6.0) This contains the contents of the ELF interpreter information passed to the process at exec time. The format is one unsigned long ID plus one unsigned long value for each entry. The last entry contains two zeros. See also getauxval(3). Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/cgroup (since Linux 2.6.24) See cgroups(7). /proc/[pid]/clear_refs (since Linux 2.6.22) This is a write-only file, writable only by owner of the process. The following values may be written to the file: 1 (since Linux 2.6.22) Reset the PG_Referenced and ACCESSED/YOUNG bits for all the pages associated with the process. (Before kernel 2.6.32, writing any nonzero value to this file had this effect.) 2 (since Linux 2.6.32) Reset the PG_Referenced and ACCESSED/YOUNG bits for all anonymous pages associated with the process. 3 (since Linux 2.6.32) Reset the PG_Referenced and ACCESSED/YOUNG bits for all file-mapped pages associated with the process. Clearing the PG_Referenced and ACCESSED/YOUNG bits provides a method to measure approximately how much memory a process is using. One first inspects the values in the "Referenced" fields for the VMAs shown in /proc/[pid]/smaps to get an idea of the memory footprint of the process. One then clears the PG_Referenced and ACCESSED/YOUNG bits and, after some measured time interval, once again inspects the values in the "Refer‐ enced" fields to get an idea of the change in memory footprint of the process during the measured interval. If one is inter‐ ested only in inspecting the selected mapping types, then the value 2 or 3 can be used instead of 1. Further values can be written to affect different properties: 4 (since Linux 3.11) Clear the soft-dirty bit for all the pages associated with the process. This is used (in conjunction with /proc/[pid]/pagemap) by the check-point restore system to discover which pages of a process have been dirtied since the file /proc/[pid]/clear_refs was written to. 5 (since Linux 4.0) Reset the peak resident set size ("high water mark") to the process's current resident set size value. Writing any value to /proc/[pid]/clear_refs other than those listed above has no effect. The /proc/[pid]/clear_refs file is present only if the CON‐ FIG_PROC_PAGE_MONITOR kernel configuration option is enabled. /proc/[pid]/cmdline This read-only file holds the complete command line for the process, unless the process is a zombie. In the latter case, there is nothing in this file: that is, a read on this file will return 0 characters. The command-line arguments appear in this file as a set of strings separated by null bytes ('\0'), with a further null byte after the last string. If, after an execve(2), the process modifies its argv strings, those changes will show up here. This is not the same thing as modifying the argv array. Furthermore, a process may change the memory location that this file refers via prctl(2) operations such as PR_SET_MM_ARG_START. Think of this file as the command line that the process wants you to see. /proc/[pid]/comm (since Linux 2.6.33) This file exposes the process's comm value—that is, the com‐ mand name associated with the process. Different threads in the same process may have different comm values, accessible via /proc/[pid]/task/[tid]/comm. A thread may modify its comm value, or that of any of other thread in the same thread group (see the discussion of CLONE_THREAD in clone(2)), by writing to the file /proc/self/task/[tid]/comm. Strings longer than TASK_COMM_LEN (16) characters (including the terminating null byte) are silently truncated. This file provides a superset of the prctl(2) PR_SET_NAME and PR_GET_NAME operations, and is employed by pthread_setname_np(3) when used to rename threads other than the caller. The value in this file is used for the %e speci‐ fier in /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern; see core(5). /proc/[pid]/coredump_filter (since Linux 2.6.23) See core(5). /proc/[pid]/cpuset (since Linux 2.6.12) See cpuset(7). /proc/[pid]/cwd This is a symbolic link to the current working directory of the process. To find out the current working directory of process 20, for instance, you can do this: $ cd /proc/20/cwd; pwd -P In a multithreaded process, the contents of this symbolic link are not available if the main thread has already terminated (typically by calling pthread_exit(3)). Permission to dereference or read (readlink(2)) this symbolic link is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/environ This file contains the initial environment that was set when the currently executing program was started via execve(2). The entries are separated by null bytes ('\0'), and there may be a null byte at the end. Thus, to print out the environment of process 1, you would do: $ cat /proc/1/environ | tr '\000' '\n' If, after an execve(2), the process modifies its environment (e.g., by calling functions such as putenv(3) or modifying the environ(7) variable directly), this file will not reflect those changes. Furthermore, a process may change the memory location that this file refers via prctl(2) operations such as PR_SET_MM_ENV_START. Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/exe Under Linux 2.2 and later, this file is a symbolic link con‐ taining the actual pathname of the executed command. This symbolic link can be dereferenced normally; attempting to open it will open the executable. You can even type /proc/[pid]/exe to run another copy of the same executable that is being run by process [pid]. If the pathname has been unlinked, the symbolic link will contain the string '(deleted)' appended to the original pathname. In a multi‐ threaded process, the contents of this symbolic link are not available if the main thread has already terminated (typically by calling pthread_exit(3)). Permission to dereference or read (readlink(2)) this symbolic link is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). Under Linux 2.0 and earlier, /proc/[pid]/exe is a pointer to the binary which was executed, and appears as a symbolic link. A readlink(2) call on this file under Linux 2.0 returns a string in the format: [device]:inode For example, :1502 would be inode 1502 on device major 03 (IDE, MFM, etc. drives) minor 01 (first partition on the first drive). find(1) with the -inum option can be used to locate the file. /proc/[pid]/fd/ This is a subdirectory containing one entry for each file which the process has open, named by its file descriptor, and which is a symbolic link to the actual file. Thus, 0 is stan‐ dard input, 1 standard output, 2 standard error, and so on. For file descriptors for pipes and sockets, the entries will be symbolic links whose content is the file type with the inode. A readlink(2) call on this file returns a string in the format: type:[inode] For example, socket: will be a socket and its inode is 2248868. For sockets, that inode can be used to find more information in one of the files under /proc/net/. For file descriptors that have no corresponding inode (e.g., file descriptors produced by bpf(2), epoll_create(2), eventfd(2), inotify_init(2), perf_event_open(2), signalfd(2), timerfd_create(2), and userfaultfd(2)), the entry will be a symbolic link with contents of the form anon_inode:<file-type> In many cases (but not all), the file-type is surrounded by square brackets. For example, an epoll file descriptor will have a symbolic link whose content is the string anon_inode:[eventpoll]. In a multithreaded process, the contents of this directory are not available if the main thread has already terminated (typi‐ cally by calling pthread_exit(3)). Programs that take a filename as a command-line argument, but don't take input from standard input if no argument is sup‐ plied, and programs that write to a file named as a command- line argument, but don't send their output to standard output if no argument is supplied, can nevertheless be made to use standard input or standard output by using /proc/[pid]/fd files as command-line arguments. For example, assuming that -i is the flag designating an input file and -o is the flag designating an output file: $ foobar -i /proc/self/fd/0 -o /proc/self/fd/1 ... and you have a working filter. /proc/self/fd/N is approximately the same as /dev/fd/N in some UNIX and UNIX-like systems. Most Linux MAKEDEV scripts sym‐ bolically link /dev/fd to /proc/self/fd, in fact. Most systems provide symbolic links /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout, and /dev/stderr, which respectively link to the files 0, 1, and 2 in /proc/self/fd. Thus the example command above could be written as: $ foobar -i /dev/stdin -o /dev/stdout ... Permission to dereference or read (readlink(2)) the symbolic links in this directory is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). Note that for file descriptors referring to inodes (pipes and sockets, see above), those inodes still have permission bits and ownership information distinct from those of the /proc/[pid]/fd entry, and that the owner may differ from the user and group IDs of the process. An unprivileged process may lack permissions to open them, as in this example: $ echo test | sudo -u nobody cat test $ echo test | sudo -u nobody cat /proc/self/fd/0 cat: /proc/self/fd/0: Permission denied File descriptor 0 refers to the pipe created by the shell and owned by that shell's user, which is not nobody, so cat does not have permission to create a new file descriptor to read from that inode, even though it can still read from its exist‐ ing file descriptor 0. /proc/[pid]/fdinfo/ (since Linux 2.6.22) This is a subdirectory containing one entry for each file which the process has open, named by its file descriptor. The files in this directory are readable only by the owner of the process. The contents of each file can be read to obtain information about the corresponding file descriptor. The con‐ tent depends on the type of file referred to by the corre‐ sponding file descriptor. For regular files and directories, we see something like: $ cat /proc/12015/fdinfo/4 pos: 1000 flags: 01002002 mnt_id: 21 The fields are as follows: pos This is a decimal number showing the file offset. flags This is an octal number that displays the file access mode and file status flags (see open(2)). If the close-on-exec file descriptor flag is set, then flags will also include the value O_CLOEXEC. Before Linux 3.1, this field incorrectly displayed the setting of O_CLOEXEC at the time the file was opened, rather than the current setting of the close-on-exec flag. mnt_id This field, present since Linux 3.15, is the ID of the mount point containing this file. See the description of /proc/[pid]/mountinfo. For eventfd file descriptors (see eventfd(2)), we see (since Linux 3.8) the following fields: pos: 0 flags: 02 mnt_id: 10 eventfd-count: 40 eventfd-count is the current value of the eventfd counter, in hexadecimal. For epoll file descriptors (see epoll(7)), we see (since Linux 3.8) the following fields: pos: 0 flags: 02 mnt_id: 10 tfd: 9 events: 19 data: 74253d2500000009 tfd: 7 events: 19 data: 74253d2500000007 Each of the lines beginning tfd describes one of the file descriptors being monitored via the epoll file descriptor (see epoll_ctl(2) for some details). The tfd field is the number of the file descriptor. The events field is a hexadecimal mask of the events being monitored for this file descriptor. The data field is the data value associated with this file descriptor. For signalfd file descriptors (see signalfd(2)), we see (since Linux 3.8) the following fields: pos: 0 flags: 02 mnt_id: 10 sigmask: 0000000000000006 sigmask is the hexadecimal mask of signals that are accepted via this signalfd file descriptor. (In this example, bits 2 and 3 are set, corresponding to the signals SIGINT and SIGQUIT; see signal(7).) For inotify file descriptors (see inotify(7)), we see (since Linux 3.8) the following fields: pos: 0 flags: 00 mnt_id: 11 inotify wd:2 ino:7ef82a sdev:800001 mask:800afff ignored_mask:0 fhandle-bytes:8 fhandle-type:1 f_handle:2af87e00220ffd73 inotify wd:1 ino:192627 sdev:800001 mask:800afff ignored_mask:0 fhandle-bytes:8 fhandle-type:1 f_handle:27261900802dfd73 Each of the lines beginning with "inotify" displays informa‐ tion about one file or directory that is being monitored. The fields in this line are as follows: wd A watch descriptor number (in decimal). ino The inode number of the target file (in hexadecimal). sdev The ID of the device where the target file resides (in hexadecimal). mask The mask of events being monitored for the target file (in hexadecimal). If the kernel was built with exportfs support, the path to the target file is exposed as a file handle, via three hexadecimal fields: fhandle-bytes, fhandle-type, and f_handle. For fanotify file descriptors (see fanotify(7)), we see (since Linux 3.8) the following fields: pos: 0 flags: 02 mnt_id: 11 fanotify flags:0 event-flags:88002 fanotify ino:19264f sdev:800001 mflags:0 mask:1 ignored_mask:0 fhandle-bytes:8 fhandle-type:1 f_handle:4f261900a82dfd73 The fourth line displays information defined when the fanotify group was created via fanotify_init(2): flags The flags argument given to fanotify_init(2) (expressed in hexadecimal). event-flags The event_f_flags argument given to fanotify_init(2) (expressed in hexadecimal). Each additional line shown in the file contains information about one of the marks in the fanotify group. Most of these fields are as for inotify, except: mflags The flags associated with the mark (expressed in hexa‐ decimal). mask The events mask for this mark (expressed in hexadeci‐ mal). ignored_mask The mask of events that are ignored for this mark (expressed in hexadecimal). For details on these fields, see fanotify_mark(2). For timerfd file descriptors (see timerfd(2)), we see (since Linux 3.17) the following fields: pos: 0 flags: 02004002 mnt_id: 13 clockid: 0 ticks: 0 settime flags: 03 it_value: (7695568592, 640020877) it_interval: (0, 0) clockid This is the numeric value of the clock ID (correspond‐ ing to one of the CLOCK_* constants defined via <time.h>) that is used to mark the progress of the timer (in this example, 0 is CLOCK_REALTIME). ticks This is the number of timer expirations that have occurred, (i.e., the value that read(2) on it would return). settime flags This field lists the flags with which the timerfd was last armed (see timerfd_settime(2)), in octal (in this example, both TFD_TIMER_ABSTIME and TFD_TIMER_CAN‐ CEL_ON_SET are set). it_value This field contains the amount of time until the timer will next expire, expressed in seconds and nanoseconds. This is always expressed as a relative value, regard‐ less of whether the timer was created using the TFD_TIMER_ABSTIME flag. it_interval This field contains the interval of the timer, in sec‐ onds and nanoseconds. (The it_value and it_interval fields contain the values that timerfd_gettime(2) on this file descriptor would return.) /proc/[pid]/gid_map (since Linux 3.5) See user_namespaces(7). /proc/[pid]/io (since kernel 2.6.20) This file contains I/O statistics for the process, for exam‐ ple: # cat /proc/3828/io rchar: 323934931 wchar: 323929600 syscr: 632687 syscw: 632675 read_bytes: 0 write_bytes: 323932160 cancelled_write_bytes: 0 The fields are as follows: rchar: characters read The number of bytes which this task has caused to be read from storage. This is simply the sum of bytes which this process passed to read(2) and similar system calls. It includes things such as terminal I/O and is unaffected by whether or not actual physical disk I/O was required (the read might have been satisfied from pagecache). wchar: characters written The number of bytes which this task has caused, or shall cause to be written to disk. Similar caveats apply here as with rchar. syscr: read syscalls Attempt to count the number of read I/O operations—that is, system calls such as read(2) and pread(2). syscw: write syscalls Attempt to count the number of write I/O operations— that is, system calls such as write(2) and pwrite(2). read_bytes: bytes read Attempt to count the number of bytes which this process really did cause to be fetched from the storage layer. This is accurate for block-backed filesystems. write_bytes: bytes written Attempt to count the number of bytes which this process caused to be sent to the storage layer. cancelled_write_bytes: The big inaccuracy here is truncate. If a process writes 1 MB to a file and then deletes the file, it will in fact perform no writeout. But it will have been accounted as having caused 1 MB of write. In other words: this field represents the number of bytes which this process caused to not happen, by truncating pagecache. A task can cause "negative" I/O too. If this task truncates some dirty pagecache, some I/O which another task has been accounted for (in its write_bytes) will not be happening. Note: In the current implementation, things are a bit racy on 32-bit systems: if process A reads process B's /proc/[pid]/io while process B is updating one of these 64-bit counters, process A could see an intermediate result. Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/limits (since Linux 2.6.24) This file displays the soft limit, hard limit, and units of measurement for each of the process's resource limits (see getrlimit(2)). Up to and including Linux 2.6.35, this file is protected to allow reading only by the real UID of the process. Since Linux 2.6.36, this file is readable by all users on the system. /proc/[pid]/map_files/ (since kernel 3.3) This subdirectory contains entries corresponding to memory- mapped files (see mmap(2)). Entries are named by memory region start and end address pair (expressed as hexadecimal numbers), and are symbolic links to the mapped files them‐ selves. Here is an example, with the output wrapped and reformatted to fit on an 80-column display: # ls -l /proc/self/map_files/ lr--------. 1 root root 64 Apr 16 21:31 3252e00000-3252e20000 -> /usr/lib64/ld-2.15.so ... Although these entries are present for memory regions that were mapped with the MAP_FILE flag, the way anonymous shared memory (regions created with the MAP_ANON | MAP_SHARED flags) is implemented in Linux means that such regions also appear on this directory. Here is an example where the target file is the deleted /dev/zero one: lrw-------. 1 root root 64 Apr 16 21:33 7fc075d2f000-7fc075e6f000 -> /dev/zero (deleted) Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). Until kernel version 4.3, this directory appeared only if the CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE kernel configuration option was enabled. Additionally, in those kernel versions, privilege (CAP_SYS_ADMIN) was required to view the contents of this directory. /proc/[pid]/maps A file containing the currently mapped memory regions and their access permissions. See mmap(2) for some further infor‐ mation about memory mappings. Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). The format of the file is: address perms offset dev inode pathname 00400000-00452000 r-xp 00000000 08:02 173521 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon 00651000-00652000 r--p 00051000 08:02 173521 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon 00652000-00655000 rw-p 00052000 08:02 173521 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon 00e03000-00e24000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap] 00e24000-011f7000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap] ... 35b1800000-35b1820000 r-xp 00000000 08:02 135522 /usr/lib64/ld-2.15.so 35b1a1f000-35b1a20000 r--p 0001f000 08:02 135522 /usr/lib64/ld-2.15.so 35b1a20000-35b1a21000 rw-p 00020000 08:02 135522 /usr/lib64/ld-2.15.so 35b1a21000-35b1a22000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 35b1c00000-35b1dac000 r-xp 00000000 08:02 135870 /usr/lib64/libc-2.15.so 35b1dac000-35b1fac000 ---p 001ac000 08:02 135870 /usr/lib64/libc-2.15.so 35b1fac000-35b1fb0000 r--p 001ac000 08:02 135870 /usr/lib64/libc-2.15.so 35b1fb0000-35b1fb2000 rw-p 001b0000 08:02 135870 /usr/lib64/libc-2.15.so ... f2c6ff8c000-7f2c7078c000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack:986] ... 7fffb2c0d000-7fffb2c2e000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack] 7fffb2d48000-7fffb2d49000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso] The address field is the address space in the process that the mapping occupies. The perms field is a set of permissions: r = read w = write x = execute s = shared p = private (copy on write) The offset field is the offset into the file/whatever; dev is the device (major:minor); inode is the inode on that device. 0 indicates that no inode is associated with the memory region, as would be the case with BSS (uninitialized data). The pathname field will usually be the file that is backing the mapping. For ELF files, you can easily coordinate with the offset field by looking at the Offset field in the ELF program headers (readelf -l). There are additional helpful pseudo-paths: [stack] The initial process's (also known as the main thread's) stack. [stack:<tid>] (from Linux 3.4 to 4.4) A thread's stack (where the <tid> is a thread ID). It corresponds to the /proc/[pid]/task/[tid]/ path. This field was removed in Linux 4.5, since providing this information for a process with large numbers of threads is expensive. [vdso] The virtual dynamically linked shared object. See vdso(7). [heap] The process's heap. If the pathname field is blank, this is an anonymous mapping as obtained via mmap(2). There is no easy way to coordinate this back to a process's source, short of running it through gdb(1), strace(1), or similar. pathname is shown unescaped except for newline characters, which are replaced with an octal escape sequence. As a result, it is not possible to determine whether the original pathname contained a newline character or the literal \012 character sequence. If the mapping is file-backed and the file has been deleted, the string " (deleted)" is appended to the pathname. Note that this is ambiguous too. Under Linux 2.0, there is no field giving pathname. /proc/[pid]/mem This file can be used to access the pages of a process's mem‐ ory through open(2), read(2), and lseek(2). Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/mountinfo (since Linux 2.6.26) This file contains information about mount points in the process's mount namespace (see mount_namespaces(7)). It sup‐ plies various information (e.g., propagation state, root of mount for bind mounts, identifier for each mount and its par‐ ent) that is missing from the (older) /proc/[pid]/mounts file, and fixes various other problems with that file (e.g., nonex‐ tensibility, failure to distinguish per-mount versus per- superblock options). The file contains lines of the form: 36 35 98:0 /mnt1 /mnt2 rw,noatime master:1 - ext3 /dev/root rw,errors=continue (1)(2)(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) The numbers in parentheses are labels for the descriptions below: (1) mount ID: a unique ID for the mount (may be reused after umount(2)). (2) parent ID: the ID of the parent mount (or of self for the root of this mount namespace's mount tree). If a new mount is stacked on top of a previous existing mount (so that it hides the existing mount) at pathname P, then the parent of the new mount is the previous mount at that location. Thus, when looking at all the mounts stacked at a particular location, the top-most mount is the one that is not the parent of any other mount at the same location. (Note, however, that this top-most mount will be accessible only if the longest path subprefix of P that is a mount point is not itself hidden by a stacked mount.) If the parent mount point lies outside the process's root directory (see chroot(2)), the ID shown here won't have a corresponding record in mountinfo whose mount ID (field 1) matches this parent mount ID (because mount points that lie outside the process's root directory are not shown in mountinfo). As a special case of this point, the process's root mount point may have a parent mount (for the initramfs filesystem) that lies outside the process's root directory, and an entry for that mount point will not appear in mountinfo. (3) major:minor: the value of st_dev for files on this filesystem (see stat(2)). (4) root: the pathname of the directory in the filesystem which forms the root of this mount. (5) mount point: the pathname of the mount point relative to the process's root directory. (6) mount options: per-mount options (see mount(2)). (7) optional fields: zero or more fields of the form "tag[:value]"; see below. (8) separator: the end of the optional fields is marked by a single hyphen. (9) filesystem type: the filesystem type in the form "type[.subtype]". (10) mount source: filesystem-specific information or "none". (11) super options: per-superblock options (see mount(2)). Currently, the possible optional fields are shared, master, propagate_from, and unbindable. See mount_namespaces(7) for a description of these fields. Parsers should ignore all unrec‐ ognized optional fields. For more information on mount propagation see: Documenta‐ tion/filesystems/sharedsubtree.txt in the Linux kernel source tree. /proc/[pid]/mounts (since Linux 2.4.19) This file lists all the filesystems currently mounted in the process's mount namespace (see mount_namespaces(7)). The for‐ mat of this file is documented in fstab(5). Since kernel version 2.6.15, this file is pollable: after opening the file for reading, a change in this file (i.e., a filesystem mount or unmount) causes select(2) to mark the file descriptor as having an exceptional condition, and poll(2) and epoll_wait(2) mark the file as having a priority event (POLL‐ PRI). (Before Linux 2.6.30, a change in this file was indi‐ cated by the file descriptor being marked as readable for select(2), and being marked as having an error condition for poll(2) and epoll_wait(2).) /proc/[pid]/mountstats (since Linux 2.6.17) This file exports information (statistics, configuration information) about the mount points in the process's mount namespace (see mount_namespaces(7)). Lines in this file have the form: device /dev/sda7 mounted on /home with fstype ext3 [stats] ( 1 ) ( 2 ) (3 ) ( 4 ) The fields in each line are: (1) The name of the mounted device (or "nodevice" if there is no corresponding device). (2) The mount point within the filesystem tree. (3) The filesystem type. (4) Optional statistics and configuration information. Cur‐ rently (as at Linux 2.6.26), only NFS filesystems export information via this field. This file is readable only by the owner of the process. /proc/[pid]/net (since Linux 2.6.25) See the description of /proc/net. /proc/[pid]/ns/ (since Linux 3.0) This is a subdirectory containing one entry for each namespace that supports being manipulated by setns(2). For more infor‐ mation, see namespaces(7). /proc/[pid]/numa_maps (since Linux 2.6.14) See numa(7). /proc/[pid]/oom_adj (since Linux 2.6.11) This file can be used to adjust the score used to select which process should be killed in an out-of-memory (OOM) situation. The kernel uses this value for a bit-shift operation of the process's oom_score value: valid values are in the range -16 to +15, plus the special value -17, which disables OOM-killing altogether for this process. A positive score increases the likelihood of this process being killed by the OOM-killer; a negative score decreases the likelihood. The default value for this file is 0; a new process inherits its parent's oom_adj setting. A process must be privileged (CAP_SYS_RESOURCE) to update this file. Since Linux 2.6.36, use of this file is deprecated in favor of /proc/[pid]/oom_score_adj. /proc/[pid]/oom_score (since Linux 2.6.11) This file displays the current score that the kernel gives to this process for the purpose of selecting a process for the OOM-killer. A higher score means that the process is more likely to be selected by the OOM-killer. The basis for this score is the amount of memory used by the process, with increases (+) or decreases (-) for factors including: * whether the process is privileged (-). Before kernel 2.6.36 the following factors were also used in the calculation of oom_score: * whether the process creates a lot of children using fork(2) (+); * whether the process has been running a long time, or has used a lot of CPU time (-); * whether the process has a low nice value (i.e., > 0) (+); and * whether the process is making direct hardware access (-). The oom_score also reflects the adjustment specified by the oom_score_adj or oom_adj setting for the process. /proc/[pid]/oom_score_adj (since Linux 2.6.36) This file can be used to adjust the badness heuristic used to select which process gets killed in out-of-memory conditions. The badness heuristic assigns a value to each candidate task ranging from 0 (never kill) to 1000 (always kill) to determine which process is targeted. The units are roughly a proportion along that range of allowed memory the process may allocate from, based on an estimation of its current memory and swap use. For example, if a task is using all allowed memory, its badness score will be 1000. If it is using half of its allowed memory, its score will be 500. There is an additional factor included in the badness score: root processes are given 3% extra memory over other tasks. The amount of "allowed" memory depends on the context in which the OOM-killer was called. If it is due to the memory assigned to the allocating task's cpuset being exhausted, the allowed memory represents the set of mems assigned to that cpuset (see cpuset(7)). If it is due to a mempolicy's node(s) being exhausted, the allowed memory represents the set of mem‐ policy nodes. If it is due to a memory limit (or swap limit) being reached, the allowed memory is that configured limit. Finally, if it is due to the entire system being out of mem‐ ory, the allowed memory represents all allocatable resources. The value of oom_score_adj is added to the badness score before it is used to determine which task to kill. Acceptable values range from -1000 (OOM_SCORE_ADJ_MIN) to +1000 (OOM_SCORE_ADJ_MAX). This allows user space to control the preference for OOM-killing, ranging from always preferring a certain task or completely disabling it from OOM killing. The lowest possible value, -1000, is equivalent to disabling OOM- killing entirely for that task, since it will always report a badness score of 0. Consequently, it is very simple for user space to define the amount of memory to consider for each task. Setting an oom_score_adj value of +500, for example, is roughly equiva‐ lent to allowing the remainder of tasks sharing the same sys‐ tem, cpuset, mempolicy, or memory controller resources to use at least 50% more memory. A value of -500, on the other hand, would be roughly equivalent to discounting 50% of the task's allowed memory from being considered as scoring against the task. For backward compatibility with previous kernels, /proc/[pid]/oom_adj can still be used to tune the badness score. Its value is scaled linearly with oom_score_adj. Writing to /proc/[pid]/oom_score_adj or /proc/[pid]/oom_adj will change the other with its scaled value. The choom(1) program provides a command-line interface for adjusting the oom_score_adj value of a running process or a newly executed command. /proc/[pid]/pagemap (since Linux 2.6.25) This file shows the mapping of each of the process's virtual pages into physical page frames or swap area. It contains one 64-bit value for each virtual page, with the bits set as fol‐ lows: 63 If set, the page is present in RAM. 62 If set, the page is in swap space 61 (since Linux 3.5) The page is a file-mapped page or a shared anonymous page. 60–57 (since Linux 3.11) Zero 56 (since Linux 4.2) The page is exclusively mapped. 55 (since Linux 3.11) PTE is soft-dirty (see the kernel source file Documen‐ tation/admin-guide/mm/soft-dirty.rst). 54–0 If the page is present in RAM (bit 63), then these bits provide the page frame number, which can be used to index /proc/kpageflags and /proc/kpagecount. If the page is present in swap (bit 62), then bits 4–0 give the swap type, and bits 54–5 encode the swap offset. Before Linux 3.11, bits 60–55 were used to encode the base-2 log of the page size. To employ /proc/[pid]/pagemap efficiently, use /proc/[pid]/maps to determine which areas of memory are actu‐ ally mapped and seek to skip over unmapped regions. The /proc/[pid]/pagemap file is present only if the CON‐ FIG_PROC_PAGE_MONITOR kernel configuration option is enabled. Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/personality (since Linux 2.6.28) This read-only file exposes the process's execution domain, as set by personality(2). The value is displayed in hexadecimal notation. Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/root UNIX and Linux support the idea of a per-process root of the filesystem, set by the chroot(2) system call. This file is a symbolic link that points to the process's root directory, and behaves in the same way as exe, and fd/*. Note however that this file is not merely a symbolic link. It provides the same view of the filesystem (including namespaces and the set of per-process mounts) as the process itself. An example illustrates this point. In one terminal, we start a shell in new user and mount namespaces, and in that shell we create some new mount points: $ PS1='sh1# ' unshare -Urnm sh1# mount -t tmpfs tmpfs /etc # Mount empty tmpfs at /etc sh1# mount --bind /usr /dev # Mount /usr at /dev sh1# echo $$ 27123 In a second terminal window, in the initial mount namespace, we look at the contents of the corresponding mounts in the initial and new namespaces: $ PS1='sh2# ' sudo sh sh2# ls /etc | wc -l # In initial NS 309 sh2# ls /proc/27123/root/etc | wc -l # /etc in other NS 0 # The empty tmpfs dir sh2# ls /dev | wc -l # In initial NS 205 sh2# ls /proc/27123/root/dev | wc -l # /dev in other NS 11 # Actually bind # mounted to /usr sh2# ls /usr | wc -l # /usr in initial NS 11 In a multithreaded process, the contents of the /proc/[pid]/root symbolic link are not available if the main thread has already terminated (typically by calling pthread_exit(3)). Permission to dereference or read (readlink(2)) this symbolic link is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/seccomp (Linux 2.6.12 to 2.6.22) This file can be used to read and change the process's secure computing (seccomp) mode setting. It contains the value 0 if the process is not in seccomp mode, and 1 if the process is in strict seccomp mode (see seccomp(2)). Writing 1 to this file places the process irreversibly in strict seccomp mode. (Fur‐ ther attempts to write to the file fail with the EPERM error.) In Linux 2.6.23, this file went away, to be replaced by the prctl(2) PR_GET_SECCOMP and PR_SET_SECCOMP operations (and later by seccomp(2) and the Seccomp field in /proc/[pid]/sta‐ tus). /proc/[pid]/setgroups (since Linux 3.19) See user_namespaces(7). /proc/[pid]/smaps (since Linux 2.6.14) This file shows memory consumption for each of the process's mappings. (The pmap(1) command displays similar information, in a form that may be easier for parsing.) For each mapping there is a series of lines such as the following: 00400000-0048a000 r-xp 00000000 fd:03 960637 /bin/bash Size: 552 kB Rss: 460 kB Pss: 100 kB Shared_Clean: 452 kB Shared_Dirty: 0 kB Private_Clean: 8 kB Private_Dirty: 0 kB Referenced: 460 kB Anonymous: 0 kB AnonHugePages: 0 kB ShmemHugePages: 0 kB ShmemPmdMapped: 0 kB Swap: 0 kB KernelPageSize: 4 kB MMUPageSize: 4 kB KernelPageSize: 4 kB MMUPageSize: 4 kB Locked: 0 kB ProtectionKey: 0 VmFlags: rd ex mr mw me dw The first of these lines shows the same information as is dis‐ played for the mapping in /proc/[pid]/maps. The following lines show the size of the mapping, the amount of the mapping that is currently resident in RAM ("Rss"), the process's pro‐ portional share of this mapping ("Pss"), the number of clean and dirty shared pages in the mapping, and the number of clean and dirty private pages in the mapping. "Referenced" indi‐ cates the amount of memory currently marked as referenced or accessed. "Anonymous" shows the amount of memory that does not belong to any file. "Swap" shows how much would-be-anony‐ mous memory is also used, but out on swap. The "KernelPageSize" line (available since Linux 2.6.29) is the page size used by the kernel to back the virtual memory area. This matches the size used by the MMU in the majority of cases. However, one counter-example occurs on PPC64 ker‐ nels whereby a kernel using 64 kB as a base page size may still use 4 kB pages for the MMU on older processors. To dis‐ tinguish the two attributes, the "MMUPageSize" line (also available since Linux 2.6.29) reports the page size used by the MMU. The "Locked" indicates whether the mapping is locked in memory or not. The "ProtectionKey" line (available since Linux 4.9, on x86 only) contains the memory protection key (see pkeys(7)) asso‐ ciated with the virtual memory area. This entry is present only if the kernel was built with the CONFIG_X86_INTEL_MEM‐ ORY_PROTECTION_KEYS configuration option. The "VmFlags" line (available since Linux 3.8) represents the kernel flags associated with the virtual memory area, encoded using the following two-letter codes: rd - readable wr - writable ex - executable sh - shared mr - may read mw - may write me - may execute ms - may share gd - stack segment grows down pf - pure PFN range dw - disabled write to the mapped file lo - pages are locked in memory io - memory mapped I/O area sr - sequential read advise provided rr - random read advise provided dc - do not copy area on fork de - do not expand area on remapping ac - area is accountable nr - swap space is not reserved for the area ht - area uses huge tlb pages sf - perform synchronous page faults (since Linux 4.15) nl - non-linear mapping (removed in Linux 4.0) ar - architecture specific flag wf - wipe on fork (since Linux 4.14) dd - do not include area into core dump sd - soft-dirty flag (since Linux 3.13) mm - mixed map area hg - huge page advise flag nh - no-huge page advise flag mg - mergeable advise flag um - userfaultfd missing pages tracking (since Linux 4.3) uw - userfaultfd wprotect pages tracking (since Linux 4.3) "ProtectionKey" field contains the memory protection key (see pkeys(7)) associated with the virtual memory area. Present only if the kernel was built with the CONFIG_X86_INTEL_MEM‐ ORY_PROTECTION_KEYS configuration option. (since Linux 4.6) The /proc/[pid]/smaps file is present only if the CON‐ FIG_PROC_PAGE_MONITOR kernel configuration option is enabled. /proc/[pid]/stack (since Linux 2.6.29) This file provides a symbolic trace of the function calls in this process's kernel stack. This file is provided only if the kernel was built with the CONFIG_STACKTRACE configuration option. Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/stat Status information about the process. This is used by ps(1). It is defined in the kernel source file fs/proc/array.c. The fields, in order, with their proper scanf(3) format speci‐ fiers, are listed below. Whether or not certain of these fields display valid information is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS | PTRACE_MODE_NOAUDIT check (refer to ptrace(2)). If the check denies access, then the field value is displayed as 0. The affected fields are indicated with the marking [PT]. (1) pid %d The process ID. (2) comm %s The filename of the executable, in parentheses. Strings longer than TASK_COMM_LEN (16) characters (including the terminating null byte) are silently truncated. This is visible whether or not the exe‐ cutable is swapped out. (3) state %c One of the following characters, indicating process state: R Running S Sleeping in an interruptible wait D Waiting in uninterruptible disk sleep Z Zombie T Stopped (on a signal) or (before Linux 2.6.33) trace stopped t Tracing stop (Linux 2.6.33 onward) W Paging (only before Linux 2.6.0) X Dead (from Linux 2.6.0 onward) x Dead (Linux 2.6.33 to 3.13 only) K Wakekill (Linux 2.6.33 to 3.13 only) W Waking (Linux 2.6.33 to 3.13 only) P Parked (Linux 3.9 to 3.13 only) (4) ppid %d The PID of the parent of this process. (5) pgrp %d The process group ID of the process. (6) session %d The session ID of the process. (7) tty_nr %d The controlling terminal of the process. (The minor device number is contained in the combination of bits 31 to 20 and 7 to 0; the major device number is in bits 15 to 8.) (8) tpgid %d The ID of the foreground process group of the con‐ trolling terminal of the process. (9) flags %u The kernel flags word of the process. For bit mean‐ ings, see the PF_* defines in the Linux kernel source file include/linux/sched.h. Details depend on the kernel version. The format for this field was %lu before Linux 2.6. (10) minflt %lu The number of minor faults the process has made which have not required loading a memory page from disk. (11) cminflt %lu The number of minor faults that the process's waited-for children have made. (12) majflt %lu The number of major faults the process has made which have required loading a memory page from disk. (13) cmajflt %lu The number of major faults that the process's waited-for children have made. (14) utime %lu Amount of time that this process has been scheduled in user mode, measured in clock ticks (divide by sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK)). This includes guest time, guest_time (time spent running a virtual CPU, see below), so that applications that are not aware of the guest time field do not lose that time from their calculations. (15) stime %lu Amount of time that this process has been scheduled in kernel mode, measured in clock ticks (divide by sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK)). (16) cutime %ld Amount of time that this process's waited-for chil‐ dren have been scheduled in user mode, measured in clock ticks (divide by sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK)). (See also times(2).) This includes guest time, cguest_time (time spent running a virtual CPU, see below). (17) cstime %ld Amount of time that this process's waited-for chil‐ dren have been scheduled in kernel mode, measured in clock ticks (divide by sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK)). (18) priority %ld (Explanation for Linux 2.6) For processes running a real-time scheduling policy (policy below; see sched_setscheduler(2)), this is the negated schedul‐ ing priority, minus one; that is, a number in the range -2 to -100, corresponding to real-time priori‐ ties 1 to 99. For processes running under a non- real-time scheduling policy, this is the raw nice value (setpriority(2)) as represented in the kernel. The kernel stores nice values as numbers in the range 0 (high) to 39 (low), corresponding to the user-visible nice range of -20 to 19. Before Linux 2.6, this was a scaled value based on the scheduler weighting given to this process. (19) nice %ld The nice value (see setpriority(2)), a value in the range 19 (low priority) to -20 (high priority). (20) num_threads %ld Number of threads in this process (since Linux 2.6). Before kernel 2.6, this field was hard coded to 0 as a placeholder for an earlier removed field. (21) itrealvalue %ld The time in jiffies before the next SIGALRM is sent to the process due to an interval timer. Since ker‐ nel 2.6.17, this field is no longer maintained, and is hard coded as 0. (22) starttime %llu The time the process started after system boot. In kernels before Linux 2.6, this value was expressed in jiffies. Since Linux 2.6, the value is expressed in clock ticks (divide by sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK)). The format for this field was %lu before Linux 2.6. (23) vsize %lu Virtual memory size in bytes. (24) rss %ld Resident Set Size: number of pages the process has in real memory. This is just the pages which count toward text, data, or stack space. This does not include pages which have not been demand-loaded in, or which are swapped out. (25) rsslim %lu Current soft limit in bytes on the rss of the process; see the description of RLIMIT_RSS in getrlimit(2). (26) startcode %lu [PT] The address above which program text can run. (27) endcode %lu [PT] The address below which program text can run. (28) startstack %lu [PT] The address of the start (i.e., bottom) of the stack. (29) kstkesp %lu [PT] The current value of ESP (stack pointer), as found in the kernel stack page for the process. (30) kstkeip %lu [PT] The current EIP (instruction pointer). (31) signal %lu The bitmap of pending signals, displayed as a deci‐ mal number. Obsolete, because it does not provide information on real-time signals; use /proc/[pid]/status instead. (32) blocked %lu The bitmap of blocked signals, displayed as a deci‐ mal number. Obsolete, because it does not provide information on real-time signals; use /proc/[pid]/status instead. (33) sigignore %lu The bitmap of ignored signals, displayed as a deci‐ mal number. Obsolete, because it does not provide information on real-time signals; use /proc/[pid]/status instead. (34) sigcatch %lu The bitmap of caught signals, displayed as a decimal number. Obsolete, because it does not provide information on real-time signals; use /proc/[pid]/status instead. (35) wchan %lu [PT] This is the "channel" in which the process is wait‐ ing. It is the address of a location in the kernel where the process is sleeping. The corresponding symbolic name can be found in /proc/[pid]/wchan. (36) nswap %lu Number of pages swapped (not maintained). (37) cnswap %lu Cumulative nswap for child processes (not main‐ tained). (38) exit_signal %d (since Linux 2.1.22) Signal to be sent to parent when we die. (39) processor %d (since Linux 2.2.8) CPU number last executed on. (40) rt_priority %u (since Linux 2.5.19) Real-time scheduling priority, a number in the range 1 to 99 for processes scheduled under a real-time policy, or 0, for non-real-time processes (see sched_setscheduler(2)). (41) policy %u (since Linux 2.5.19) Scheduling policy (see sched_setscheduler(2)). Decode using the SCHED_* constants in linux/sched.h. The format for this field was %lu before Linux 2.6.22. (42) delayacct_blkio_ticks %llu (since Linux 2.6.18) Aggregated block I/O delays, measured in clock ticks (centiseconds). (43) guest_time %lu (since Linux 2.6.24) Guest time of the process (time spent running a vir‐ tual CPU for a guest operating system), measured in clock ticks (divide by sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK)). (44) cguest_time %ld (since Linux 2.6.24) Guest time of the process's children, measured in clock ticks (divide by sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK)). (45) start_data %lu (since Linux 3.3) [PT] Address above which program initialized and unini‐ tialized (BSS) data are placed. (46) end_data %lu (since Linux 3.3) [PT] Address below which program initialized and unini‐ tialized (BSS) data are placed. (47) start_brk %lu (since Linux 3.3) [PT] Address above which program heap can be expanded with brk(2). (48) arg_start %lu (since Linux 3.5) [PT] Address above which program command-line arguments (argv) are placed. (49) arg_end %lu (since Linux 3.5) [PT] Address below program command-line arguments (argv) are placed. (50) env_start %lu (since Linux 3.5) [PT] Address above which program environment is placed. (51) env_end %lu (since Linux 3.5) [PT] Address below which program environment is placed. (52) exit_code %d (since Linux 3.5) [PT] The thread's exit status in the form reported by waitpid(2). /proc/[pid]/statm Provides information about memory usage, measured in pages. The columns are: size (1) total program size (same as VmSize in /proc/[pid]/status) resident (2) resident set size (same as VmRSS in /proc/[pid]/status) shared (3) number of resident shared pages (i.e., backed by a file) (same as RssFile+RssShmem in /proc/[pid]/status) text (4) text (code) lib (5) library (unused since Linux 2.6; always 0) data (6) data + stack dt (7) dirty pages (unused since Linux 2.6; always 0) /proc/[pid]/status Provides much of the information in /proc/[pid]/stat and /proc/[pid]/statm in a format that's easier for humans to parse. Here's an example: $ cat /proc/$$/status Name: bash Umask: 0022 State: S (sleeping) Tgid: 17248 Ngid: 0 Pid: 17248 PPid: 17200 TracerPid: 0 Uid: 1000 1000 1000 1000 Gid: 100 100 100 100 FDSize: 256 Groups: 16 33 100 NStgid: 17248 NSpid: 17248 NSpgid: 17248 NSsid: 17200 VmPeak: 131168 kB VmSize: 131168 kB VmLck: 0 kB VmPin: 0 kB VmHWM: 13484 kB VmRSS: 13484 kB RssAnon: 10264 kB RssFile: 3220 kB RssShmem: 0 kB VmData: 10332 kB VmStk: 136 kB VmExe: 992 kB VmLib: 2104 kB VmPTE: 76 kB VmPMD: 12 kB VmSwap: 0 kB HugetlbPages: 0 kB # 4.4 CoreDumping: 0 # 4.15 Threads: 1 SigQ: 0/3067 SigPnd: 0000000000000000 ShdPnd: 0000000000000000 SigBlk: 0000000000010000 SigIgn: 0000000000384004 SigCgt: 000000004b813efb CapInh: 0000000000000000 CapPrm: 0000000000000000 CapEff: 0000000000000000 CapBnd: ffffffffffffffff CapAmb: 0000000000000000 NoNewPrivs: 0 Seccomp: 0 Speculation_Store_Bypass: vulnerable Cpus_allowed: 00000001 Cpus_allowed_list: 0 Mems_allowed: 1 Mems_allowed_list: 0 voluntary_ctxt_switches: 150 nonvoluntary_ctxt_switches: 545 The fields are as follows: * Name: Command run by this process. Strings longer than TASK_COMM_LEN (16) characters (including the terminating null byte) are silently truncated. * Umask: Process umask, expressed in octal with a leading zero; see umask(2). (Since Linux 4.7.) * State: Current state of the process. One of "R (running)", "S (sleeping)", "D (disk sleep)", "T (stopped)", "t (tracing stop)", "Z (zombie)", or "X (dead)". * Tgid: Thread group ID (i.e., Process ID). * Ngid: NUMA group ID (0 if none; since Linux 3.13). * Pid: Thread ID (see gettid(2)). * PPid: PID of parent process. * TracerPid: PID of process tracing this process (0 if not being traced). * Uid, Gid: Real, effective, saved set, and filesystem UIDs (GIDs). * FDSize: Number of file descriptor slots currently allocated. * Groups: Supplementary group list. * NStgid: Thread group ID (i.e., PID) in each of the PID namespaces of which [pid] is a member. The leftmost entry shows the value with respect to the PID namespace of the process that mounted this procfs (or the root namespace if mounted by the kernel), followed by the value in succes‐ sively nested inner namespaces. (Since Linux 4.1.) * NSpid: Thread ID in each of the PID namespaces of which [pid] is a member. The fields are ordered as for NStgid. (Since Linux 4.1.) * NSpgid: Process group ID in each of the PID namespaces of which [pid] is a member. The fields are ordered as for NSt‐ gid. (Since Linux 4.1.) * NSsid: descendant namespace session ID hierarchy Session ID in each of the PID namespaces of which [pid] is a member. The fields are ordered as for NStgid. (Since Linux 4.1.) * VmPeak: Peak virtual memory size. * VmSize: Virtual memory size. * VmLck: Locked memory size (see mlock(2)). * VmPin: Pinned memory size (since Linux 3.2). These are pages that can't be moved because something needs to directly access physical memory. * VmHWM: Peak resident set size ("high water mark"). * VmRSS: Resident set size. Note that the value here is the sum of RssAnon, RssFile, and RssShmem. * RssAnon: Size of resident anonymous memory. (since Linux 4.5). * RssFile: Size of resident file mappings. (since Linux 4.5). * RssShmem: Size of resident shared memory (includes System V shared memory, mappings from tmpfs(5), and shared anonymous mappings). (since Linux 4.5). * VmData, VmStk, VmExe: Size of data, stack, and text seg‐ ments. * VmLib: Shared library code size. * VmPTE: Page table entries size (since Linux 2.6.10). * VmPMD: Size of second-level page tables (added in Linux 4.0; removed in Linux 4.15). * VmSwap: Swapped-out virtual memory size by anonymous private pages; shmem swap usage is not included (since Linux 2.6.34). * HugetlbPages: Size of hugetlb memory portions (since Linux 4.4). * CoreDumping: Contains the value 1 if the process is cur‐ rently dumping core, and 0 if it is not (since Linux 4.15). This information can be used by a monitoring process to avoid killing a process that is currently dumping core, which could result in a corrupted core dump file. * Threads: Number of threads in process containing this thread. * SigQ: This field contains two slash-separated numbers that relate to queued signals for the real user ID of this process. The first of these is the number of currently queued signals for this real user ID, and the second is the resource limit on the number of queued signals for this process (see the description of RLIMIT_SIGPENDING in getrlimit(2)). * SigPnd, ShdPnd: Mask (expressed in hexadecimal) of signals pending for thread and for process as a whole (see pthreads(7) and signal(7)). * SigBlk, SigIgn, SigCgt: Masks (expressed in hexadecimal) indicating signals being blocked, ignored, and caught (see signal(7)). * CapInh, CapPrm, CapEff: Masks (expressed in hexadecimal) of capabilities enabled in inheritable, permitted, and effec‐ tive sets (see capabilities(7)). * CapBnd: Capability bounding set, expressed in hexadecimal (since Linux 2.6.26, see capabilities(7)). * CapAmb: Ambient capability set, expressed in hexadecimal (since Linux 4.3, see capabilities(7)). * NoNewPrivs: Value of the no_new_privs bit (since Linux 4.10, see prctl(2)). * Seccomp: Seccomp mode of the process (since Linux 3.8, see seccomp(2)). 0 means SECCOMP_MODE_DISABLED; 1 means SEC‐ COMP_MODE_STRICT; 2 means SECCOMP_MODE_FILTER. This field is provided only if the kernel was built with the CON‐ FIG_SECCOMP kernel configuration option enabled. * Speculation_Store_Bypass: Speculation flaw mitigation state (since Linux 4.17, see prctl(2)). * Cpus_allowed: Hexadecimal mask of CPUs on which this process may run (since Linux 2.6.24, see cpuset(7)). * Cpus_allowed_list: Same as previous, but in "list format" (since Linux 2.6.26, see cpuset(7)). * Mems_allowed: Mask of memory nodes allowed to this process (since Linux 2.6.24, see cpuset(7)). * Mems_allowed_list: Same as previous, but in "list format" (since Linux 2.6.26, see cpuset(7)). * voluntary_ctxt_switches, nonvoluntary_ctxt_switches: Number of voluntary and involuntary context switches (since Linux 2.6.23). /proc/[pid]/syscall (since Linux 2.6.27) This file exposes the system call number and argument regis‐ ters for the system call currently being executed by the process, followed by the values of the stack pointer and pro‐ gram counter registers. The values of all six argument regis‐ ters are exposed, although most system calls use fewer regis‐ ters. If the process is blocked, but not in a system call, then the file displays -1 in place of the system call number, followed by just the values of the stack pointer and program counter. If process is not blocked, then the file contains just the string "running". This file is present only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_HAVE_ARCH_TRACEHOOK. Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[pid]/task (since Linux 2.6.0) This is a directory that contains one subdirectory for each thread in the process. The name of each subdirectory is the numerical thread ID ([tid]) of the thread (see gettid(2)). Within each of these subdirectories, there is a set of files with the same names and contents as under the /proc/[pid] directories. For attributes that are shared by all threads, the contents for each of the files under the task/[tid] subdi‐ rectories will be the same as in the corresponding file in the parent /proc/[pid] directory (e.g., in a multithreaded process, all of the task/[tid]/cwd files will have the same value as the /proc/[pid]/cwd file in the parent directory, since all of the threads in a process share a working direc‐ tory). For attributes that are distinct for each thread, the corresponding files under task/[tid] may have different values (e.g., various fields in each of the task/[tid]/status files may be different for each thread), or they might not exist in /proc/[pid] at all. In a multithreaded process, the contents of the /proc/[pid]/task directory are not available if the main thread has already terminated (typically by calling pthread_exit(3)). /proc/[pid]/task/[tid]/children (since Linux 3.5) A space-separated list of child tasks of this task. Each child task is represented by its TID. This option is intended for use by the checkpoint-restore (CRIU) system, and reliably provides a list of children only if all of the child processes are stopped or frozen. It does not work properly if children of the target task exit while the file is being read! Exiting children may cause non-exit‐ ing children to be omitted from the list. This makes this interface even more unreliable than classic PID-based approaches if the inspected task and its children aren't frozen, and most code should probably not use this interface. Until Linux 4.2, the presence of this file was governed by the CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE kernel configuration option. Since Linux 4.2, it is governed by the CONFIG_PROC_CHILDREN option. /proc/[pid]/timers (since Linux 3.10) A list of the POSIX timers for this process. Each timer is listed with a line that starts with the string "ID:". For example: ID: 1 signal: 60/00007fff86e452a8 notify: signal/pid.2634 ClockID: 0 ID: 0 signal: 60/00007fff86e452a8 notify: signal/pid.2634 ClockID: 1 The lines shown for each timer have the following meanings: ID The ID for this timer. This is not the same as the timer ID returned by timer_create(2); rather, it is the same kernel-internal ID that is available via the si_timerid field of the siginfo_t structure (see sigaction(2)). signal This is the signal number that this timer uses to deliver notifications followed by a slash, and then the sigev_value value supplied to the signal handler. Valid only for timers that notify via a signal. notify The part before the slash specifies the mechanism that this timer uses to deliver notifications, and is one of "thread", "signal", or "none". Immediately following the slash is either the string "tid" for timers with SIGEV_THREAD_ID notification, or "pid" for timers that notify by other mechanisms. Following the "." is the PID of the process (or the kernel thread ID of the thread) that will be delivered a signal if the timer delivers notifications via a signal. ClockID This field identifies the clock that the timer uses for measuring time. For most clocks, this is a number that matches one of the user-space CLOCK_* constants exposed via <time.h>. CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID timers display with a value of -6 in this field. CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID timers display with a value of -2 in this field. This file is available only when the kernel was configured with CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE. /proc/[pid]/timerslack_ns (since Linux 4.6) This file exposes the process's "current" timer slack value, expressed in nanoseconds. The file is writable, allowing the process's timer slack value to be changed. Writing 0 to this file resets the "current" timer slack to the "default" timer slack value. For further details, see the discussion of PR_SET_TIMERSLACK in prctl(2). Initially, permission to access this file was governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_FSCREDS check (see ptrace(2)). However, this was subsequently deemed too strict a requirement (and had the side effect that requiring a process to have the CAP_SYS_PTRACE capability would also allow it to view and change any process's memory). Therefore, since Linux 4.9, only the (weaker) CAP_SYS_NICE capability is required to access this file. /proc/[pid]/uid_map, /proc/[pid]/gid_map (since Linux 3.5) See user_namespaces(7). /proc/[pid]/wchan (since Linux 2.6.0) The symbolic name corresponding to the location in the kernel where the process is sleeping. Permission to access this file is governed by a ptrace access mode PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCREDS check; see ptrace(2). /proc/[tid] There is a numerical subdirectory for each running thread that is not a thread group leader (i.e., a thread whose thread ID is not the same as its process ID); the subdirectory is named by the thread ID. Each one of these subdirectories con‐ tains files and subdirectories exposing information about the thread with the thread ID tid. The contents of these directo‐ ries are the same as the corresponding /proc/[pid]/task/[tid] directories. The /proc/[tid] subdirectories are not visible when iterating through /proc with getdents(2) (and thus are not visible when one uses ls(1) to view the contents of /proc). However, the pathnames of these directories are visible to (i.e., usable as arguments in) system calls that operate on pathnames. /proc/apm Advanced power management version and battery information when CONFIG_APM is defined at kernel compilation time. /proc/buddyinfo This file contains information which is used for diagnosing memory fragmentation issues. Each line starts with the iden‐ tification of the node and the name of the zone which together identify a memory region. This is then followed by the count of available chunks of a certain order in which these zones are split. The size in bytes of a certain order is given by the formula: (2^order) * PAGE_SIZE The binary buddy allocator algorithm inside the kernel will split one chunk into two chunks of a smaller order (thus with half the size) or combine two contiguous chunks into one larger chunk of a higher order (thus with double the size) to satisfy allocation requests and to counter memory fragmenta‐ tion. The order matches the column number, when starting to count at zero. For example on an x86-64 system: Node 0, zone DMA 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 3 Node 0, zone DMA32 65 47 4 81 52 28 13 10 5 1 404 Node 0, zone Normal 216 55 189 101 84 38 37 27 5 3 587 In this example, there is one node containing three zones and there are 11 different chunk sizes. If the page size is 4 kilobytes, then the first zone called DMA (on x86 the first 16 megabyte of memory) has 1 chunk of 4 kilobytes (order 0) available and has 3 chunks of 4 megabytes (order 10) avail‐ able. If the memory is heavily fragmented, the counters for higher order chunks will be zero and allocation of large contiguous areas will fail. Further information about the zones can be found in /proc/zoneinfo. /proc/bus Contains subdirectories for installed busses. /proc/bus/pccard Subdirectory for PCMCIA devices when CONFIG_PCMCIA is set at kernel compilation time. /proc/bus/pccard/drivers /proc/bus/pci Contains various bus subdirectories and pseudo-files contain‐ ing information about PCI busses, installed devices, and device drivers. Some of these files are not ASCII. /proc/bus/pci/devices Information about PCI devices. They may be accessed through lspci(8) and setpci(8). /proc/cgroups (since Linux 2.6.24) See cgroups(7). /proc/cmdline Arguments passed to the Linux kernel at boot time. Often done via a boot manager such as lilo(8) or grub(8). /proc/config.gz (since Linux 2.6) This file exposes the configuration options that were used to build the currently running kernel, in the same format as they would be shown in the .config file that resulted when config‐ uring the kernel (using make xconfig, make config, or simi‐ lar). The file contents are compressed; view or search them using zcat(1) and zgrep(1). As long as no changes have been made to the following file, the contents of /proc/config.gz are the same as those provided by: cat /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/build/.config /proc/config.gz is provided only if the kernel is configured with CONFIG_IKCONFIG_PROC. /proc/crypto A list of the ciphers provided by the kernel crypto API. For details, see the kernel Linux Kernel Crypto API documentation available under the kernel source directory Documenta‐ tion/crypto/ (or Documentation/DocBook before 4.10; the docu‐ mentation can be built using a command such as make htmldocs in the root directory of the kernel source tree). /proc/cpuinfo This is a collection of CPU and system architecture dependent items, for each supported architecture a different list. Two common entries are processor which gives CPU number and bogomips; a system constant that is calculated during kernel initialization. SMP machines have information for each CPU. The lscpu(1) command gathers its information from this file. /proc/devices Text listing of major numbers and device groups. This can be used by MAKEDEV scripts for consistency with the kernel. /proc/diskstats (since Linux 2.5.69) This file contains disk I/O statistics for each disk device. See the Linux kernel source file Documentation/iostats.txt for further information. /proc/dma This is a list of the registered ISA DMA (direct memory access) channels in use. /proc/driver Empty subdirectory. /proc/execdomains List of the execution domains (ABI personalities). /proc/fb Frame buffer information when CONFIG_FB is defined during ker‐ nel compilation. /proc/filesystems A text listing of the filesystems which are supported by the kernel, namely filesystems which were compiled into the kernel or whose kernel modules are currently loaded. (See also filesystems(5).) If a filesystem is marked with "nodev", this means that it does not require a block device to be mounted (e.g., virtual filesystem, network filesystem). Incidentally, this file may be used by mount(8) when no filesystem is specified and it didn't manage to determine the filesystem type. Then filesystems contained in this file are tried (excepted those that are marked with "nodev"). /proc/fs Contains subdirectories that in turn contain files with infor‐ mation about (certain) mounted filesystems. /proc/ide This directory exists on systems with the IDE bus. There are directories for each IDE channel and attached device. Files include: cache buffer size in KB capacity number of sectors driver driver version geometry physical and logical geometry identify in hexadecimal media media type model manufacturer's model number settings drive settings smart_thresholds IDE disk management thresholds (in hex) smart_values IDE disk management values (in hex) The hdparm(8) utility provides access to this information in a friendly format. /proc/interrupts This is used to record the number of interrupts per CPU per IO device. Since Linux 2.6.24, for the i386 and x86-64 architec‐ tures, at least, this also includes interrupts internal to the system (that is, not associated with a device as such), such as NMI (nonmaskable interrupt), LOC (local timer interrupt), and for SMP systems, TLB (TLB flush interrupt), RES (rescheduling interrupt), CAL (remote function call inter‐ rupt), and possibly others. Very easy to read formatting, done in ASCII. /proc/iomem I/O memory map in Linux 2.4. /proc/ioports This is a list of currently registered Input-Output port regions that are in use. /proc/kallsyms (since Linux 2.5.71) This holds the kernel exported symbol definitions used by the modules(X) tools to dynamically link and bind loadable mod‐ ules. In Linux 2.5.47 and earlier, a similar file with slightly different syntax was named ksyms. /proc/kcore This file represents the physical memory of the system and is stored in the ELF core file format. With this pseudo-file, and an unstripped kernel (/usr/src/linux/vmlinux) binary, GDB can be used to examine the current state of any kernel data structures. The total length of the file is the size of physical memory (RAM) plus 4 KiB. /proc/keys (since Linux 2.6.10) See keyrings(7). /proc/key-users (since Linux 2.6.10) See keyrings(7). /proc/kmsg This file can be used instead of the syslog(2) system call to read kernel messages. A process must have superuser privi‐ leges to read this file, and only one process should read this file. This file should not be read if a syslog process is running which uses the syslog(2) system call facility to log kernel messages. Information in this file is retrieved with the dmesg(1) pro‐ gram. /proc/kpagecgroup (since Linux 4.3) This file contains a 64-bit inode number of the memory cgroup each page is charged to, indexed by page frame number (see the discussion of /proc/[pid]/pagemap). The /proc/kpagecgroup file is present only if the CONFIG_MEMCG kernel configuration option is enabled. /proc/kpagecount (since Linux 2.6.25) This file contains a 64-bit count of the number of times each physical page frame is mapped, indexed by page frame number (see the discussion of /proc/[pid]/pagemap). The /proc/kpagecount file is present only if the CON‐ FIG_PROC_PAGE_MONITOR kernel configuration option is enabled. /proc/kpageflags (since Linux 2.6.25) This file contains 64-bit masks corresponding to each physical page frame; it is indexed by page frame number (see the dis‐ cussion of /proc/[pid]/pagemap). The bits are as follows: 0 - KPF_LOCKED 1 - KPF_ERROR 2 - KPF_REFERENCED 3 - KPF_UPTODATE 4 - KPF_DIRTY 5 - KPF_LRU 6 - KPF_ACTIVE 7 - KPF_SLAB 8 - KPF_WRITEBACK 9 - KPF_RECLAIM 10 - KPF_BUDDY 11 - KPF_MMAP (since Linux 2.6.31) 12 - KPF_ANON (since Linux 2.6.31) 13 - KPF_SWAPCACHE (since Linux 2.6.31) 14 - KPF_SWAPBACKED (since Linux 2.6.31) 15 - KPF_COMPOUND_HEAD (since Linux 2.6.31) 16 - KPF_COMPOUND_TAIL (since Linux 2.6.31) 17 - KPF_HUGE (since Linux 2.6.31) 18 - KPF_UNEVICTABLE (since Linux 2.6.31) 19 - KPF_HWPOISON (since Linux 2.6.31) 20 - KPF_NOPAGE (since Linux 2.6.31) 21 - KPF_KSM (since Linux 2.6.32) 22 - KPF_THP (since Linux 3.4) 23 - KPF_BALLOON (since Linux 3.18) 24 - KPF_ZERO_PAGE (since Linux 4.0) 25 - KPF_IDLE (since Linux 4.3) For further details on the meanings of these bits, see the kernel source file Documentation/admin-guide/mm/pagemap.rst. Before kernel 2.6.29, KPF_WRITEBACK, KPF_RECLAIM, KPF_BUDDY, and KPF_LOCKED did not report correctly. The /proc/kpageflags file is present only if the CON‐ FIG_PROC_PAGE_MONITOR kernel configuration option is enabled. /proc/ksyms (Linux 1.1.23–2.5.47) See /proc/kallsyms. /proc/loadavg The first three fields in this file are load average figures giving the number of jobs in the run queue (state R) or wait‐ ing for disk I/O (state D) averaged over 1, 5, and 15 minutes. They are the same as the load average numbers given by uptime(1) and other programs. The fourth field consists of two numbers separated by a slash (/). The first of these is the number of currently runnable kernel scheduling entities (processes, threads). The value after the slash is the number of kernel scheduling entities that currently exist on the sys‐ tem. The fifth field is the PID of the process that was most recently created on the system. /proc/locks This file shows current file locks (flock(2) and fcntl(2)) and leases (fcntl(2)). An example of the content shown in this file is the following: 1: POSIX ADVISORY READ 5433 08:01:7864448 128 128 2: FLOCK ADVISORY WRITE 2001 08:01:7864554 0 EOF 3: FLOCK ADVISORY WRITE 1568 00:2f:32388 0 EOF 4: POSIX ADVISORY WRITE 699 00:16:28457 0 EOF 5: POSIX ADVISORY WRITE 764 00:16:21448 0 0 6: POSIX ADVISORY READ 3548 08:01:7867240 1 1 7: POSIX ADVISORY READ 3548 08:01:7865567 1826 2335 8: OFDLCK ADVISORY WRITE -1 08:01:8713209 128 191 The fields shown in each line are as follows: (1) The ordinal position of the lock in the list. (2) The lock type. Values that may appear here include: FLOCK This is a BSD file lock created using flock(2). OFDLCK This is an open file description (OFD) lock created using fcntl(2). POSIX This is a POSIX byte-range lock created using fcntl(2). (3) Among the strings that can appear here are the following: ADVISORY This is an advisory lock. MANDATORY This is a mandatory lock. (4) The type of lock. Values that can appear here are: READ This is a POSIX or OFD read lock, or a BSD shared lock. WRITE This is a POSIX or OFD write lock, or a BSD exclu‐ sive lock. (5) The PID of the process that owns the lock. Because OFD locks are not owned by a single process (since multiple processes may have file descriptors that refer to the same open file description), the value -1 is displayed in this field for OFD locks. (Before kernel 4.14, a bug meant that the PID of the process that initially acquired the lock was displayed instead of the value -1.) (6) Three colon-separated subfields that identify the major and minor device ID of the device containing the filesys‐ tem where the locked file resides, followed by the inode number of the locked file. (7) The byte offset of the first byte of the lock. For BSD locks, this value is always 0. (8) The byte offset of the last byte of the lock. EOF in this field means that the lock extends to the end of the file. For BSD locks, the value shown is always EOF. Since Linux 4.9, the list of locks shown in /proc/locks is filtered to show just the locks for the processes in the PID namespace (see pid_namespaces(7)) for which the /proc filesys‐ tem was mounted. (In the initial PID namespace, there is no filtering of the records shown in this file.) The lslocks(8) command provides a bit more information about each lock. /proc/malloc (only up to and including Linux 2.2) This file is present only if CONFIG_DEBUG_MALLOC was defined during compilation. /proc/meminfo This file reports statistics about memory usage on the system. It is used by free(1) to report the amount of free and used memory (both physical and swap) on the system as well as the shared memory and buffers used by the kernel. Each line of the file consists of a parameter name, followed by a colon, the value of the parameter, and an option unit of measurement (e.g., "kB"). The list below describes the parameter names and the format specifier required to read the field value. Except as noted below, all of the fields have been present since at least Linux 2.6.0. Some fields are displayed only if the kernel was configured with various options; those depen‐ dencies are noted in the list. MemTotal %lu Total usable RAM (i.e., physical RAM minus a few reserved bits and the kernel binary code). MemFree %lu The sum of LowFree+HighFree. MemAvailable %lu (since Linux 3.14) An estimate of how much memory is available for start‐ ing new applications, without swapping. Buffers %lu Relatively temporary storage for raw disk blocks that shouldn't get tremendously large (20 MB or so). Cached %lu In-memory cache for files read from the disk (the page cache). Doesn't include SwapCached. SwapCached %lu Memory that once was swapped out, is swapped back in but still also is in the swap file. (If memory pres‐ sure is high, these pages don't need to be swapped out again because they are already in the swap file. This saves I/O.) Active %lu Memory that has been used more recently and usually not reclaimed unless absolutely necessary. Inactive %lu Memory which has been less recently used. It is more eligible to be reclaimed for other purposes. Active(anon) %lu (since Linux 2.6.28) [To be documented.] Inactive(anon) %lu (since Linux 2.6.28) [To be documented.] Active(file) %lu (since Linux 2.6.28) [To be documented.] Inactive(file) %lu (since Linux 2.6.28) [To be documented.] Unevictable %lu (since Linux 2.6.28) (From Linux 2.6.28 to 2.6.30, CONFIG_UNEVICTABLE_LRU was required.) [To be documented.] Mlocked %lu (since Linux 2.6.28) (From Linux 2.6.28 to 2.6.30, CONFIG_UNEVICTABLE_LRU was required.) [To be documented.] HighTotal %lu (Starting with