sudoers(5) — Linux manual page

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SUDOERS(5)               BSD File Formats Manual              SUDOERS(5)

NAME         top

     sudoers — default sudo security policy plugin

DESCRIPTION         top

     The sudoers policy plugin determines a user's sudo privileges.  It
     is the default sudo policy plugin.  The policy is driven by the
     /etc/sudoers file or, optionally in LDAP.  The policy format is
     described in detail in the SUDOERS FILE FORMAT section.  For
     information on storing sudoers policy information in LDAP, please
     see sudoers.ldap(5).

   Configuring sudo.conf for sudoers
     sudo consults the sudo.conf(5) file to determine which policy and
     I/O logging plugins to load.  If no sudo.conf(5) file is present,
     or if it contains no Plugin lines, sudoers will be used for policy
     decisions and I/O logging.  To explicitly configure sudo.conf(5) to
     use the sudoers plugin, the following configuration can be used.

           Plugin sudoers_audit sudoers.so
           Plugin sudoers_policy sudoers.so
           Plugin sudoers_io sudoers.so

     Starting with sudo 1.8.5, it is possible to specify optional
     arguments to the sudoers plugin in the sudo.conf(5) file.  Plugin
     arguments, if any, should be listed after the path to the plugin
     (i.e., after sudoers.so).  The arguments are only effective for the
     plugin that opens (and parses) the sudoers file.

     For sudo version 1.9.1 and higher, this is the sudoers_audit
     plugin.  For older versions, it is the sudoers_policy plugin.
     Multiple arguments may be specified, separated by white space.  For
     example:

           Plugin sudoers_audit sudoers.so sudoers_mode=0400 error_recovery=false

     The following plugin arguments are supported:

     error_recovery=bool
               The error_recovery argument can be used to control
               whether sudoers should attempt to recover from syntax
               errors in the sudoers file.  If set to true (the
               default), sudoers will try to recover from a syntax error
               by discarding the portion of the line that contains the
               error until the end of the line.  A value of false will
               disable error recovery.  Prior to version 1.9.3, no error
               recovery was performed.

     ldap_conf=pathname
               The ldap_conf argument can be used to override the
               default path to the ldap.conf file.

     ldap_secret=pathname
               The ldap_secret argument can be used to override the
               default path to the ldap.secret file.

     sudoers_file=pathname
               The sudoers_file argument can be used to override the
               default path to the sudoers file.

     sudoers_uid=uid
               The sudoers_uid argument can be used to override the
               default owner of the sudoers file.  It should be
               specified as a numeric user-ID.

     sudoers_gid=gid
               The sudoers_gid argument can be used to override the
               default group of the sudoers file.  It must be specified
               as a numeric group-ID (not a group name).

     sudoers_mode=mode
               The sudoers_mode argument can be used to override the
               default file mode for the sudoers file.  It should be
               specified as an octal value.

     For more information on configuring sudo.conf(5), please refer to
     its manual.

   User Authentication
     The sudoers security policy requires that most users authenticate
     themselves before they can use sudo.  A password is not required if
     the invoking user is root, if the target user is the same as the
     invoking user, or if the policy has disabled authentication for the
     user or command.  Unlike su(1), when sudoers requires
     authentication, it validates the invoking user's credentials, not
     the target user's (or root's) credentials.  This can be changed via
     the rootpw, targetpw and runaspw flags, described later.

     If a user who is not listed in the policy tries to run a command
     via sudo, mail is sent to the proper authorities.  The address used
     for such mail is configurable via the mailto Defaults entry
     (described later) and defaults to root.

     Note that no mail will be sent if an unauthorized user tries to run
     sudo with the -l or -v option unless there is an authentication
     error and either the mail_always or mail_badpass flags are enabled.
     This allows users to determine for themselves whether or not they
     are allowed to use sudo.  By default, all attempts to run sudo
     (successful or not) are logged, regardless of whether or not mail
     is sent.

     If sudo is run by root and the SUDO_USER environment variable is
     set, the sudoers policy will use this value to determine who the
     actual user is.  This can be used by a user to log commands through
     sudo even when a root shell has been invoked.  It also allows the
     -e option to remain useful even when invoked via a sudo-run script
     or program.  Note, however, that the sudoers file lookup is still
     done for root, not the user specified by SUDO_USER.

     sudoers uses per-user time stamp files for credential caching.
     Once a user has been authenticated, a record is written containing
     the user-ID that was used to authenticate, the terminal session ID,
     the start time of the session leader (or parent process) and a time
     stamp (using a monotonic clock if one is available).  The user may
     then use sudo without a password for a short period of time (5
     minutes unless overridden by the timestamp_timeout option).  By
     default, sudoers uses a separate record for each terminal, which
     means that a user's login sessions are authenticated separately.
     The timestamp_type option can be used to select the type of time
     stamp record sudoers will use.

   Logging
     By default, sudoers logs both successful and unsuccessful attempts
     (as well as errors).  The log_allowed and log_denied flags can be
     used to control this behavior.  Messages can be logged to
     syslog(3), a log file, or both.  The default is to log to syslog(3)
     but this is configurable via the syslog and logfile settings.  See
     LOG FORMAT for a description of the log file format.

     sudoers is also capable of running a command in a pseudo-terminal
     and logging all input and/or output.  The standard input, standard
     output and standard error can be logged even when not associated
     with a terminal.  I/O logging is not on by default but can be
     enabled using the log_input and log_output options as well as the
     LOG_INPUT and LOG_OUTPUT command tags.  See I/O LOG FILES for
     details on how I/O log files are stored.

     Starting with version 1.9, the log_servers setting may be used to
     send event and I/O log data to a remote server running sudo_logsrvd
     or another service that implements the protocol described by
     sudo_logsrv.proto(5).

   Command environment
     Since environment variables can influence program behavior, sudoers
     provides a means to restrict which variables from the user's
     environment are inherited by the command to be run.  There are two
     distinct ways sudoers can deal with environment variables.

     By default, the env_reset flag is enabled.  This causes commands to
     be executed with a new, minimal environment.  On AIX (and Linux
     systems without PAM), the environment is initialized with the
     contents of the /etc/environment file.  The HOME, MAIL, SHELL,
     LOGNAME and USER environment variables are initialized based on the
     target user and the SUDO_* variables are set based on the invoking
     user.  Additional variables, such as DISPLAY, PATH and TERM, are
     preserved from the invoking user's environment if permitted by the
     env_check or env_keep options.  A few environment variables are
     treated specially.  If the PATH and TERM variables are not
     preserved from the user's environment, they will be set to default
     values.  The LOGNAME and USER are handled as a single entity.  If
     one of them is preserved (or removed) from the user's environment,
     the other will be as well.  If LOGNAME and USER are to be preserved
     but only one of them is present in the user's environment, the
     other will be set to the same value.  This avoids an inconsistent
     environment where one of the variables describing the user name is
     set to the invoking user and one is set to the target user.
     Environment variables with a value beginning with () are removed
     unless both the name and value parts are matched by env_keep or
     env_check, as they may be interpreted as functions by the bash
     shell.  Prior to version 1.8.11, such variables were always
     removed.