Linux 2.6.19, CONFIG_HIGHMEM is required.) Total amount of highmem. Highmem is all memory above ~860 MB of physical memory. Highmem areas are for use by user-space programs, or for the page cache. The kernel must use tricks to access this mem‐ ory, making it slower to access than lowmem. HighFree %lu (Starting with Linux 2.6.19, CONFIG_HIGHMEM is required.) Amount of free highmem. LowTotal %lu (Starting with Linux 2.6.19, CONFIG_HIGHMEM is required.) Total amount of lowmem. Lowmem is memory which can be used for everything that highmem can be used for, but it is also available for the kernel's use for its own data structures. Among many other things, it is where everything from Slab is allocated. Bad things happen when you're out of lowmem. LowFree %lu (Starting with Linux 2.6.19, CONFIG_HIGHMEM is required.) Amount of free lowmem. MmapCopy %lu (since Linux 2.6.29) (CONFIG_MMU is required.) [To be documented.] SwapTotal %lu Total amount of swap space available. SwapFree %lu Amount of swap space that is currently unused. Dirty %lu Memory which is waiting to get written back to the disk. Writeback %lu Memory which is actively being written back to the disk. AnonPages %lu (since Linux 2.6.18) Non-file backed pages mapped into user-space page tables. Mapped %lu Files which have been mapped into memory (with mmap(2)), such as libraries. Shmem %lu (since Linux 2.6.32) Amount of memory consumed in tmpfs(5) filesystems. KReclaimable %lu (since Linux 4.20) Kernel allocations that the kernel will attempt to reclaim under memory pressure. Includes SReclaimable (below), and other direct allocations with a shrinker. Slab %lu In-kernel data structures cache. (See slabinfo(5).) SReclaimable %lu (since Linux 2.6.19) Part of Slab, that might be reclaimed, such as caches. SUnreclaim %lu (since Linux 2.6.19) Part of Slab, that cannot be reclaimed on memory pres‐ sure. KernelStack %lu (since Linux 2.6.32) Amount of memory allocated to kernel stacks. PageTables %lu (since Linux 2.6.18) Amount of memory dedicated to the lowest level of page tables. Quicklists %lu (since Linux 2.6.27) (CONFIG_QUICKLIST is required.) [To be documented.] NFS_Unstable %lu (since Linux 2.6.18) NFS pages sent to the server, but not yet committed to stable storage. Bounce %lu (since Linux 2.6.18) Memory used for block device "bounce buffers". WritebackTmp %lu (since Linux 2.6.26) Memory used by FUSE for temporary writeback buffers. CommitLimit %lu (since Linux 2.6.10) This is the total amount of memory currently available to be allocated on the system, expressed in kilobytes. This limit is adhered to only if strict overcommit accounting is enabled (mode 2 in /proc/sys/vm/overcom‐ mit_memory). The limit is calculated according to the formula described under /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory. For further details, see the kernel source file Docu‐ mentation/vm/overcommit-accounting.rst. Committed_AS %lu The amount of memory presently allocated on the system. The committed memory is a sum of all of the memory which has been allocated by processes, even if it has not been "used" by them as of yet. A process which allocates 1 GB of memory (using malloc(3) or similar), but touches only 300 MB of that memory will show up as using only 300 MB of memory even if it has the address space allocated for the entire 1 GB. This 1 GB is memory which has been "committed" to by the VM and can be used at any time by the allocating application. With strict overcommit enabled on the system (mode 2 in /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory), allocations which would exceed the CommitLimit will not be permitted. This is useful if one needs to guarantee that processes will not fail due to lack of memory once that memory has been successfully allocated. VmallocTotal %lu Total size of vmalloc memory area. VmallocUsed %lu Amount of vmalloc area which is used. Since Linux 4.4, this field is no longer calculated, and is hard coded as 0. See /proc/vmallocinfo. VmallocChunk %lu Largest contiguous block of vmalloc area which is free. Since Linux 4.4, this field is no longer calculated and is hard coded as 0. See /proc/vmallocinfo. HardwareCorrupted %lu (since Linux 2.6.32) (CONFIG_MEMORY_FAILURE is required.) [To be docu‐ mented.] LazyFree %lu (since Linux 4.12) Shows the amount of memory marked by madvise(2) MADV_FREE. AnonHugePages %lu (since Linux 2.6.38) (CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE is required.) Non-file backed huge pages mapped into user-space page tables. ShmemHugePages %lu (since Linux 4.8) (CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE is required.) Memory used by shared memory (shmem) and tmpfs(5) allocated with huge pages. ShmemPmdMapped %lu (since Linux 4.8) (CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE is required.) Shared mem‐ ory mapped into user space with huge pages. CmaTotal %lu (since Linux 3.1) Total CMA (Contiguous Memory Allocator) pages. (CON‐ FIG_CMA is required.) CmaFree %lu (since Linux 3.1) Free CMA (Contiguous Memory Allocator) pages. (CON‐ FIG_CMA is required.) HugePages_Total %lu (CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE is required.) The size of the pool of huge pages. HugePages_Free %lu (CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE is required.) The number of huge pages in the pool that are not yet allocated. HugePages_Rsvd %lu (since Linux 2.6.17) (CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE is required.) This is the number of huge pages for which a commitment to allocate from the pool has been made, but no allocation has yet been made. These reserved huge pages guarantee that an application will be able to allocate a huge page from the pool of huge pages at fault time. HugePages_Surp %lu (since Linux 2.6.24) (CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE is required.) This is the number of huge pages in the pool above the value in /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages. The maximum number of sur‐ plus huge pages is controlled by /proc/sys/vm/nr_over‐ commit_hugepages. Hugepagesize %lu (CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE is required.) The size of huge pages. DirectMap4k %lu (since Linux 2.6.27) Number of bytes of RAM linearly mapped by kernel in 4 kB pages. (x86.) DirectMap4M %lu (since Linux 2.6.27) Number of bytes of RAM linearly mapped by kernel in 4 MB pages. (x86 with CONFIG_X86_64 or CONFIG_X86_PAE enabled.) DirectMap2M %lu (since Linux 2.6.27) Number of bytes of RAM linearly mapped by kernel in 2 MB pages. (x86 with neither CONFIG_X86_64 nor CON‐ FIG_X86_PAE enabled.) DirectMap1G %lu (since Linux 2.6.27) (x86 with CONFIG_X86_64 and CONFIG_X86_DIRECT_GBPAGES enabled.) /proc/modules A text list of the modules that have been loaded by the sys‐ tem. See also lsmod(8). /proc/mounts Before kernel 2.4.19, this file was a list of all the filesys‐ tems currently mounted on the system. With the introduction of per-process mount namespaces in Linux 2.4.19 (see mount_namespaces(7)), this file became a link to /proc/self/mounts, which lists the mount points of the process's own mount namespace. The format of this file is documented in fstab(5). /proc/mtrr Memory Type Range Registers. See the Linux kernel source file Documentation/x86/mtrr.txt (or Documentation/mtrr.txt before Linux 2.6.28) for details. /proc/net This directory contains various files and subdirectories con‐ taining information about the networking layer. The files contain ASCII structures and are, therefore, readable with cat(1). However, the standard netstat(8) suite provides much cleaner access to these files. With the advent of network namespaces, various information relating to the network stack is virtualized (see network_namespaces(7)). Thus, since Linux 2.6.25, /proc/net is a symbolic link to the directory /proc/self/net, which con‐ tains the same files and directories as listed below. How‐ ever, these files and directories now expose information for the network namespace of which the process is a member. /proc/net/arp This holds an ASCII readable dump of the kernel ARP table used for address resolutions. It will show both dynamically learned and preprogrammed ARP entries. The format is: IP address HW type Flags HW address Mask Device 192.168.0.50 0x1 0x2 00:50:BF:25:68:F3 * eth0 192.168.0.250 0x1 0xc 00:00:00:00:00:00 * eth0 Here "IP address" is the IPv4 address of the machine and the "HW type" is the hardware type of the address from RFC 826. The flags are the internal flags of the ARP structure (as defined in /usr/include/linux/if_arp.h) and the "HW address" is the data link layer mapping for that IP address if it is known. /proc/net/dev The dev pseudo-file contains network device status informa‐ tion. This gives the number of received and sent packets, the number of errors and collisions and other basic statistics. These are used by the ifconfig(8) program to report device status. The format is: Inter-| Receive | Transmit face |bytes packets errs drop fifo frame compressed multicast|bytes packets errs drop fifo colls carrier compressed lo: 2776770 11307 0 0 0 0 0 0 2776770 11307 0 0 0 0 0 0 eth0: 1215645 2751 0 0 0 0 0 0 1782404 4324 0 0 0 427 0 0 ppp0: 1622270 5552 1 0 0 0 0 0 354130 5669 0 0 0 0 0 0 tap0: 7714 81 0 0 0 0 0 0 7714 81 0 0 0 0 0 0 /proc/net/dev_mcast Defined in /usr/src/linux/net/core/dev_mcast.c: indx interface_name dmi_u dmi_g dmi_address 2 eth0 1 0 01005e000001 3 eth1 1 0 01005e000001 4 eth2 1 0 01005e000001 /proc/net/igmp Internet Group Management Protocol. Defined in /usr/src/linux/net/core/igmp.c. /proc/net/rarp This file uses the same format as the arp file and contains the current reverse mapping database used to provide rarp(8) reverse address lookup services. If RARP is not configured into the kernel, this file will not be present. /proc/net/raw Holds a dump of the RAW socket table. Much of the information is not of use apart from debugging. The "sl" value is the kernel hash slot for the socket, the "local_address" is the local address and protocol number pair. "St" is the internal status of the socket. The "tx_queue" and "rx_queue" are the outgoing and incoming data queue in terms of kernel memory usage. The "tr", "tm->when", and "rexmits" fields are not used by RAW. The "uid" field holds the effective UID of the creator of the socket. /proc/net/snmp This file holds the ASCII data needed for the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP management information bases for an SNMP agent. /proc/net/tcp Holds a dump of the TCP socket table. Much of the information is not of use apart from debugging. The "sl" value is the kernel hash slot for the socket, the "local_address" is the local address and port number pair. The "rem_address" is the remote address and port number pair (if connected). "St" is the internal status of the socket. The "tx_queue" and "rx_queue" are the outgoing and incoming data queue in terms of kernel memory usage. The "tr", "tm->when", and "rexmits" fields hold internal information of the kernel socket state and are useful only for debugging. The "uid" field holds the effective UID of the creator of the socket. /proc/net/udp Holds a dump of the UDP socket table. Much of the information is not of use apart from debugging. The "sl" value is the kernel hash slot for the socket, the "local_address" is the local address and port number pair. The "rem_address" is the remote address and port number pair (if connected). "St" is the internal status of the socket. The "tx_queue" and "rx_queue" are the outgoing and incoming data queue in terms of kernel memory usage. The "tr", "tm->when", and "rexmits" fields are not used by UDP. The "uid" field holds the effec‐ tive UID of the creator of the socket. The format is: sl local_address rem_address st tx_queue rx_queue tr rexmits tm->when uid 1: 01642C89:0201 0C642C89:03FF 01 00000000:00000001 01:000071BA 00000000 0 1: 00000000:0801 00000000:0000 0A 00000000:00000000 00:00000000 6F000100 0 1: 00000000:0201 00000000:0000 0A 00000000:00000000 00:00000000 00000000 0 /proc/net/unix Lists the UNIX domain sockets present within the system and their status. The format is: Num RefCount Protocol Flags Type St Inode Path 0: 00000002 00000000 00000000 0001 03 42 1: 00000001 00000000 00010000 0001 01 1948 /dev/printer The fields are as follows: Num: the kernel table slot number. RefCount: the number of users of the socket. Protocol: currently always 0. Flags: the internal kernel flags holding the status of the socket. Type: the socket type. For SOCK_STREAM sockets, this is 0001; for SOCK_DGRAM sockets, it is 0002; and for SOCK_SEQPACKET sockets, it is 0005. St: the internal state of the socket. Inode: the inode number of the socket. Path: the bound pathname (if any) of the socket. Sockets in the abstract namespace are included in the list, and are shown with a Path that commences with the character '@'. /proc/net/netfilter/nfnetlink_queue This file contains information about netfilter user-space queueing, if used. Each line represents a queue. Queues that have not been subscribed to by user space are not shown. 1 4207 0 2 65535 0 0 0 1 (1) (2) (3)(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) The fields in each line are: (1) The ID of the queue. This matches what is specified in the --queue-num or --queue-balance options to the iptables(8) NFQUEUE target. See iptables-extensions(8) for more information. (2) The netlink port ID subscribed to the queue. (3) The number of packets currently queued and waiting to be processed by the application. (4) The copy mode of the queue. It is either 1 (metadata only) or 2 (also copy payload data to user space). (5) Copy range; that is, how many bytes of packet payload should be copied to user space at most. (6) queue dropped. Number of packets that had to be dropped by the kernel because too many packets are already wait‐ ing for user space to send back the mandatory accept/drop verdicts. (7) queue user dropped. Number of packets that were dropped within the netlink subsystem. Such drops usually happen when the corresponding socket buffer is full; that is, user space is not able to read messages fast enough. (8) sequence number. Every queued packet is associated with a (32-bit) monotonically-increasing sequence number. This shows the ID of the most recent packet queued. The last number exists only for compatibility reasons and is always 1. /proc/partitions Contains the major and minor numbers of each partition as well as the number of 1024-byte blocks and the partition name. /proc/pci This is a listing of all PCI devices found during kernel ini‐ tialization and their configuration. This file has been deprecated in favor of a new /proc inter‐ face for PCI (/proc/bus/pci). It became optional in Linux 2.2 (available with CONFIG_PCI_OLD_PROC set at kernel compila‐ tion). It became once more nonoptionally enabled in Linux 2.4. Next, it was deprecated in Linux 2.6 (still available with CONFIG_PCI_LEGACY_PROC set), and finally removed alto‐ gether since Linux 2.6.17. /proc/profile (since Linux 2.4) This file is present only if the kernel was booted with the profile=1 command-line option. It exposes kernel profiling information in a binary format for use by readprofile(1). Writing (e.g., an empty string) to this file resets the pro‐ filing counters; on some architectures, writing a binary inte‐ ger "profiling multiplier" of size sizeof(int) sets the pro‐ filing interrupt frequency. /proc/scsi A directory with the scsi mid-level pseudo-file and various SCSI low-level driver directories, which contain a file for each SCSI host in this system, all of which give the status of some part of the SCSI IO subsystem. These files contain ASCII structures and are, therefore, readable with cat(1). You can also write to some of the files to reconfigure the subsystem or switch certain features on or off. /proc/scsi/scsi This is a listing of all SCSI devices known to the kernel. The listing is similar to the one seen during bootup. scsi currently supports only the add-single-device command which allows root to add a hotplugged device to the list of known devices. The command echo 'scsi add-single-device 1 0 5 0' > /proc/scsi/scsi will cause host scsi1 to scan on SCSI channel 0 for a device on ID 5 LUN 0. If there is already a device known on this address or the address is invalid, an error will be returned. /proc/scsi/[drivername] [drivername] can currently be NCR53c7xx, aha152x, aha1542, aha1740, aic7xxx, buslogic, eata_dma, eata_pio, fdomain, in2000, pas16, qlogic, scsi_debug, seagate, t128, u15-24f, ultrastore, or wd7000. These directories show up for all drivers that registered at least one SCSI HBA. Every direc‐ tory contains one file per registered host. Every host-file is named after the number the host was assigned during ini‐ tialization. Reading these files will usually show driver and host configu‐ ration, statistics, and so on. Writing to these files allows different things on different hosts. For example, with the latency and nolatency commands, root can switch on and off command latency measurement code in the eata_dma driver. With the lockup and unlock commands, root can control bus lockups simulated by the scsi_debug driver. /proc/self This directory refers to the process accessing the /proc filesystem, and is identical to the /proc directory named by the process ID of the same process. /proc/slabinfo Information about kernel caches. See slabinfo(5) for details. /proc/stat kernel/system statistics. Varies with architecture. Common entries include: cpu 10132153 290696 3084719 46828483 16683 0 25195 0 175628 0 cpu0 1393280 32966 572056 13343292 6130 0 17875 0 23933 0 The amount of time, measured in units of USER_HZ (1/100ths of a second on most architectures, use sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK) to obtain the right value), that the system ("cpu" line) or the specific CPU ("cpuN" line) spent in various states: user (1) Time spent in user mode. nice (2) Time spent in user mode with low priority (nice). system (3) Time spent in system mode. idle (4) Time spent in the idle task. This value should be USER_HZ times the second entry in the /proc/uptime pseudo-file. iowait (since Linux 2.5.41) (5) Time waiting for I/O to complete. This value is not reliable, for the following rea‐ sons: 1. The CPU will not wait for I/O to complete; iowait is the time that a task is waiting for I/O to complete. When a CPU goes into idle state for outstanding task I/O, another task will be scheduled on this CPU. 2. On a multi-core CPU, the task waiting for I/O to complete is not running on any CPU, so the iowait of each CPU is difficult to calculate. 