     If, however, the env_reset flag is disabled, any variables not
     explicitly denied by the env_check and env_delete options are
     allowed and their values are inherited from the invoking process.
     Prior to version 1.8.21, environment variables with a value
     beginning with () were always removed.  Beginning with version
     1.8.21, a pattern in env_delete is used to match bash shell
     functions instead.  Since it is not possible to block all
     potentially dangerous environment variables, use of the default
     env_reset behavior is encouraged.

     Environment variables specified by env_check, env_delete, or
     env_keep may include one or more ‘*’ characters which will match
     zero or more characters.  No other wildcard characters are
     supported.

     By default, environment variables are matched by name.  However, if
     the pattern includes an equal sign (‘=’), both the variables name
     and value must match.  For example, a bash shell function could be
     matched as follows:

         env_keep += "BASH_FUNC_my_func%%=()*"

     Without the “=()*” suffix, this would not match, as bash shell
     functions are not preserved by default.

     The complete list of environment variables that are preserved or
     removed, as modified by global Defaults parameters in sudoers, is
     displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V option.  Please note
     that the list of environment variables to remove varies based on
     the operating system sudo is running on.

     Other sudoers options may influence the command environment, such
     as always_set_home, secure_path, set_logname, and set_home.

     On systems that support PAM where the pam_env module is enabled for
     sudo, variables in the PAM environment may be merged in to the
     environment.  If a variable in the PAM environment is already
     present in the user's environment, the value will only be
     overridden if the variable was not preserved by sudoers.  When
     env_reset is enabled, variables preserved from the invoking user's
     environment by the env_keep list take precedence over those in the
     PAM environment.  When env_reset is disabled, variables present the
     invoking user's environment take precedence over those in the PAM
     environment unless they match a pattern in the env_delete list.

     Note that the dynamic linker on most operating systems will remove
     variables that can control dynamic linking from the environment of
     set-user-ID executables, including sudo.  Depending on the
     operating system this may include _RLD*, DYLD_*, LD_*, LDR_*,
     LIBPATH, SHLIB_PATH, and others.  These type of variables are
     removed from the environment before sudo even begins execution and,
     as such, it is not possible for sudo to preserve them.

     As a special case, if the -i option (initial login) is specified,
     sudoers will initialize the environment regardless of the value of
     env_reset.  The DISPLAY, PATH and TERM variables remain unchanged;
     HOME, MAIL, SHELL, USER, and LOGNAME are set based on the target
     user.  On AIX (and Linux systems without PAM), the contents of
     /etc/environment are also included.  All other environment
     variables are removed unless permitted by env_keep or env_check,
     described above.

     Finally, the restricted_env_file and env_file files are applied, if
     present.  The variables in restricted_env_file are applied first
     and are subject to the same restrictions as the invoking user's
     environment, as detailed above.  The variables in env_file are
     applied last and are not subject to these restrictions.  In both
     cases, variables present in the files will only be set to their
     specified values if they would not conflict with an existing
     environment variable.

SUDOERS FILE FORMAT         top

     The sudoers file is composed of two types of entries: aliases
     (basically variables) and user specifications (which specify who
     may run what).

     When multiple entries match for a user, they are applied in order.
     Where there are multiple matches, the last match is used (which is
     not necessarily the most specific match).

     The sudoers file grammar will be described below in Extended
     Backus-Naur Form (EBNF).  Don't despair if you are unfamiliar with
     EBNF; it is fairly simple, and the definitions below are annotated.

   Quick guide to EBNF
     EBNF is a concise and exact way of describing the grammar of a
     language.  Each EBNF definition is made up of production rules.
     E.g.,

     symbol ::= definition | alternate1 | alternate2 ...

     Each production rule references others and thus makes up a grammar
     for the language.  EBNF also contains the following operators,
     which many readers will recognize from regular expressions.  Do
     not, however, confuse them with “wildcard” characters, which have
     different meanings.

     ?     Means that the preceding symbol (or group of symbols) is
           optional.  That is, it may appear once or not at all.

     *     Means that the preceding symbol (or group of symbols) may
           appear zero or more times.

     +     Means that the preceding symbol (or group of symbols) may
           appear one or more times.

     Parentheses may be used to group symbols together.  For clarity, we
     will use single quotes ('') to designate what is a verbatim
     character string (as opposed to a symbol name).

   Aliases
     There are four kinds of aliases: User_Alias, Runas_Alias,
     Host_Alias and Cmnd_Alias.  Beginning with sudo 1.9.0, Cmd_Alias
     may be used in place of Cmnd_Alias if desired.

     Alias ::= 'User_Alias'  User_Alias_Spec (':' User_Alias_Spec)* |
               'Runas_Alias' Runas_Alias_Spec (':' Runas_Alias_Spec)* |
               'Host_Alias'  Host_Alias_Spec (':' Host_Alias_Spec)* |
               'Cmnd_Alias'  Cmnd_Alias_Spec (':' Cmnd_Alias_Spec)* |
               'Cmd_Alias'   Cmnd_Alias_Spec (':' Cmnd_Alias_Spec)*

     User_Alias ::= NAME

     User_Alias_Spec ::= User_Alias '=' User_List

     Runas_Alias ::= NAME

     Runas_Alias_Spec ::= Runas_Alias '=' Runas_List

     Host_Alias ::= NAME

     Host_Alias_Spec ::= Host_Alias '=' Host_List

     Cmnd_Alias ::= NAME

     Cmnd_Alias_Spec ::= Cmnd_Alias '=' Cmnd_List

     NAME ::= [A-Z]([A-Z][0-9]_)*

     Each alias definition is of the form

     Alias_Type NAME = item1, item2, ...

     where Alias_Type is one of User_Alias, Runas_Alias, Host_Alias, or
     Cmnd_Alias.  A NAME is a string of uppercase letters, numbers, and
     underscore characters (‘_’).  A NAME must start with an uppercase
     letter.  It is possible to put several alias definitions of the
     same type on a single line, joined by a colon (‘:’).  E.g.,

     Alias_Type NAME = item1, item2, item3 : NAME = item4, item5

     It is a syntax error to redefine an existing alias.  It is possible
     to use the same name for aliases of different types, but this is
     not recommended.

     The definitions of what constitutes a valid alias member follow.

     User_List ::= User |
                   User ',' User_List

     User ::= '!'* user name |
              '!'* #uid |
              '!'* %group |
              '!'* %#gid |
              '!'* +netgroup |
              '!'* %:nonunix_group |
              '!'* %:#nonunix_gid |
              '!'* User_Alias

     A User_List is made up of one or more user names, user-IDs
     (prefixed with ‘#’), system group names and IDs (prefixed with ‘%’
     and ‘%#’ respectively), netgroups (prefixed with ‘+’), non-Unix
     group names and IDs (prefixed with ‘%:’ and ‘%:#’ respectively) and
     User_Aliases. Each list item may be prefixed with zero or more ‘!’
     operators.  An odd number of ‘!’ operators negate the value of the
     item; an even number just cancel each other out.  User netgroups
     are matched using the user and domain members only; the host member
     is not used when matching.

     A user name, uid, group, gid, netgroup, nonunix_group or
     nonunix_gid may be enclosed in double quotes to avoid the need for
     escaping special characters.  Alternately, special characters may
     be specified in escaped hex mode, e.g., \x20 for space.  When using
     double quotes, any prefix characters must be included inside the
     quotes.

     The actual nonunix_group and nonunix_gid syntax depends on the
     underlying group provider plugin.  For instance, the QAS AD plugin
     supports the following formats:

     Group in the same domain: "%:Group Name"

     Group in any domain: "%:Group Name@FULLY.QUALIFIED.DOMAIN"

     Group SID: "%:S-1-2-34-5678901234-5678901234-5678901234-567"

     See GROUP PROVIDER PLUGINS for more information.

     Note that quotes around group names are optional.  Unquoted strings
     must use a backslash (‘\’) to escape spaces and special characters.
     See Other special characters and reserved words for a list of
     characters that need to be escaped.

     Runas_List ::= Runas_Member |
                    Runas_Member ',' Runas_List

     Runas_Member ::= '!'* user name |
                      '!'* #uid |
                      '!'* %group |
                      '!'* %#gid |
                      '!'* %:nonunix_group |
                      '!'* %:#nonunix_gid |
                      '!'* +netgroup |
                      '!'* Runas_Alias

     A Runas_List is similar to a User_List except that instead of
     User_Aliases it can contain Runas_Aliases.  Note that user names
     and groups are matched as strings.  In other words, two users
     (groups) with the same user (group) ID are considered to be
     distinct.  If you wish to match all user names with the same user-
     ID (e.g., root and toor), you can use a user-ID instead of a name
     (#0 in the example given).  Note that the user-ID or group-ID
     specified in a Runas_Member need not be listed in the password or
     group database.

     Host_List ::= Host |
                   Host ',' Host_List

     Host ::= '!'* host name |
              '!'* ip_addr |
              '!'* network(/netmask)? |
              '!'* +netgroup |
              '!'* Host_Alias

     A Host_List is made up of one or more host names, IP addresses,
     network numbers, netgroups (prefixed with ‘+’) and other aliases.
     Again, the value of an item may be negated with the ‘!’ operator.
     Host netgroups are matched using the host (both qualified and
     unqualified) and domain members only; the user member is not used
     when matching.  If you specify a network number without a netmask,
     sudo will query each of the local host's network interfaces and, if
     the network number corresponds to one of the hosts's network
     interfaces, will use the netmask of that interface.  The netmask
     may be specified either in standard IP address notation (e.g.,
     255.255.255.0 or ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::), or CIDR notation (number
     of bits, e.g., 24 or 64).  A host name may include shell-style
     wildcards (see the Wildcards section below), but unless the host
     name command on your machine returns the fully qualified host name,
     you'll need to use the fqdn flag for wildcards to be useful.  Note
     that sudo only inspects actual network interfaces; this means that
     IP address 127.0.0.1 (localhost) will never match.  Also, the host
     name “localhost” will only match if that is the actual host name,
     which is usually only the case for non-networked systems.

     digest ::= [A-Fa-f0-9]+ |
                [A-Za-z0-9\+/=]+

     Digest_Spec ::= "sha224" ':' digest |
                     "sha256" ':' digest |
                     "sha384" ':' digest |
                     "sha512" ':' digest

     Digest_List ::= Digest_Spec |
                     Digest_Spec ',' Digest_List

     Cmnd_List ::= Cmnd |
                   Cmnd ',' Cmnd_List

     command name ::= file name |
                      file name args |
                      file name '""'

     Edit_Spec ::= "sudoedit" file name+

     Cmnd ::= Digest_List? '!'* command name |
              '!'* directory |
              '!'* Edit_Spec |
              '!'* Cmnd_Alias

     A Cmnd_List is a list of one or more command names, directories,
     and other aliases.  A command name is a fully qualified file name
     which may include shell-style wildcards (see the Wildcards section
     below).  A simple file name allows the user to run the command with
     any arguments they wish.  However, you may also specify command
     line arguments (including wildcards).  Alternately, you can specify
     "" to indicate that the command may only be run without command
     line arguments.  A directory is a fully qualified path name ending
     in a ‘/’.  When you specify a directory in a Cmnd_List, the user
     will be able to run any file within that directory (but not in any
     sub-directories therein).

     If a Cmnd has associated command line arguments, then the arguments
     in the Cmnd must match exactly those given by the user on the
     command line (or match the wildcards if there are any).  Note that
     the following characters must be escaped with a ‘\’ if they are
     used in command arguments: ‘,’, ‘:’, ‘=’, ‘\’.  The built-in
     command “sudoedit” is used to permit a user to run sudo with the -e
     option (or as sudoedit).  It may take command line arguments just
     as a normal command does.  Note that “sudoedit” is a command built
     into sudo itself and must be specified in the sudoers file without
     a leading path.  If a leading path is present, for example
     /usr/bin/sudoedit, the path name will be silently converted to
     “sudoedit”.  A fully-qualified path for sudoedit is treated as an
     error by visudo.

     A command name may be preceded by a Digest_List, a comma-separated
     list of one or more Digest_Spec entries.  If a Digest_List is
     present, the command will only match successfully if it can be
     verified using one of the SHA-2 digests in the list.  Starting with
     version 1.9.0, the ALL reserved word can be used in conjunction
     with a Digest_List.  The following digest formats are supported:
     sha224, sha256, sha384 and sha512.  The string may be specified in
     either hex or base64 format (base64 is more compact).  There are
     several utilities capable of generating SHA-2 digests in hex format
     such as openssl, shasum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
     sha512sum.

     For example, using openssl:

     $ openssl dgst -sha224 /bin/ls
     SHA224(/bin/ls)= 118187da8364d490b4a7debbf483004e8f3e053ec954309de2c41a25

     It is also possible to use openssl to generate base64 output:

     $ openssl dgst -binary -sha224 /bin/ls | openssl base64
     EYGH2oNk1JC0p9679IMATo8+BT7JVDCd4sQaJQ==

     Warning, if the user has write access to the command itself
     (directly or via a sudo command), it may be possible for the user
     to replace the command after the digest check has been performed
     but before the command is executed.  A similar race condition
     exists on systems that lack the fexecve(2) system call when the
     directory in which the command is located is writable by the user.
     See the description of the fdexec setting for more information on
     how sudo executes commands that have an associated digest.

     Command digests are only supported by version 1.8.7 or higher.

   Defaults
     Certain configuration options may be changed from their default
     values at run-time via one or more Default_Entry lines.  These may
     affect all users on any host, all users on a specific host, a
     specific user, a specific command, or commands being run as a
     specific user.  Note that per-command entries may not include
     command line arguments.  If you need to specify arguments, define a
     Cmnd_Alias and reference that instead.