3. The value in this field may decrease in cer‐ tain conditions. irq (since Linux 2.6.0) (6) Time servicing interrupts. softirq (since Linux 2.6.0) (7) Time servicing softirqs. steal (since Linux 2.6.11) (8) Stolen time, which is the time spent in other operating systems when running in a virtu‐ alized environment guest (since Linux 2.6.24) (9) Time spent running a virtual CPU for guest operating systems under the control of the Linux kernel. guest_nice (since Linux 2.6.33) (10) Time spent running a niced guest (virtual CPU for guest operating systems under the con‐ trol of the Linux kernel). page 5741 1808 The number of pages the system paged in and the number that were paged out (from disk). swap 1 0 The number of swap pages that have been brought in and out. intr 1462898 This line shows counts of interrupts serviced since boot time, for each of the possible system interrupts. The first column is the total of all interrupts ser‐ viced including unnumbered architecture specific inter‐ rupts; each subsequent column is the total for that particular numbered interrupt. Unnumbered interrupts are not shown, only summed into the total. disk_io: (2,0):(31,30,5764,1,2) (3,0):... (major,disk_idx):(noinfo, read_io_ops, blks_read, write_io_ops, blks_written) (Linux 2.4 only) ctxt 115315 The number of context switches that the system under‐ went. btime 769041601 boot time, in seconds since the Epoch, 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000 (UTC). processes 86031 Number of forks since boot. procs_running 6 Number of processes in runnable state. (Linux 2.5.45 onward.) procs_blocked 2 Number of processes blocked waiting for I/O to com‐ plete. (Linux 2.5.45 onward.) softirq 229245889 94 60001584 13619 5175704 2471304 28 51212741 59130143 0 51240672 This line shows the number of softirq for all CPUs. The first column is the total of all softirqs and each subsequent column is the total for particular softirq. (Linux 2.6.31 onward.) /proc/swaps Swap areas in use. See also swapon(8). /proc/sys This directory (present since 1.3.57) contains a number of files and subdirectories corresponding to kernel variables. These variables can be read and sometimes modified using the /proc filesystem, and the (deprecated) sysctl(2) system call. String values may be terminated by either '\0' or '\n'. Integer and long values may be written either in decimal or in hexadecimal notation (e.g., 0x3FFF). When writing multiple integer or long values, these may be separated by any of the following whitespace characters: ' ', '\t', or '\n'. Using other separators leads to the error EINVAL. /proc/sys/abi (since Linux 2.4.10) This directory may contain files with application binary information. See the Linux kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/sysctl/abi.txt for more information. /proc/sys/debug This directory may be empty. /proc/sys/dev This directory contains device-specific information (e.g., dev/cdrom/info). On some systems, it may be empty. /proc/sys/fs This directory contains the files and subdirectories for ker‐ nel variables related to filesystems. /proc/sys/fs/aio-max-nr and /proc/sys/fs/aio-nr (since Linux 2.6.4) aio-nr is the running total of the number of events specified by io_setup(2) calls for all currently active AIO contexts. If aio-nr reaches aio-max-nr, then io_setup(2) will fail with the error EAGAIN. Raising aio-max-nr does not result in the preallocation or resizing of any kernel data structures. /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc Documentation for files in this directory can be found in the Linux kernel source in the file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/binfmt-misc.rst (or in Documenta‐ tion/binfmt_misc.txt on older kernels). /proc/sys/fs/dentry-state (since Linux 2.2) This file contains information about the status of the direc‐ tory cache (dcache). The file contains six numbers, nr_den‐ try, nr_unused, age_limit (age in seconds), want_pages (pages requested by system) and two dummy values. * nr_dentry is the number of allocated dentries (dcache entries). This field is unused in Linux 2.2. * nr_unused is the number of unused dentries. * age_limit is the age in seconds after which dcache entries can be reclaimed when memory is short. * want_pages is nonzero when the kernel has called shrink_dcache_pages() and the dcache isn't pruned yet. /proc/sys/fs/dir-notify-enable This file can be used to disable or enable the dnotify inter‐ face described in fcntl(2) on a system-wide basis. A value of 0 in this file disables the interface, and a value of 1 enables it. /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max This file shows the maximum number of cached disk quota entries. On some (2.4) systems, it is not present. If the number of free cached disk quota entries is very low and you have some awesome number of simultaneous system users, you might want to raise the limit. /proc/sys/fs/dquot-nr This file shows the number of allocated disk quota entries and the number of free disk quota entries. /proc/sys/fs/epoll (since Linux 2.6.28) This directory contains the file max_user_watches, which can be used to limit the amount of kernel memory consumed by the epoll interface. For further details, see epoll(7). /proc/sys/fs/file-max This file defines a system-wide limit on the number of open files for all processes. System calls that fail when encoun‐ tering this limit fail with the error ENFILE. (See also setrlimit(2), which can be used by a process to set the per- process limit, RLIMIT_NOFILE, on the number of files it may open.) If you get lots of error messages in the kernel log about running out of file handles (look for "VFS: file-max limit <number> reached"), try increasing this value: echo 100000 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max Privileged processes (CAP_SYS_ADMIN) can override the file-max limit. /proc/sys/fs/file-nr This (read-only) file contains three numbers: the number of allocated file handles (i.e., the number of files presently opened); the number of free file handles; and the maximum num‐ ber of file handles (i.e., the same value as /proc/sys/fs/file-max). If the number of allocated file han‐ dles is close to the maximum, you should consider increasing the maximum. Before Linux 2.6, the kernel allocated file han‐ dles dynamically, but it didn't free them again. Instead the free file handles were kept in a list for reallocation; the "free file handles" value indicates the size of that list. A large number of free file handles indicates that there was a past peak in the usage of open file handles. Since Linux 2.6, the kernel does deallocate freed file handles, and the "free file handles" value is always zero. /proc/sys/fs/inode-max (only present until Linux 2.2) This file contains the maximum number of in-memory inodes. This value should be 3–4 times larger than the value in file-max, since stdin, stdout and network sockets also need an inode to handle them. When you regularly run out of inodes, you need to increase this value. Starting with Linux 2.4, there is no longer a static limit on the number of inodes, and this file is removed. /proc/sys/fs/inode-nr This file contains the first two values from inode-state. /proc/sys/fs/inode-state This file contains seven numbers: nr_inodes, nr_free_inodes, preshrink, and four dummy values (always zero). nr_inodes is the number of inodes the system has allocated. nr_free_inodes represents the number of free inodes. preshrink is nonzero when the nr_inodes > inode-max and the system needs to prune the inode list instead of allocating more; since Linux 2.4, this field is a dummy value (always zero). /proc/sys/fs/inotify (since Linux 2.6.13) This directory contains files max_queued_events, max_user_instances, and max_user_watches, that can be used to limit the amount of kernel memory consumed by the inotify interface. For further details, see inotify(7). /proc/sys/fs/lease-break-time This file specifies the grace period that the kernel grants to a process holding a file lease (fcntl(2)) after it has sent a signal to that process notifying it that another process is waiting to open the file. If the lease holder does not remove or downgrade the lease within this grace period, the kernel forcibly breaks the lease. /proc/sys/fs/leases-enable This file can be used to enable or disable file leases (fcntl(2)) on a system-wide basis. If this file contains the value 0, leases are disabled. A nonzero value enables leases. /proc/sys/fs/mount-max (since Linux 4.9) The value in this file specifies the maximum number of mounts that may exist in a mount namespace. The default value in this file is 100,000. /proc/sys/fs/mqueue (since Linux 2.6.6) This directory contains files msg_max, msgsize_max, and queues_max, controlling the resources used by POSIX message queues. See mq_overview(7) for details. /proc/sys/fs/nr_open (since Linux 2.6.25) This file imposes a ceiling on the value to which the RLIMIT_NOFILE resource limit can be raised (see getrlimit(2)). This ceiling is enforced for both unprivileged and privileged process. The default value in this file is 1048576. (Before Linux 2.6.25, the ceiling for RLIMIT_NOFILE was hard-coded to the same value.) /proc/sys/fs/overflowgid and /proc/sys/fs/overflowuid These files allow you to change the value of the fixed UID and GID. The default is 65534. Some filesystems support only 16-bit UIDs and GIDs, although in Linux UIDs and GIDs are 32 bits. When one of these filesystems is mounted with writes enabled, any UID or GID that would exceed 65535 is translated to the overflow value before being written to disk. /proc/sys/fs/pipe-max-size (since Linux 2.6.35) See pipe(7). /proc/sys/fs/pipe-user-pages-hard (since Linux 4.5) See pipe(7). /proc/sys/fs/pipe-user-pages-soft (since Linux 4.5) See pipe(7). /proc/sys/fs/protected_fifos (since Linux 4.19) The value in this file is/can be set to one of the following: 0 Writing to FIFOs is unrestricted. 1 Don't allow O_CREAT open(2) on FIFOs that the caller doesn't own in world-writable sticky directories, unless the FIFO is owned by the owner of the directory. 2 As for the value 1, but the restriction also applies to group-writable sticky directories. The intent of the above protections is to avoid unintentional writes to an attacker-controlled FIFO when a program expected to create a regular file. /proc/sys/fs/protected_hardlinks (since Linux 3.6) When the value in this file is 0, no restrictions are placed on the creation of hard links (i.e., this is the historical behavior before Linux 3.6). When the value in this file is 1, a hard link can be created to a target file only if one of the following conditions is true: * The calling process has the CAP_FOWNER capability in its user namespace and the file UID has a mapping in the names‐ pace. * The filesystem UID of the process creating the link matches the owner (UID) of the target file (as described in credentials(7), a process's filesystem UID is normally the same as its effective UID). * All of the following conditions are true: · the target is a regular file; · the target file does not have its set-user-ID mode bit enabled; · the target file does not have both its set-group-ID and group-executable mode bits enabled; and · the caller has permission to read and write the target file (either via the file's permissions mask or because it has suitable capabilities). The default value in this file is 0. Setting the value to 1 prevents a longstanding class of security issues caused by hard-link-based time-of-check, time-of-use races, most com‐ monly seen in world-writable directories such as /tmp. The common method of exploiting this flaw is to cross privilege boundaries when following a given hard link (i.e., a root process follows a hard link created by another user). Addi‐ tionally, on systems without separated partitions, this stops unauthorized users from "pinning" vulnerable set-user-ID and set-group-ID files against being upgraded by the administra‐ tor, or linking to special files. /proc/sys/fs/protected_regular (since Linux 4.19) The value in this file is/can be set to one of the following: 0 Writing to regular files is unrestricted. 1 Don't allow O_CREAT open(2) on regular files that the caller doesn't own in world-writable sticky directories, unless the regular file is owned by the owner of the directory. 2 As for the value 1, but the restriction also applies to group-writable sticky directories. The intent of the above protections is similar to pro‐ tected_fifos, but allows an application to avoid writes to an attacker-controlled regular file, where the application expected to create one. /proc/sys/fs/protected_symlinks (since Linux 3.6) When the value in this file is 0, no restrictions are placed on following symbolic links (i.e., this is the historical behavior before Linux 3.6). When the value in this file is 1, symbolic links are followed only in the following circum‐ stances: * the filesystem UID of the process following the link matches the owner (UID) of the symbolic link (as described in credentials(7), a process's filesystem UID is normally the same as its effective UID); * the link is not in a sticky world-writable directory; or * the symbolic link and its parent directory have the same owner (UID) A system call that fails to follow a symbolic link because of the above restrictions returns the error EACCES in errno. The default value in this file is 0. Setting the value to 1 avoids a longstanding class of security issues based on time- of-check, time-of-use races when accessing symbolic links. /proc/sys/fs/suid_dumpable (since Linux 2.6.13) The value in this file is assigned to a process's "dumpable" flag in the circumstances described in prctl(2). In effect, the value in this file determines whether core dump files are produced for set-user-ID or otherwise protected/tainted bina‐ ries. The "dumpable" setting also affects the ownership of files in a process's /proc/[pid] directory, as described above. Three different integer values can be specified: 0 (default) This provides the traditional (pre-Linux 2.6.13) behav‐ ior. A core dump will not be produced for a process which has changed credentials (by calling seteuid(2), setgid(2), or similar, or by executing a set-user-ID or set-group-ID program) or whose binary does not have read permission enabled. 1 ("debug") All processes dump core when possible. (Reasons why a process might nevertheless not dump core are described in core(5).) The core dump is owned by the filesystem user ID of the dumping process and no security is applied. This is intended for system debugging situa‐ tions only: this mode is insecure because it allows unprivileged users to examine the memory contents of privileged processes. 2 ("suidsafe") Any binary which normally would not be dumped (see "0" above) is dumped readable by root only. This allows the user to remove the core dump file but not to read it. For security reasons core dumps in this mode will not overwrite one another or other files. This mode is appropriate when administrators are attempting to debug problems in a normal environment. Additionally, since Linux 3.6, /proc/sys/ker‐ nel/core_pattern must either be an absolute pathname or a pipe command, as detailed in core(5). Warnings will be written to the kernel log if core_pattern does not follow these rules, and no core dump will be produced. For details of the effect of a process's "dumpable" setting on ptrace access mode checking, see ptrace(2). /proc/sys/fs/super-max This file controls the maximum number of superblocks, and thus the maximum number of mounted filesystems the kernel can have. You need increase only super-max if you need to mount more filesystems than the current value in super-max allows you to. /proc/sys/fs/super-nr This file contains the number of filesystems currently mounted. /proc/sys/kernel This directory contains files controlling a range of kernel parameters, as described below. /proc/sys/kernel/acct This file contains three numbers: highwater, lowwater, and frequency. If BSD-style process accounting is enabled, these values control its behavior. If free space on filesystem where the log lives goes below lowwater percent, accounting suspends. If free space gets above highwater percent, accounting resumes. frequency determines how often the kernel checks the amount of free space (value is in seconds). Default values are 4, 2 and 30. That is, suspend accounting if 2% or less space is free; resume it if 4% or more space is free; consider information about amount of free space valid for 30 seconds. /proc/sys/kernel/auto_msgmni (Linux 2.6.27 to 3.18) From Linux 2.6.27 to 3.18, this file was used to control recomputing of the value in /proc/sys/kernel/msgmni upon the addition or removal of memory or upon IPC namespace cre‐ ation/removal. Echoing "1" into this file enabled msgmni automatic recomputing (and triggered a recomputation of msgmni based on the current amount of available memory and number of IPC namespaces). Echoing "0" disabled automatic recomputing. (Automatic recomputing was also disabled if a value was explicitly assigned to /proc/sys/kernel/msgmni.) The default value in auto_msgmni was 1. Since Linux 3.19, the content of this file has no effect (because msgmni defaults to near the maximum value possible), and reads from this file always return the value "0". /proc/sys/kernel/cap_last_cap (since Linux 3.2) See capabilities(7). /proc/sys/kernel/cap-bound (from Linux 2.2 to 2.6.24) This file holds the value of the kernel capability bounding set (expressed as a signed decimal number). This set is ANDed against the capabilities permitted to a process during execve(2). Starting with Linux 2.6.25, the system-wide capa‐ bility bounding set disappeared, and was replaced by a per- thread bounding set; see capabilities(7). /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern See core(5). /proc/sys/kernel/core_pipe_limit See core(5). /proc/sys/kernel/core_uses_pid See core(5). /proc/sys/kernel/ctrl-alt-del This file controls the handling of Ctrl-Alt-Del from the key‐ board. When the value in this file is 0, Ctrl-Alt-Del is trapped and sent to the init(1) program to handle a graceful restart. When the value is greater than zero, Linux's reac‐ tion to a Vulcan Nerve Pinch (tm) will be an immediate reboot, without even syncing its dirty buffers. Note: when a program (like dosemu) has the keyboard in "raw" mode, the ctrl-alt-del is intercepted by the program before it ever reaches the ker‐ nel tty layer, and it's up to the program to decide what to do with it. /proc/sys/kernel/dmesg_restrict (since Linux 2.6.37) The value in this file determines who can see kernel syslog contents. A value of 0 in this file imposes no restrictions. If the value is 1, only privileged users can read the kernel syslog. (See syslog(2) for more details.) Since Linux 3.4, only users with the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability may change the value in this file. /proc/sys/kernel/domainname and /proc/sys/kernel/hostname