     Default_Type ::= 'Defaults' |
                      'Defaults' '@' Host_List |
                      'Defaults' ':' User_List |
                      'Defaults' '!' Cmnd_List |
                      'Defaults' '>' Runas_List

     Default_Entry ::= Default_Type Parameter_List

     Parameter_List ::= Parameter |
                        Parameter ',' Parameter_List

     Parameter ::= Parameter '=' Value |
                   Parameter '+=' Value |
                   Parameter '-=' Value |
                   '!'* Parameter

     Parameters may be flags, integer values, strings, or lists.  Flags
     are implicitly boolean and can be turned off via the ‘!’ operator.
     Some integer, string and list parameters may also be used in a
     boolean context to disable them.  Values may be enclosed in double
     quotes ("") when they contain multiple words.  Special characters
     may be escaped with a backslash (‘\’).

     Lists have two additional assignment operators, += and -=.  These
     operators are used to add to and delete from a list respectively.
     It is not an error to use the -= operator to remove an element that
     does not exist in a list.

     Defaults entries are parsed in the following order: generic, host,
     user and runas Defaults first, then command defaults.  If there are
     multiple Defaults settings of the same type, the last matching
     setting is used.  The following Defaults settings are parsed before
     all others since they may affect subsequent entries: fqdn,
     group_plugin, runas_default, sudoers_locale.

     See SUDOERS OPTIONS for a list of supported Defaults parameters.

   User specification
     User_Spec ::= User_List Host_List '=' Cmnd_Spec_List \
                   (':' Host_List '=' Cmnd_Spec_List)*

     Cmnd_Spec_List ::= Cmnd_Spec |
                        Cmnd_Spec ',' Cmnd_Spec_List

     Cmnd_Spec ::= Runas_Spec? Option_Spec* Tag_Spec* Cmnd

     Runas_Spec ::= '(' Runas_List? (':' Runas_List)? ')'

     Option_Spec ::= (Date_Spec | Timeout_Spec | Chdir_Spec | Chroot_Spec)

     Date_Spec ::= ('NOTBEFORE=timestamp' | 'NOTAFTER=timestamp')

     Timeout_Spec ::= 'TIMEOUT=timeout'

     Chdir_Spec ::= 'CWD=directory'

     Chroot_Spec ::= 'CHROOT=directory'

     Tag_Spec ::= ('EXEC:' | 'NOEXEC:' | 'FOLLOW:' | 'NOFOLLOW' |
                   'LOG_INPUT:' | 'NOLOG_INPUT:' | 'LOG_OUTPUT:' |
                   'NOLOG_OUTPUT:' | 'MAIL:' | 'NOMAIL:' | 'PASSWD:' |
                   'NOPASSWD:' | 'SETENV:' | 'NOSETENV:')

     A user specification determines which commands a user may run (and
     as what user) on specified hosts.  By default, commands are run as
     root, but this can be changed on a per-command basis.

     The basic structure of a user specification is “who where =
     (as_whom) what”.  Let's break that down into its constituent parts:

   Runas_Spec
     A Runas_Spec determines the user and/or the group that a command
     may be run as.  A fully-specified Runas_Spec consists of two
     Runas_Lists (as defined above) separated by a colon (‘:’) and
     enclosed in a set of parentheses.  The first Runas_List indicates
     which users the command may be run as via the -u option.  The
     second defines a list of groups that can be specified via the -g
     option in addition to any of the target user's groups.  If both
     Runas_Lists are specified, the command may be run with any
     combination of users and groups listed in their respective
     Runas_Lists. If only the first is specified, the command may be run
     as any user in the list but no -g option may be specified.  If the
     first Runas_List is empty but the second is specified, the command
     may be run as the invoking user with the group set to any listed in
     the Runas_List.  If both Runas_Lists are empty, the command may
     only be run as the invoking user.  If no Runas_Spec is specified
     the command may be run as root and no group may be specified.

     A Runas_Spec sets the default for the commands that follow it.
     What this means is that for the entry:

     dgb     boulder = (operator) /bin/ls, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/lprm

     The user dgb may run /bin/ls, /bin/kill, and /usr/bin/lprm on the
     host boulder—but only as operator.  E.g.,

     $ sudo -u operator /bin/ls

     It is also possible to override a Runas_Spec later on in an entry.
     If we modify the entry like so:

     dgb     boulder = (operator) /bin/ls, (root) /bin/kill, /usr/bin/lprm

     Then user dgb is now allowed to run /bin/ls as operator, but
     /bin/kill and /usr/bin/lprm as root.

     We can extend this to allow dgb to run /bin/ls with either the user
     or group set to operator:

     dgb     boulder = (operator : operator) /bin/ls, (root) /bin/kill,\
             /usr/bin/lprm

     Note that while the group portion of the Runas_Spec permits the
     user to run as command with that group, it does not force the user
     to do so.  If no group is specified on the command line, the
     command will run with the group listed in the target user's
     password database entry.  The following would all be permitted by
     the sudoers entry above:

     $ sudo -u operator /bin/ls
     $ sudo -u operator -g operator /bin/ls
     $ sudo -g operator /bin/ls

     In the following example, user tcm may run commands that access a
     modem device file with the dialer group.

     tcm     boulder = (:dialer) /usr/bin/tip, /usr/bin/cu,\
             /usr/local/bin/minicom

     Note that in this example only the group will be set, the command
     still runs as user tcm.  E.g.

     $ sudo -g dialer /usr/bin/cu

     Multiple users and groups may be present in a Runas_Spec, in which
     case the user may select any combination of users and groups via
     the -u and -g options.  In this example:

     alan    ALL = (root, bin : operator, system) ALL

     user alan may run any command as either user root or bin,
     optionally setting the group to operator or system.

   Option_Spec
     A Cmnd may have zero or more options associated with it.  Options
     may consist of start and/or end dates and command timeouts.  Once
     an option is set for a Cmnd, subsequent Cmnds in the
     Cmnd_Spec_List, inherit that option unless it is overridden by
     another option.  Note that the option names are reserved words in
     sudoers.  This means that none of the valid option names (see
     below) can be used when declaring an alias.

   Date_Spec
     sudoers rules can be specified with a start and end date via the
     NOTBEFORE and NOTAFTER settings.  The time stamp must be specified
     in Generalized Time as defined by RFC 4517.  The format is
     effectively yyyymmddHHMMSSZ where the minutes and seconds are
     optional.  The ‘Z’ suffix indicates that the time stamp is in
     Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).  It is also possible to specify a
     timezone offset from UTC in hours and minutes instead of a ‘Z’.
     For example, ‘-0500’ would correspond to Eastern Standard time in
     the US.  As an extension, if no ‘Z’ or timezone offset is
     specified, local time will be used.

     The following are all valid time stamps:

         20170214083000Z
         2017021408Z
         20160315220000-0500
         20151201235900

   Timeout_Spec
     A command may have a timeout associated with it.  If the timeout
     expires before the command has exited, the command will be
     terminated.  The timeout may be specified in combinations of days,
     hours, minutes and seconds with a single-letter case-insensitive
     suffix that indicates the unit of time.  For example, a timeout of
     7 days, 8 hours, 30 minutes and 10 seconds would be written as
     7d8h30m10s.  If a number is specified without a unit, seconds are
     assumed.  Any of the days, minutes, hours or seconds may be
     omitted.  The order must be from largest to smallest unit and a
     unit may not be specified more than once.

     The following are all valid timeout values: 7d8h30m10s, 14d, 8h30m,
     600s, 3600.  The following are invalid timeout values: 12m2w1d,
     30s10m4h, 1d2d3h.

     This setting is only supported by version 1.8.20 or higher.

   Chdir_Spec
     The working directory that the command will be run in can be
     specified using the CWD setting.  The directory must be a fully-
     qualified path name beginning with a ‘/’ or ‘~’ character, or the
     special value “*”.  A value of “*” indicates that the user may
     specify the working directory by running sudo with the -D option.
     By default, commands are run from the invoking user's current
     working directory, unless the -i option is given.  Path names of
     the form ~user/path/name are interpreted as being relative to the
     named user's home directory.  If the user name is omitted, the path
     will be relative to the runas user's home directory.

     This setting is only supported by version 1.9.3 or higher.

   Chroot_Spec
     The root directory that the command will be run in can be specified
     using the CHROOT setting.  The directory must be a fully-qualified
     path name beginning with a ‘/’ or ‘~’ character, or the special
     value “*”.  A value of “*” indicates that the user may specify the
     root directory by running sudo with the -R option.  This setting
     can be used to run the command in a chroot(2) “sandbox” similar to
     the chroot(8) utility.  Path names of the form ~user/path/name are
     interpreted as being relative to the named user's home directory.
     If the user name is omitted, the path will be relative to the runas
     user's home directory.

     This setting is only supported by version 1.9.3 or higher.

   Tag_Spec
     A command may have zero or more tags associated with it.  The
     following tag values are supported: EXEC, NOEXEC, FOLLOW, NOFOLLOW,
     LOG_INPUT, NOLOG_INPUT, LOG_OUTPUT, NOLOG_OUTPUT, MAIL, NOMAIL,
     PASSWD, NOPASSWD, SETENV, and NOSETENV.  Once a tag is set on a
     Cmnd, subsequent Cmnds in the Cmnd_Spec_List, inherit the tag
     unless it is overridden by the opposite tag (in other words, PASSWD
     overrides NOPASSWD and NOEXEC overrides EXEC).

     EXEC and NOEXEC

       If sudo has been compiled with noexec support and the underlying
       operating system supports it, the NOEXEC tag can be used to
       prevent a dynamically-linked executable from running further
       commands itself.

       In the following example, user aaron may run /usr/bin/more and
       /usr/bin/vi but shell escapes will be disabled.

       aaron   shanty = NOEXEC: /usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/vi

       See the Preventing shell escapes section below for more details
       on how NOEXEC works and whether or not it will work on your
       system.

     FOLLOW and NOFOLLOW Starting with version 1.8.15, sudoedit will not
       open a file that is a symbolic link unless the sudoedit_follow
       flag is enabled.  The FOLLOW and NOFOLLOW tags override the value
       of sudoedit_follow and can be used to permit (or deny) the
       editing of symbolic links on a per-command basis.  These tags are
       only effective for the sudoedit command and are ignored for all
       other commands.

     LOG_INPUT and NOLOG_INPUT

       These tags override the value of the log_input flag on a per-
       command basis.  For more information, see the description of
       log_input in the SUDOERS OPTIONS section below.

     LOG_OUTPUT and NOLOG_OUTPUT

       These tags override the value of the log_output flag on a per-
       command basis.  For more information, see the description of
       log_output in the SUDOERS OPTIONS section below.

     MAIL and NOMAIL

       These tags provide fine-grained control over whether mail will be
       sent when a user runs a command by overriding the value of the
       mail_all_cmnds flag on a per-command basis.  They have no effect
       when sudo is run with the -l or -v options.  A NOMAIL tag will
       also override the mail_always and mail_no_perms options.  For
       more information, see the descriptions of mail_all_cmnds,
       mail_always, and mail_no_perms in the SUDOERS OPTIONS section
       below.

     PASSWD and NOPASSWD

       By default, sudo requires that a user authenticate him or herself
       before running a command.  This behavior can be modified via the
       NOPASSWD tag.  Like a Runas_Spec, the NOPASSWD tag sets a default
       for the commands that follow it in the Cmnd_Spec_List.
       Conversely, the PASSWD tag can be used to reverse things.  For
       example:

       ray     rushmore = NOPASSWD: /bin/kill, /bin/ls, /usr/bin/lprm

       would allow the user ray to run /bin/kill, /bin/ls, and
       /usr/bin/lprm as root on the machine rushmore without
       authenticating himself.  If we only want ray to be able to run
       /bin/kill without a password the entry would be:

       ray     rushmore = NOPASSWD: /bin/kill, PASSWD: /bin/ls, /usr/bin/lprm

       Note, however, that the PASSWD tag has no effect on users who are
       in the group specified by the exempt_group setting.

       By default, if the NOPASSWD tag is applied to any of a user's
       entries for the current host, the user will be able to run “sudo
       -l” without a password.  Additionally, a user may only run “sudo
       -v” without a password if all of the user's entries for the
       current host have the NOPASSWD tag.  This behavior may be
       overridden via the verifypw and listpw options.

     SETENV and NOSETENV

       These tags override the value of the setenv flag on a per-command
       basis.  Note that if SETENV has been set for a command, the user
       may disable the env_reset flag from the command line via the -E
       option.  Additionally, environment variables set on the command
       line are not subject to the restrictions imposed by env_check,
       env_delete, or env_keep.  As such, only trusted users should be
       allowed to set variables in this manner.  If the command matched
       is ALL, the SETENV tag is implied for that command; this default
       may be overridden by use of the NOSETENV tag.

   Wildcards
     sudo allows shell-style wildcards (aka meta or glob characters) to
     be used in host names, path names and command line arguments in the
     sudoers file.  Wildcard matching is done via the glob(3) and
     fnmatch(3) functions as specified by IEEE Std 1003.1 (“POSIX.1”).

     *         Matches any set of zero or more characters (including
               white space).

     ?         Matches any single character (including white space).

     [...]     Matches any character in the specified range.

     [!...]    Matches any character not in the specified range.

     \x        For any character ‘x’, evaluates to ‘x’.  This is used to
               escape special characters such as: ‘*’, ‘?’, ‘[’, and
               ‘]’.

     Note that these are not regular expressions.  Unlike a regular
     expression there is no way to match one or more characters within a
     range.

     Character classes may be used if your system's glob(3) and
     fnmatch(3) functions support them.  However, because the ‘:’
     character has special meaning in sudoers, it must be escaped.  For
     example:

         /bin/ls [[\:alpha\:]]*

     Would match any file name beginning with a letter.

     Note that a forward slash (‘/’) will not be matched by wildcards
     used in the file name portion of the command.  This is to make a
     path like:

         /usr/bin/*

     match /usr/bin/who but not /usr/bin/X11/xterm.

     When matching the command line arguments, however, a slash does get
     matched by wildcards since command line arguments may contain
     arbitrary strings and not just path names.