can be used to set the NIS/YP domainname and the hostname of your box in exactly the same way as the commands domainname(1) and hostname(1), that is: # echo 'darkstar' > /proc/sys/kernel/hostname # echo 'mydomain' > /proc/sys/kernel/domainname has the same effect as # hostname 'darkstar' # domainname 'mydomain' Note, however, that the classic darkstar.frop.org has the hostname "darkstar" and DNS (Internet Domain Name Server) domainname "frop.org", not to be confused with the NIS (Net‐ work Information Service) or YP (Yellow Pages) domainname. These two domain names are in general different. For a detailed discussion see the hostname(1) man page. /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug This file contains the pathname for the hotplug policy agent. The default value in this file is /sbin/hotplug. /proc/sys/kernel/htab-reclaim (before Linux 220.127.116.11) (PowerPC only) If this file is set to a nonzero value, the PowerPC htab (see kernel file Documentation/pow‐ erpc/ppc_htab.txt) is pruned each time the system hits the idle loop. /proc/sys/kernel/keys/* This directory contains various files that define parameters and limits for the key-management facility. These files are described in keyrings(7). /proc/sys/kernel/kptr_restrict (since Linux 2.6.38) The value in this file determines whether kernel addresses are exposed via /proc files and other interfaces. A value of 0 in this file imposes no restrictions. If the value is 1, kernel pointers printed using the %pK format specifier will be replaced with zeros unless the user has the CAP_SYSLOG capa‐ bility. If the value is 2, kernel pointers printed using the %pK format specifier will be replaced with zeros regardless of the user's capabilities. The initial default value for this file was 1, but the default was changed to 0 in Linux 2.6.39. Since Linux 3.4, only users with the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability can change the value in this file. /proc/sys/kernel/l2cr (PowerPC only) This file contains a flag that controls the L2 cache of G3 processor boards. If 0, the cache is disabled. Enabled if nonzero. /proc/sys/kernel/modprobe This file contains the pathname for the kernel module loader. The default value is /sbin/modprobe. The file is present only if the kernel is built with the CONFIG_MODULES (CONFIG_KMOD in Linux 2.6.26 and earlier) option enabled. It is described by the Linux kernel source file Documentation/kmod.txt (present only in kernel 2.4 and earlier). /proc/sys/kernel/modules_disabled (since Linux 2.6.31) A toggle value indicating if modules are allowed to be loaded in an otherwise modular kernel. This toggle defaults to off (0), but can be set true (1). Once true, modules can be nei‐ ther loaded nor unloaded, and the toggle cannot be set back to false. The file is present only if the kernel is built with the CONFIG_MODULES option enabled. /proc/sys/kernel/msgmax (since Linux 2.2) This file defines a system-wide limit specifying the maximum number of bytes in a single message written on a System V mes‐ sage queue. /proc/sys/kernel/msgmni (since Linux 2.4) This file defines the system-wide limit on the number of mes‐ sage queue identifiers. See also /proc/sys/ker‐ nel/auto_msgmni. /proc/sys/kernel/msgmnb (since Linux 2.2) This file defines a system-wide parameter used to initialize the msg_qbytes setting for subsequently created message queues. The msg_qbytes setting specifies the maximum number of bytes that may be written to the message queue. /proc/sys/kernel/ngroups_max (since Linux 2.6.4) This is a read-only file that displays the upper limit on the number of a process's group memberships. /proc/sys/kernel/ns_last_pid (since Linux 3.3) See pid_namespaces(7). /proc/sys/kernel/ostype and /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease These files give substrings of /proc/version. /proc/sys/kernel/overflowgid and /proc/sys/kernel/overflowuid These files duplicate the files /proc/sys/fs/overflowgid and /proc/sys/fs/overflowuid. /proc/sys/kernel/panic This file gives read/write access to the kernel variable panic_timeout. If this is zero, the kernel will loop on a panic; if nonzero, it indicates that the kernel should autore‐ boot after this number of seconds. When you use the software watchdog device driver, the recommended setting is 60. /proc/sys/kernel/panic_on_oops (since Linux 2.5.68) This file controls the kernel's behavior when an oops or BUG is encountered. If this file contains 0, then the system tries to continue operation. If it contains 1, then the sys‐ tem delays a few seconds (to give klogd time to record the oops output) and then panics. If the /proc/sys/kernel/panic file is also nonzero, then the machine will be rebooted. /proc/sys/kernel/pid_max (since Linux 2.5.34) This file specifies the value at which PIDs wrap around (i.e., the value in this file is one greater than the maximum PID). PIDs greater than this value are not allocated; thus, the value in this file also acts as a system-wide limit on the total number of processes and threads. The default value for this file, 32768, results in the same range of PIDs as on ear‐ lier kernels. On 32-bit platforms, 32768 is the maximum value for pid_max. On 64-bit systems, pid_max can be set to any value up to 2^22 (PID_MAX_LIMIT, approximately 4 million). /proc/sys/kernel/powersave-nap (PowerPC only) This file contains a flag. If set, Linux-PPC will use the "nap" mode of powersaving, otherwise the "doze" mode will be used. /proc/sys/kernel/printk See syslog(2). /proc/sys/kernel/pty (since Linux 2.6.4) This directory contains two files relating to the number of UNIX 98 pseudoterminals (see pts(4)) on the system. /proc/sys/kernel/pty/max This file defines the maximum number of pseudoterminals. /proc/sys/kernel/pty/nr This read-only file indicates how many pseudoterminals are currently in use. /proc/sys/kernel/random This directory contains various parameters controlling the operation of the file /dev/random. See random(4) for further information. /proc/sys/kernel/random/uuid (since Linux 2.4) Each read from this read-only file returns a randomly gener‐ ated 128-bit UUID, as a string in the standard UUID format. /proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space (since Linux 2.6.12) Select the address space layout randomization (ASLR) policy for the system (on architectures that support ASLR). Three values are supported for this file: 0 Turn ASLR off. This is the default for architectures that don't support ASLR, and when the kernel is booted with the norandmaps parameter. 1 Make the addresses of mmap(2) allocations, the stack, and the VDSO page randomized. Among other things, this means that shared libraries will be loaded at randomized addresses. The text segment of PIE-linked binaries will also be loaded at a randomized address. This value is the default if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_COM‐ PAT_BRK. 2 (Since Linux 2.6.25) Also support heap randomization. This value is the default if the kernel was not configured with CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK. /proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev This file is documented in the Linux kernel source file Docu‐ mentation/admin-guide/initrd.rst (or Documentation/initrd.txt before Linux 4.10). /proc/sys/kernel/reboot-cmd (Sparc only) This file seems to be a way to give an argument to the SPARC ROM/Flash boot loader. Maybe to tell it what to do after rebooting? /proc/sys/kernel/rtsig-max (Only in kernels up to and including 2.6.7; see setrlimit(2)) This file can be used to tune the maximum number of POSIX real-time (queued) signals that can be outstanding in the sys‐ tem. /proc/sys/kernel/rtsig-nr (Only in kernels up to and including 2.6.7.) This file shows the number of POSIX real-time signals currently queued. /proc/[pid]/sched_autogroup_enabled (since Linux 2.6.38) See sched(7). /proc/sys/kernel/sched_child_runs_first (since Linux 2.6.23) If this file contains the value zero, then, after a fork(2), the parent is first scheduled on the CPU. If the file con‐ tains a nonzero value, then the child is scheduled first on the CPU. (Of course, on a multiprocessor system, the parent and the child might both immediately be scheduled on a CPU.) /proc/sys/kernel/sched_rr_timeslice_ms (since Linux 3.9) See sched_rr_get_interval(2). /proc/sys/kernel/sched_rt_period_us (since Linux 2.6.25) See sched(7). /proc/sys/kernel/sched_rt_runtime_us (since Linux 2.6.25) See sched(7). /proc/sys/kernel/seccomp (since Linux 4.14) This directory provides additional seccomp information and configuration. See seccomp(2) for further details. /proc/sys/kernel/sem (since Linux 2.4) This file contains 4 numbers defining limits for System V IPC semaphores. These fields are, in order: SEMMSL The maximum semaphores per semaphore set. SEMMNS A system-wide limit on the number of semaphores in all semaphore sets. SEMOPM The maximum number of operations that may be specified in a semop(2) call. SEMMNI A system-wide limit on the maximum number of semaphore identifiers. /proc/sys/kernel/sg-big-buff This file shows the size of the generic SCSI device (sg) buf‐ fer. You can't tune it just yet, but you could change it at compile time by editing include/scsi/sg.h and changing the value of SG_BIG_BUFF. However, there shouldn't be any reason to change this value. /proc/sys/kernel/shm_rmid_forced (since Linux 3.1) If this file is set to 1, all System V shared memory segments will be marked for destruction as soon as the number of attached processes falls to zero; in other words, it is no longer possible to create shared memory segments that exist independently of any attached process. The effect is as though a shmctl(2) IPC_RMID is performed on all existing segments as well as all segments created in the future (until this file is reset to 0). Note that existing segments that are attached to no process will be immediately destroyed when this file is set to 1. Setting this option will also destroy segments that were created, but never attached, upon termination of the process that created the segment with shmget(2). Setting this file to 1 provides a way of ensuring that all System V shared memory segments are counted against the resource usage and resource limits (see the description of RLIMIT_AS in getrlimit(2)) of at least one process. Because setting this file to 1 produces behavior that is non‐ standard and could also break existing applications, the default value in this file is 0. Set this file to 1 only if you have a good understanding of the semantics of the applica‐ tions using System V shared memory on your system. /proc/sys/kernel/shmall (since Linux 2.2) This file contains the system-wide limit on the total number of pages of System V shared memory. /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax (since Linux 2.2) This file can be used to query and set the run-time limit on the maximum (System V IPC) shared memory segment size that can be created. Shared memory segments up to 1 GB are now sup‐ ported in the kernel. This value defaults to SHMMAX. /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni (since Linux 2.4) This file specifies the system-wide maximum number of System V shared memory segments that can be created. /proc/sys/kernel/sysctl_writes_strict (since Linux 3.16) The value in this file determines how the file offset affects the behavior of updating entries in files under /proc/sys. The file has three possible values: -1 This provides legacy handling, with no printk warnings. Each write(2) must fully contain the value to be written, and multiple writes on the same file descriptor will over‐ write the entire value, regardless of the file position. 0 (default) This provides the same behavior as for -1, but printk warnings are written for processes that perform writes when the file offset is not 0. 1 Respect the file offset when writing strings into /proc/sys files. Multiple writes will append to the value buffer. Anything written beyond the maximum length of the value buffer will be ignored. Writes to numeric /proc/sys entries must always be at file offset 0 and the value must be fully contained in the buffer provided to write(2). /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq This file controls the functions allowed to be invoked by the SysRq key. By default, the file contains 1 meaning that every possible SysRq request is allowed (in older kernel versions, SysRq was disabled by default, and you were required to specifically enable it at run-time, but this is not the case any more). Possible values in this file are: 0 Disable sysrq completely 1 Enable all functions of sysrq > 1 Bit mask of allowed sysrq functions, as follows: 2 Enable control of console logging level 4 Enable control of keyboard (SAK, unraw) 8 Enable debugging dumps of processes etc. 16 Enable sync command 32 Enable remount read-only 64 Enable signaling of processes (term, kill, oom-kill) 128 Allow reboot/poweroff 256 Allow nicing of all real-time tasks This file is present only if the CONFIG_MAGIC_SYSRQ kernel configuration option is enabled. For further details see the Linux kernel source file Documentation/admin-guide/sysrq.rst (or Documentation/sysrq.txt before Linux 4.10). /proc/sys/kernel/version This file contains a string such as: #5 Wed Feb 25 21:49:24 MET 1998 The "#5" means that this is the fifth kernel built from this source base and the date following it indicates the time the kernel was built. /proc/sys/kernel/threads-max (since Linux 2.3.11) This file specifies the system-wide limit on the number of threads (tasks) that can be created on the system. Since Linux 4.1, the value that can be written to threads-max is bounded. The minimum value that can be written is 20. The maximum value that can be written is given by the constant FUTEX_TID_MASK (0x3fffffff). If a value outside of this range is written to threads-max, the error EINVAL occurs. The value written is checked against the available RAM pages. If the thread structures would occupy too much (more than 1/8th) of the available RAM pages, threads-max is reduced accordingly. /proc/sys/kernel/yama/ptrace_scope (since Linux 3.5) See ptrace(2). /proc/sys/kernel/zero-paged (PowerPC only) This file contains a flag. When enabled (nonzero), Linux-PPC will pre-zero pages in the idle loop, possibly speeding up get_free_pages. /proc/sys/net This directory contains networking stuff. Explanations for some of the files under this directory can be found in tcp(7) and ip(7). /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable See bpf(2). /proc/sys/net/core/somaxconn This file defines a ceiling value for the backlog argument of listen(2); see the listen(2) manual page for details. /proc/sys/proc This directory may be empty. /proc/sys/sunrpc This directory supports Sun remote procedure call for network filesystem (NFS). On some systems, it is not present. /proc/sys/user (since Linux 4.9) See namespaces(7). /proc/sys/vm This directory contains files for memory management tuning, buffer and cache management. /proc/sys/vm/admin_reserve_kbytes (since Linux 3.10) This file defines the amount of free memory (in KiB) on the system that should be reserved for users with the capability CAP_SYS_ADMIN. The default value in this file is the minimum of [3% of free pages, 8MiB] expressed as KiB. The default is intended to provide enough for the superuser to log in and kill a process, if necessary, under the default overcommit 'guess' mode (i.e., 0 in /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory). Systems running in "overcommit never" mode (i.e., 2 in /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory) should increase the value in this file to account for the full virtual memory size of the programs used to recover (e.g., login(1) ssh(1), and top(1)) Otherwise, the superuser may not be able to log in to recover the system. For example, on x86-64 a suitable value is 131072 (128MiB reserved). Changing the value in this file takes effect whenever an application requests memory. /proc/sys/vm/compact_memory (since Linux 2.6.35) When 1 is written to this file, all zones are compacted such that free memory is available in contiguous blocks where pos‐ sible. The effect of this action can be seen by examining /proc/buddyinfo. Present only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_COM‐ PACTION. /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches (since Linux 2.6.16) Writing to this file causes the kernel to drop clean caches, dentries, and inodes from memory, causing that memory to become free. This can be useful for memory management testing and performing reproducible filesystem benchmarks. Because writing to this file causes the benefits of caching to be lost, it can degrade overall system performance. To free pagecache, use: echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches To free dentries and inodes, use: echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches To free pagecache, dentries and inodes, use: echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches Because writing to this file is a nondestructive operation and dirty objects are not freeable, the user should run sync(1) first. /proc/sys/vm/legacy_va_layout (since Linux 2.6.9) If nonzero, this disables the new 32-bit memory-mapping lay‐ out; the kernel will use the legacy (2.4) layout for all pro‐ cesses. /proc/sys/vm/memory_failure_early_kill (since Linux 2.6.32) Control how to kill processes when an uncorrected memory error (typically a 2-bit error in a memory module) that cannot be handled by the kernel is detected in the background by hard‐ ware. In some cases (like the page still having a valid copy on disk), the kernel will handle the failure transparently without affecting any applications. But if there is no other up-to-date copy of the data, it will kill processes to prevent any data corruptions from propagating. The file has one of the following values: 1: Kill all processes that have the corrupted-and-not-reload‐ able page mapped as soon as the corruption is detected. Note that this is not supported for a few types of pages, such as kernel internally allocated data or the swap cache, but works for the majority of user pages. 0: Unmap the corrupted page from all processes and kill a process only if it tries to access the page. The kill is performed using a SIGBUS signal with si_code set to BUS_MCEERR_AO. Processes can handle this if they want to; see sigaction(2) for more details. This feature is active only on architectures/platforms with advanced machine check handling and depends on the hardware capabilities. Applications can override the memory_failure_early_kill set‐ ting individually with the prctl(2) PR_MCE_KILL operation. Present only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_MEM‐ ORY_FAILURE. /proc/sys/vm/memory_failure_recovery (since Linux 2.6.32) Enable memory failure recovery (when supported by the plat‐ form). 