     Wildcards in command line arguments should be used with care.
     Command line arguments are matched as a single, concatenated
     string.  This mean a wildcard character such as ‘?’ or ‘*’ will
     match across word boundaries, which may be unexpected.  For
     example, while a sudoers entry like:

         %operator ALL = /bin/cat /var/log/messages*

     will allow command like:

         $ sudo cat /var/log/messages.1

     It will also allow:

         $ sudo cat /var/log/messages /etc/shadow

     which is probably not what was intended.  In most cases it is
     better to do command line processing outside of the sudoers file in
     a scripting language.

   Exceptions to wildcard rules
     The following exceptions apply to the above rules:

     ""        If the empty string "" is the only command line argument
               in the sudoers file entry it means that command is not
               allowed to be run with any arguments.

     sudoedit  Command line arguments to the sudoedit built-in command
               should always be path names, so a forward slash (‘/’)
               will not be matched by a wildcard.

   Including other files from within sudoers
     It is possible to include other sudoers files from within the
     sudoers file currently being parsed using the @include and
     @includedir directives.  For compatibility with sudo versions prior
     to 1.9.1, #include and #includedir are also accepted.

     An include file can be used, for example, to keep a site-wide
     sudoers file in addition to a local, per-machine file.  For the
     sake of this example the site-wide sudoers file will be
     /etc/sudoers and the per-machine one will be /etc/sudoers.local.
     To include /etc/sudoers.local from within /etc/sudoers one would
     use the following line in /etc/sudoers:

         @include /etc/sudoers.local

     When sudo reaches this line it will suspend processing of the
     current file (/etc/sudoers) and switch to /etc/sudoers.local.  Upon
     reaching the end of /etc/sudoers.local, the rest of /etc/sudoers
     will be processed.  Files that are included may themselves include
     other files.  A hard limit of 128 nested include files is enforced
     to prevent include file loops.

     The path to the include file may contain white space if it is
     escaped with a backslash (‘\’).  Alternately, the entire path may
     be enclosed in double quotes (""), in which case no escaping is
     necessary.  To include a literal backslash in the path, ‘\\’ should
     be used.

     If the path to the include file is not fully-qualified (does not
     begin with a ‘/’), it must be located in the same directory as the
     sudoers file it was included from.  For example, if /etc/sudoers
     contains the line:

         @include sudoers.local

     the file that will be included is /etc/sudoers.local.

     The file name may also include the %h escape, signifying the short
     form of the host name.  In other words, if the machine's host name
     is “xerxes”, then

         @include /etc/sudoers.%h

     will cause sudo to include the file /etc/sudoers.xerxes.

     The @includedir directive can be used to create a sudoers.d
     directory that the system package manager can drop sudoers file
     rules into as part of package installation.  For example, given:

         @includedir /etc/sudoers.d

     sudo will suspend processing of the current file and read each file
     in /etc/sudoers.d, skipping file names that end in ‘~’ or contain a
     ‘.’ character to avoid causing problems with package manager or
     editor temporary/backup files.  Files are parsed in sorted lexical
     order.  That is, /etc/sudoers.d/01_first will be parsed before
     /etc/sudoers.d/10_second.  Be aware that because the sorting is
     lexical, not numeric, /etc/sudoers.d/1_whoops would be loaded after
     /etc/sudoers.d/10_second.  Using a consistent number of leading
     zeroes in the file names can be used to avoid such problems.  After
     parsing the files in the directory, control returns to the file
     that contained the @includedir directive.

     Note that unlike files included via @include, visudo will not edit
     the files in a @includedir directory unless one of them contains a
     syntax error.  It is still possible to run visudo with the -f flag
     to edit the files directly, but this will not catch the
     redefinition of an alias that is also present in a different file.

   Other special characters and reserved words
     The pound sign (‘#’) is used to indicate a comment (unless it is
     part of a #include directive or unless it occurs in the context of
     a user name and is followed by one or more digits, in which case it
     is treated as a user-ID).  Both the comment character and any text
     after it, up to the end of the line, are ignored.

     The reserved word ALL is a built-in alias that always causes a
     match to succeed.  It can be used wherever one might otherwise use
     a Cmnd_Alias, User_Alias, Runas_Alias, or Host_Alias.  Attempting
     to define an alias named ALL will result in a syntax error.  Please
     note that using ALL can be dangerous since in a command context, it
     allows the user to run any command on the system.

     The following option names permitted in an Option_Spec are also
     considered reserved words: CHROOT, TIMEOUT, CWD, NOTBEFORE and
     NOTAFTER.  Attempting to define an alias with the same name as one
     of the options will result in a syntax error.

     An exclamation point (‘!’) can be used as a logical not operator in
     a list or alias as well as in front of a Cmnd.  This allows one to
     exclude certain values.  For the ‘!’ operator to be effective,
     there must be something for it to exclude.  For example, to match
     all users except for root one would use:

         ALL,!root

     If the ALL, is omitted, as in:

         !root

     it would explicitly deny root but not match any other users.  This
     is different from a true “negation” operator.

     Note, however, that using a ‘!’ in conjunction with the built-in
     ALL alias to allow a user to run “all but a few” commands rarely
     works as intended (see SECURITY NOTES below).

     Long lines can be continued with a backslash (‘\’) as the last
     character on the line.

     White space between elements in a list as well as special syntactic
     characters in a User Specification (‘=’, ‘:’, ‘(’, ‘)’) is
     optional.

     The following characters must be escaped with a backslash (‘\’)
     when used as part of a word (e.g., a user name or host name): ‘!’,
     ‘=’, ‘:’, ‘,’, ‘(’, ‘)’, ‘\’.

SUDOERS OPTIONS         top

     sudo's behavior can be modified by Default_Entry lines, as
     explained earlier.  A list of all supported Defaults parameters,
     grouped by type, are listed below.

     Boolean Flags:

     always_query_group_plugin
                       If a group_plugin is configured, use it to
                       resolve groups of the form %group as long as
                       there is not also a system group of the same
                       name.  Normally, only groups of the form %:group
                       are passed to the group_plugin.  This flag is off
                       by default.

     always_set_home   If enabled, sudo will set the HOME environment
                       variable to the home directory of the target user
                       (which is the root user unless the -u option is
                       used).  This flag is largely obsolete and has no
                       effect unless the env_reset flag has been
                       disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list,
                       both of which are strongly discouraged.  This
                       flag is off by default.

     authenticate      If set, users must authenticate themselves via a
                       password (or other means of authentication)
                       before they may run commands.  This default may
                       be overridden via the PASSWD and NOPASSWD tags.
                       This flag is on by default.

     case_insensitive_group
                       If enabled, group names in sudoers will be
                       matched in a case insensitive manner.  This may
                       be necessary when users are stored in LDAP or AD.
                       This flag is on by default.

     case_insensitive_user
                       If enabled, user names in sudoers will be matched
                       in a case insensitive manner.  This may be
                       necessary when groups are stored in LDAP or AD.
                       This flag is on by default.