1: Attempt recovery. 0: Always panic on a memory failure. Present only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_MEM‐ ORY_FAILURE. /proc/sys/vm/oom_dump_tasks (since Linux 2.6.25) Enables a system-wide task dump (excluding kernel threads) to be produced when the kernel performs an OOM-killing. The dump includes the following information for each task (thread, process): thread ID, real user ID, thread group ID (process ID), virtual memory size, resident set size, the CPU that the task is scheduled on, oom_adj score (see the description of /proc/[pid]/oom_adj), and command name. This is helpful to determine why the OOM-killer was invoked and to identify the rogue task that caused it. If this contains the value zero, this information is sup‐ pressed. On very large systems with thousands of tasks, it may not be feasible to dump the memory state information for each one. Such systems should not be forced to incur a per‐ formance penalty in OOM situations when the information may not be desired. If this is set to nonzero, this information is shown whenever the OOM-killer actually kills a memory-hogging task. The default value is 0. /proc/sys/vm/oom_kill_allocating_task (since Linux 2.6.24) This enables or disables killing the OOM-triggering task in out-of-memory situations. If this is set to zero, the OOM-killer will scan through the entire tasklist and select a task based on heuristics to kill. This normally selects a rogue memory-hogging task that frees up a large amount of memory when killed. If this is set to nonzero, the OOM-killer simply kills the task that triggered the out-of-memory condition. This avoids a possibly expensive tasklist scan. If /proc/sys/vm/panic_on_oom is nonzero, it takes precedence over whatever value is used in /proc/sys/vm/oom_kill_allocat‐ ing_task. The default value is 0. /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_kbytes (since Linux 3.14) This writable file provides an alternative to /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_ratio for controlling the CommitLimit when /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory has the value 2. It allows the amount of memory overcommitting to be specified as an absolute value (in kB), rather than as a percentage, as is done with overcommit_ratio. This allows for finer-grained control of CommitLimit on systems with extremely large memory sizes. Only one of overcommit_kbytes or overcommit_ratio can have an effect: if overcommit_kbytes has a nonzero value, then it is used to calculate CommitLimit, otherwise overcommit_ratio is used. Writing a value to either of these files causes the value in the other file to be set to zero. /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory This file contains the kernel virtual memory accounting mode. Values are: 0: heuristic overcommit (this is the default) 1: always overcommit, never check 2: always check, never overcommit In mode 0, calls of mmap(2) with MAP_NORESERVE are not checked, and the default check is very weak, leading to the risk of getting a process "OOM-killed". In mode 1, the kernel pretends there is always enough memory, until memory actually runs out. One use case for this mode is scientific computing applications that employ large sparse arrays. In Linux kernel versions before 2.6.0, any nonzero value implies mode 1. In mode 2 (available since Linux 2.6), the total virtual address space that can be allocated (CommitLimit in /proc/mem‐ info) is calculated as CommitLimit = (total_RAM - total_huge_TLB) * overcommit_ratio / 100 + total_swap where: * total_RAM is the total amount of RAM on the system; * total_huge_TLB is the amount of memory set aside for huge pages; * overcommit_ratio is the value in /proc/sys/vm/overcom‐ mit_ratio; and * total_swap is the amount of swap space. For example, on a system with 16 GB of physical RAM, 16 GB of swap, no space dedicated to huge pages, and an overcom‐ mit_ratio of 50, this formula yields a CommitLimit of 24 GB. Since Linux 3.14, if the value in /proc/sys/vm/overcom‐ mit_kbytes is nonzero, then CommitLimit is instead calculated as: CommitLimit = overcommit_kbytes + total_swap See also the description of /proc/sys/vm/admin_reserve_kbytes and /proc/sys/vm/user_reserve_kbytes. /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_ratio (since Linux 2.6.0) This writable file defines a percentage by which memory can be overcommitted. The default value in the file is 50. See the description of /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory. /proc/sys/vm/panic_on_oom (since Linux 2.6.18) This enables or disables a kernel panic in an out-of-memory situation. If this file is set to the value 0, the kernel's OOM-killer will kill some rogue process. Usually, the OOM-killer is able to kill a rogue process and the system will survive. If this file is set to the value 1, then the kernel normally panics when out-of-memory happens. However, if a process lim‐ its allocations to certain nodes using memory policies (mbind(2) MPOL_BIND) or cpusets (cpuset(7)) and those nodes reach memory exhaustion status, one process may be killed by the OOM-killer. No panic occurs in this case: because other nodes' memory may be free, this means the system as a whole may not have reached an out-of-memory situation yet. If this file is set to the value 2, the kernel always panics when an out-of-memory condition occurs. The default value is 0. 1 and 2 are for failover of cluster‐ ing. Select either according to your policy of failover. /proc/sys/vm/swappiness The value in this file controls how aggressively the kernel will swap memory pages. Higher values increase aggressive‐ ness, lower values decrease aggressiveness. The default value is 60. /proc/sys/vm/user_reserve_kbytes (since Linux 3.10) Specifies an amount of memory (in KiB) to reserve for user processes. This is intended to prevent a user from starting a single memory hogging process, such that they cannot recover (kill the hog). The value in this file has an effect only when /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory is set to 2 ("overcommit never" mode). In this case, the system reserves an amount of memory that is the minimum of [3% of current process size, user_reserve_kbytes]. The default value in this file is the minimum of [3% of free pages, 128MiB] expressed as KiB. If the value in this file is set to zero, then a user will be allowed to allocate all free memory with a single process (minus the amount reserved by /proc/sys/vm/admin_reserve_kbytes). Any subsequent attempts to execute a command will result in "fork: Cannot allocate memory". Changing the value in this file takes effect whenever an application requests memory. /proc/sys/vm/unprivileged_userfaultfd (since Linux 5.2) This (writable) file exposes a flag that controls whether unprivileged processes are allowed to employ userfaultfd(2). If this file has the value 1, then unprivileged processes may use userfaultfd(2). If this file has the value 0, then only processes that have the CAP_SYS_PTRACE capability may employ userfaultfd(2). The default value in this file is 1. /proc/sysrq-trigger (since Linux 2.4.21) Writing a character to this file triggers the same SysRq func‐ tion as typing ALT-SysRq-<character> (see the description of /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq). This file is normally writable only by root. For further details see the Linux kernel source file Documentation/admin-guide/sysrq.rst (or Documenta‐ tion/sysrq.txt before Linux 4.10). /proc/sysvipc Subdirectory containing the pseudo-files msg, sem and shm. These files list the System V Interprocess Communication (IPC) objects (respectively: message queues, semaphores, and shared memory) that currently exist on the system, providing similar information to that available via ipcs(1). These files have headers and are formatted (one IPC object per line) for easy understanding. sysvipc(7) provides further background on the information shown by these files. /proc/thread-self (since Linux 3.17) This directory refers to the thread accessing the /proc filesystem, and is identical to the /proc/self/task/[tid] directory named by the process thread ID ([tid]) of the same thread. /proc/timer_list (since Linux 2.6.21) This read-only file exposes a list of all currently pending (high-resolution) timers, all clock-event sources, and their parameters in a human-readable form. /proc/timer_stats (from Linux 2.6.21 until Linux 4.10) This is a debugging facility to make timer (ab)use in a Linux system visible to kernel and user-space developers. It can be used by kernel and user-space developers to verify that their code does not make undue use of timers. The goal is to avoid unnecessary wakeups, thereby optimizing power consumption. If enabled in the kernel (CONFIG_TIMER_STATS), but not used, it has almost zero run-time overhead and a relatively small data-structure overhead. Even if collection is enabled at run time, overhead is low: all the locking is per-CPU and lookup is hashed. The /proc/timer_stats file is used both to control sampling facility and to read out the sampled information. The timer_stats functionality is inactive on bootup. A sam‐ pling period can be started using the following command: # echo 1 > /proc/timer_stats The following command stops a sampling period: # echo 0 > /proc/timer_stats The statistics can be retrieved by: $ cat /proc/timer_stats While sampling is enabled, each readout from /proc/timer_stats will see newly updated statistics. Once sampling is disabled, the sampled information is kept until a new sample period is started. This allows multiple readouts. Sample output from /proc/timer_stats: $ cat /proc/timer_stats Timer Stats Version: v0.3 Sample period: 1.764 s Collection: active 255, 0 swapper/3 hrtimer_start_range_ns (tick_sched_timer) 71, 0 swapper/1 hrtimer_start_range_ns (tick_sched_timer) 58, 0 swapper/0 hrtimer_start_range_ns (tick_sched_timer) 4, 1694 gnome-shell mod_delayed_work_on (delayed_work_timer_fn) 17, 7 rcu_sched rcu_gp_kthread (process_timeout) ... 1, 4911 kworker/u16:0 mod_delayed_work_on (delayed_work_timer_fn) 1D, 2522 kworker/0:0 queue_delayed_work_on (delayed_work_timer_fn) 1029 total events, 583.333 events/sec The output columns are: * a count of the number of events, optionally (since Linux 2.6.23) followed by the letter 'D' if this is a deferrable timer; * the PID of the process that initialized the timer; * the name of the process that initialized the timer; * the function where the timer was initialized; and * (in parentheses) the callback function that is associated with the timer. During the Linux 4.11 development cycle, this file was removed because of security concerns, as it exposes informa‐ tion across namespaces. Furthermore, it is possible to obtain the same information via in-kernel tracing facilities such as ftrace. /proc/tty Subdirectory containing the pseudo-files and subdirectories for tty drivers and line disciplines. /proc/uptime This file contains two numbers (values in seconds): the uptime of the system (including time spent in suspend) and the amount of time spent in the idle process. /proc/version This string identifies the kernel version that is currently running. It includes the contents of /proc/sys/kernel/ostype, /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease and /proc/sys/kernel/version. For example: Linux version 1.0.9 (quinlan@phaze) #1 Sat May 14 01:51:54 EDT 1994 /proc/vmstat (since Linux 2.6.0) This file displays various virtual memory statistics. Each line of this file contains a single name-value pair, delimited by white space. Some lines are present only if the kernel was configured with suitable options. (In some cases, the options required for particular files have changed across kernel ver‐ sions, so they are not listed here. Details can be found by consulting the kernel source code.) The following fields may be present: nr_free_pages (since Linux 2.6.31) nr_alloc_batch (since Linux 3.12) nr_inactive_anon (since Linux 2.6.28) nr_active_anon (since Linux 2.6.28) nr_inactive_file (since Linux 2.6.28) nr_active_file (since Linux 2.6.28) nr_unevictable (since Linux 2.6.28) nr_mlock (since Linux 2.6.28) nr_anon_pages (since Linux 2.6.18) nr_mapped (since Linux 2.6.0) nr_file_pages (since Linux 2.6.18) nr_dirty (since Linux 2.6.0) nr_writeback (since Linux 2.6.0) nr_slab_reclaimable (since Linux 2.6.19) nr_slab_unreclaimable (since Linux 2.6.19) nr_page_table_pages (since Linux 2.6.0) nr_kernel_stack (since Linux 2.6.32) Amount of memory allocated to kernel stacks. nr_unstable (since Linux 2.6.0) nr_bounce (since Linux 2.6.12) nr_vmscan_write (since Linux 2.6.19) nr_vmscan_immediate_reclaim (since Linux 3.2) nr_writeback_temp (since Linux 2.6.26) nr_isolated_anon (since Linux 2.6.32) nr_isolated_file (since Linux 2.6.32) nr_shmem (since Linux 2.6.32) Pages used by shmem and tmpfs(5). nr_dirtied (since Linux 2.6.37) nr_written (since Linux 2.6.37) nr_pages_scanned (since Linux 3.17) numa_hit (since Linux 2.6.18) numa_miss (since Linux 2.6.18) numa_foreign (since Linux 2.6.18) numa_interleave (since Linux 2.6.18) numa_local (since Linux 2.6.18) numa_other (since Linux 2.6.18) workingset_refault (since Linux 3.15) workingset_activate (since Linux 3.15) workingset_nodereclaim (since Linux 3.15) nr_anon_transparent_hugepages (since Linux 2.6.38) nr_free_cma (since Linux 3.7) Number of free CMA (Contiguous Memory Allocator) pages. nr_dirty_threshold (since Linux 2.6.37) nr_dirty_background_threshold (since Linux 2.6.37) pgpgin (since Linux 2.6.0) pgpgout (since Linux 2.6.0) pswpin (since Linux 2.6.0) pswpout (since Linux 2.6.0) pgalloc_dma (since Linux 2.6.5) pgalloc_dma32 (since Linux 2.6.16) pgalloc_normal (since Linux 2.6.5) pgalloc_high (since Linux 2.6.5) pgalloc_movable (since Linux 2.6.23) pgfree (since Linux 2.6.0) pgactivate (since Linux 2.6.0) pgdeactivate (since Linux 2.6.0) pgfault (since Linux 2.6.0) pgmajfault (since Linux 2.6.0) pgrefill_dma (since Linux 2.6.5) pgrefill_dma32 (since Linux 2.6.16) pgrefill_normal (since Linux 2.6.5) pgrefill_high (since Linux 2.6.5) pgrefill_movable (since Linux 2.6.23) pgsteal_kswapd_dma (since Linux 3.4) pgsteal_kswapd_dma32 (since Linux 3.4) pgsteal_kswapd_normal (since Linux 3.4) pgsteal_kswapd_high (since Linux 3.4) pgsteal_kswapd_movable (since Linux 3.4) pgsteal_direct_dma pgsteal_direct_dma32 (since Linux 3.4) pgsteal_direct_normal (since Linux 3.4) pgsteal_direct_high (since Linux 3.4) pgsteal_direct_movable (since Linux 2.6.23) pgscan_kswapd_dma pgscan_kswapd_dma32 (since Linux 2.6.16) pgscan_kswapd_normal (since Linux 2.6.5) pgscan_kswapd_high pgscan_kswapd_movable (since Linux 2.6.23) pgscan_direct_dma pgscan_direct_dma32 (since Linux 2.6.16) pgscan_direct_normal pgscan_direct_high pgscan_direct_movable (since Linux 2.6.23) pgscan_direct_throttle (since Linux 3.6) zone_reclaim_failed (since linux 2.6.31) pginodesteal (since linux 2.6.0) slabs_scanned (since linux 2.6.5) kswapd_inodesteal (since linux 2.6.0) kswapd_low_wmark_hit_quickly (since 2.6.33) kswapd_high_wmark_hit_quickly (since 2.6.33) pageoutrun (since Linux 2.6.0) allocstall (since Linux 2.6.0) pgrotated (since Linux 2.6.0) drop_pagecache (since Linux 3.15) drop_slab (since Linux 3.15) numa_pte_updates (since Linux 3.8) numa_huge_pte_updates (since Linux 3.13) numa_hint_faults (since Linux 3.8) numa_hint_faults_local (since Linux 3.8) numa_pages_migrated (since Linux 3.8) pgmigrate_success (since Linux 3.8) pgmigrate_fail (since Linux 3.8) compact_migrate_scanned (since Linux 3.8) compact_free_scanned (since Linux 3.8) compact_isolated (since Linux 3.8) compact_stall (since Linux 2.6.35) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. compact_fail (since Linux 2.6.35) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. compact_success (since Linux 2.6.35) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. htlb_buddy_alloc_success (since Linux 2.6.26) htlb_buddy_alloc_fail (since Linux 2.6.26) unevictable_pgs_culled (since Linux 2.6.28) unevictable_pgs_scanned (since Linux 2.6.28) unevictable_pgs_rescued (since Linux 2.6.28) unevictable_pgs_mlocked (since Linux 2.6.28) unevictable_pgs_munlocked (since Linux 2.6.28) unevictable_pgs_cleared (since Linux 2.6.28) unevictable_pgs_stranded (since Linux 2.6.28) thp_fault_alloc (since Linux 2.6.39) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. thp_fault_fallback (since Linux 2.6.39) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. thp_collapse_alloc (since Linux 2.6.39) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. thp_collapse_alloc_failed (since Linux 2.6.39) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. thp_split (since Linux 2.6.39) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. thp_zero_page_alloc (since Linux 3.8) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. thp_zero_page_alloc_failed (since Linux 3.8) See the kernel source file Documenta‐ tion/admin-guide/mm/transhuge.rst. balloon_inflate (since Linux 3.18) balloon_deflate (since Linux 3.18) balloon_migrate (since Linux 3.18) nr_tlb_remote_flush (since Linux 3.12) nr_tlb_remote_flush_received (since Linux 3.12) nr_tlb_local_flush_all (since Linux 3.12) nr_tlb_local_flush_one (since Linux 3.12) vmacache_find_calls (since Linux 3.16) vmacache_find_hits (since Linux 3.16) vmacache_full_flushes (since Linux 3.19) /proc/zoneinfo (since Linux 2.6.13) This file displays information about memory zones. This is useful for analyzing virtual memory behavior.
Many files contain strings (e.g., the environment and command line) that are in the internal format, with subfields terminated by null bytes ('\0'). When inspecting such files, you may find that the results are more readable if you use a command of the following form to display them: $ cat file | tr '\000' '\n' This manual page is incomplete, possibly inaccurate, and is the kind of thing that needs to be updated very often.
cat(1), dmesg(1), find(1), free(1), htop(1), init(1), ps(1), pstree(1), tr(1), uptime(1), chroot(2), mmap(2), readlink(2), syslog(2), slabinfo(5), sysfs(5), hier(7), namespaces(7), time(7), arp(8), hdparm(8), ifconfig(8), lsmod(8), lspci(8), mount(8), netstat(8), procinfo(8), route(8), sysctl(8) The Linux kernel source files: Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt, Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt, Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt, Documentation/sysctl/net.txt, and Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt.
This page is part of release 5.08 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be found at https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/. Linux 2020-08-13 PROC(5)
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