     closefrom_override
                       If set, the user may use the -C option which
                       overrides the default starting point at which
                       sudo begins closing open file descriptors.  This
                       flag is off by default.

     compress_io       If set, and sudo is configured to log a command's
                       input or output, the I/O logs will be compressed
                       using zlib.  This flag is on by default when sudo
                       is compiled with zlib support.

     exec_background   By default, sudo runs a command as the foreground
                       process as long as sudo itself is running in the
                       foreground.  When the exec_background flag is
                       enabled and the command is being run in a pseudo-
                       terminal (due to I/O logging or the use_pty
                       flag), the command will be run as a background
                       process.  Attempts to read from the controlling
                       terminal (or to change terminal settings) will
                       result in the command being suspended with the
                       SIGTTIN signal (or SIGTTOU in the case of
                       terminal settings).  If this happens when sudo is
                       a foreground process, the command will be granted
                       the controlling terminal and resumed in the
                       foreground with no user intervention required.
                       The advantage of initially running the command in
                       the background is that sudo need not read from
                       the terminal unless the command explicitly
                       requests it.  Otherwise, any terminal input must
                       be passed to the command, whether it has required
                       it or not (the kernel buffers terminals so it is
                       not possible to tell whether the command really
                       wants the input).  This is different from
                       historic sudo behavior or when the command is not
                       being run in a pseudo-terminal.

                       For this to work seamlessly, the operating system
                       must support the automatic restarting of system
                       calls.  Unfortunately, not all operating systems
                       do this by default, and even those that do may
                       have bugs.  For example, macOS fails to restart
                       the tcgetattr() and tcsetattr() system calls
                       (this is a bug in macOS).  Furthermore, because
                       this behavior depends on the command stopping
                       with the SIGTTIN or SIGTTOU signals, programs
                       that catch these signals and suspend themselves
                       with a different signal (usually SIGTOP) will not
                       be automatically foregrounded.  Some versions of
                       the linux su(1) command behave this way.  This
                       flag is off by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.7
                       or higher.  It has no effect unless I/O logging
                       is enabled or the use_pty flag is enabled.

     env_editor        If set, visudo will use the value of the
                       SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL or EDITOR environment
                       variables before falling back on the default
                       editor list.  Note that visudo is typically run
                       as root so this flag may allow a user with visudo
                       privileges to run arbitrary commands as root
                       without logging.  An alternative is to place a
                       colon-separated list of “safe” editors int the
                       editor variable.  visudo will then only use
                       SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL or EDITOR if they match a
                       value specified in editor.  If the env_reset flag
                       is enabled, the SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL and/or EDITOR
                       environment variables must be present in the
                       env_keep list for the env_editor flag to function
                       when visudo is invoked via sudo.  This flag is on
                       by default.

     env_reset         If set, sudo will run the command in a minimal
                       environment containing the TERM, PATH, HOME,
                       MAIL, SHELL, LOGNAME, USER and SUDO_* variables.
                       Any variables in the caller's environment or in
                       the file specified by the restricted_env_file
                       setting that match the env_keep and env_check
                       lists are then added, followed by any variables
                       present in the file specified by the env_file
                       setting (if any).  The contents of the env_keep
                       and env_check lists, as modified by global
                       Defaults parameters in sudoers, are displayed
                       when sudo is run by root with the -V option.  If
                       the secure_path setting is enabled, its value
                       will be used for the PATH environment variable.
                       This flag is on by default.

     fast_glob         Normally, sudo uses the glob(3) function to do
                       shell-style globbing when matching path names.
                       However, since it accesses the file system,
                       glob(3) can take a long time to complete for some
                       patterns, especially when the pattern references
                       a network file system that is mounted on demand
                       (auto mounted).  The fast_glob flag causes sudo
                       to use the fnmatch(3) function, which does not
                       access the file system to do its matching.  The
                       disadvantage of fast_glob is that it is unable to
                       match relative path names such as ./ls or
                       ../bin/ls.  This has security implications when
                       path names that include globbing characters are
                       used with the negation operator, ‘!’, as such
                       rules can be trivially bypassed.  As such, this
                       flag should not be used when the sudoers file
                       contains rules that contain negated path names
                       which include globbing characters.  This flag is
                       off by default.

     fqdn              Set this flag if you want to put fully qualified
                       host names in the sudoers file when the local
                       host name (as returned by the hostname command)
                       does not contain the domain name.  In other
                       words, instead of myhost you would use
                       myhost.mydomain.edu.  You may still use the short
                       form if you wish (and even mix the two).  This
                       flag is only effective when the “canonical” host
                       name, as returned by the getaddrinfo() or
                       gethostbyname() function, is a fully-qualified
                       domain name.  This is usually the case when the
                       system is configured to use DNS for host name
                       resolution.

                       If the system is configured to use the /etc/hosts
                       file in preference to DNS, the “canonical” host
                       name may not be fully-qualified.  The order that
                       sources are queried for host name resolution is
                       usually specified in the /etc/nsswitch.conf,
                       /etc/netsvc.conf, /etc/host.conf, or, in some
                       cases, /etc/resolv.conf file.  In the /etc/hosts
                       file, the first host name of the entry is
                       considered to be the “canonical” name; subsequent
                       names are aliases that are not used by sudoers.
                       For example, the following hosts file line for
                       the machine “xyzzy” has the fully-qualified
                       domain name as the “canonical” host name, and the
                       short version as an alias.

                             192.168.1.1 xyzzy.sudo.ws xyzzy

                       If the machine's hosts file entry is not
                       formatted properly, the fqdn flag will not be
                       effective if it is queried before DNS.

                       Beware that when using DNS for host name
                       resolution, turning on fqdn requires sudoers to
                       make DNS lookups which renders sudo unusable if
                       DNS stops working (for example if the machine is
                       disconnected from the network).  Also note that
                       just like with the hosts file, you must use the
                       “canonical” name as DNS knows it.  That is, you
                       may not use a host alias (CNAME entry) due to
                       performance issues and the fact that there is no
                       way to get all aliases from DNS.

                       This flag is off by default.

     ignore_audit_errors
                       Allow commands to be run even if sudoers cannot
                       write to the audit log.  If enabled, an audit log
                       write failure is not treated as a fatal error.
                       If disabled, a command may only be run after the
                       audit event is successfully written.  This flag
                       is only effective on systems for which sudoers
                       supports audit logging, including FreeBSD, Linux,
                       macOS and Solaris.  This flag is on by default.

     ignore_dot        If set, sudo will ignore "." or "" (both denoting
                       current directory) in the PATH environment
                       variable; the PATH itself is not modified.  This
                       flag is off by default.

     ignore_iolog_errors
                       Allow commands to be run even if sudoers cannot
                       write to the I/O log (local or remote).  If
                       enabled, an I/O log write failure is not treated
                       as a fatal error.  If disabled, the command will
                       be terminated if the I/O log cannot be written
                       to.  This flag is off by default.

     ignore_logfile_errors
                       Allow commands to be run even if sudoers cannot
                       write to the log file.  If enabled, a log file
                       write failure is not treated as a fatal error.
                       If disabled, a command may only be run after the
                       log file entry is successfully written.  This
                       flag only has an effect when sudoers is
                       configured to use file-based logging via the
                       logfile setting.  This flag is on by default.

     ignore_local_sudoers
                       If set via LDAP, parsing of /etc/sudoers will be
                       skipped.  This is intended for Enterprises that
                       wish to prevent the usage of local sudoers files
                       so that only LDAP is used.  This thwarts the
                       efforts of rogue operators who would attempt to
                       add roles to /etc/sudoers.  When this flag is
                       enabled, /etc/sudoers does not even need to
                       exist.  Since this flag tells sudo how to behave
                       when no specific LDAP entries have been matched,
                       this sudoOption is only meaningful for the
                       cn=defaults section.  This flag is off by
                       default.

     ignore_unknown_defaults
                       If set, sudo will not produce a warning if it
                       encounters an unknown Defaults entry in the
                       sudoers file or an unknown sudoOption in LDAP.
                       This flag is off by default.

     insults           If set, sudo will insult users when they enter an
                       incorrect password.  This flag is off by default.

     log_allowed       If set, sudoers will log commands allowed by the
                       policy to the system audit log (where supported)
                       as well as to syslog and/or a log file.  This
                       flag is on by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.29
                       or higher.

     log_denied        If set, sudoers will log commands denied by the
                       policy to the system audit log (where supported)
                       as well as to syslog and/or a log file.  This
                       flag is on by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.29
                       or higher.

     log_host          If set, the host name will be included in log
                       entries written to the file configured by the
                       logfile setting.  This flag is off by default.

     log_input         If set, sudo will run the command in a pseudo-
                       terminal and log all user input.  If the standard
                       input is not connected to the user's tty, due to
                       I/O redirection or because the command is part of
                       a pipeline, that input is also captured and
                       stored in a separate log file.  Anything sent to
                       the standard input will be consumed, regardless
                       of whether or not the command run via sudo is
                       actually reading the standard input.  This may
                       have unexpected results when using sudo in a
                       shell script that expects to process the standard
                       input.  For more information about I/O logging,
                       see the I/O LOG FILES section.  This flag is off
                       by default.

     log_output        If set, sudo will run the command in a pseudo-
                       terminal and log all output that is sent to the
                       screen, similar to the script(1) command.  For
                       more information about I/O logging, see the I/O
                       LOG FILES section.  This flag is off by default.

     log_server_keepalive
                       If set, sudo will enable the TCP keepalive socket
                       option on the connection to the log server.  This
                       enables the periodic transmission of keepalive
                       messages to the server.  If the server does not
                       respond to a message, the connection will be
                       closed and the running command will be terminated
                       unless the ignore_iolog_errors flag (I/O logging
                       enabled) or the ignore_log_errors flag (I/O
                       logging disabled) is set.  This flag is on by
                       default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

     log_server_verify
                       If set, the server certificate received during
                       the TLS handshake must be valid and it must
                       contain either the server name (from log_servers)
                       or its IP address.  If either of these conditions
                       is not met, the TLS handshake will fail.  This
                       flag is on by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

     log_year          If set, the four-digit year will be logged in the
                       (non-syslog) sudo log file.  This flag is off by
                       default.

     long_otp_prompt   When validating with a One Time Password (OTP)
                       scheme such as S/Key or OPIE, a two-line prompt
                       is used to make it easier to cut and paste the
                       challenge to a local window.  It's not as pretty
                       as the default but some people find it more
                       convenient.  This flag is off by default.

     mail_all_cmnds    Send mail to the mailto user every time a user
                       attempts to run a command via sudo (this includes
                       sudoedit).  No mail will be sent if the user runs
                       sudo with the -l or -v option unless there is an
                       authentication error and the mail_badpass flag is
                       also set.  This flag is off by default.

     mail_always       Send mail to the mailto user every time a user
                       runs sudo.  This flag is off by default.

     mail_badpass      Send mail to the mailto user if the user running
                       sudo does not enter the correct password.  If the
                       command the user is attempting to run is not
                       permitted by sudoers and one of the
                       mail_all_cmnds, mail_always, mail_no_host,
                       mail_no_perms or mail_no_user flags are set, this
                       flag will have no effect.  This flag is off by
                       default.

     mail_no_host      If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if
                       the invoking user exists in the sudoers file, but
                       is not allowed to run commands on the current
                       host.  This flag is off by default.

     mail_no_perms     If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if
                       the invoking user is allowed to use sudo but the
                       command they are trying is not listed in their
                       sudoers file entry or is explicitly denied.  This
                       flag is off by default.

     mail_no_user      If set, mail will be sent to the mailto user if
                       the invoking user is not in the sudoers file.
                       This flag is on by default.

     match_group_by_gid
                       By default, sudoers will look up each group the
                       user is a member of by group-ID to determine the
                       group name (this is only done once).  The
                       resulting list of the user's group names is used
                       when matching groups listed in the sudoers file.
                       This works well on systems where the number of
                       groups listed in the sudoers file is larger than
                       the number of groups a typical user belongs to.
                       On systems where group lookups are slow, where
                       users may belong to a large number of groups, and
                       where the number of groups listed in the sudoers
                       file is relatively small, it may be prohibitively
                       expensive and running commands via sudo may take
                       longer than normal.  On such systems it may be
                       faster to use the match_group_by_gid flag to
                       avoid resolving the user's group-IDs to group
                       names.  In this case, sudoers must look up any
                       group name listed in the sudoers file and use the
                       group-ID instead of the group name when
                       determining whether the user is a member of the
                       group.

                       Note that if match_group_by_gid is enabled, group
                       database lookups performed by sudoers will be
                       keyed by group name as opposed to group-ID.  On
                       systems where there are multiple sources for the
                       group database, it is possible to have
                       conflicting group names or group-IDs in the local
                       /etc/group file and the remote group database.
                       On such systems, enabling or disabling
                       match_group_by_gid can be used to choose whether
                       group database queries are performed by name
                       (enabled) or ID (disabled), which may aid in
                       working around group entry conflicts.

                       The match_group_by_gid flag has no effect when
                       sudoers data is stored in LDAP.  This flag is off
                       by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.18
                       or higher.

     netgroup_tuple    If set, netgroup lookups will be performed using
                       the full netgroup tuple: host name, user name and
                       domain (if one is set).  Historically, sudo only
                       matched the user name and domain for netgroups
                       used in a User_List and only matched the host
                       name and domain for netgroups used in a
                       Host_List.  This flag is off by default.

     noexec            If set, all commands run via sudo will behave as
                       if the NOEXEC tag has been set, unless overridden
                       by an EXEC tag.  See the description of EXEC and
                       NOEXEC above as well as the Preventing shell
                       escapes section at the end of this manual.  This
                       flag is off by default.

     pam_acct_mgmt     On systems that use PAM for authentication, sudo
                       will perform PAM account validation for the
                       invoking user by default.  The actual checks
                       performed depend on which PAM modules are
                       configured.  If enabled, account validation will
                       be performed regardless of whether or not a
                       password is required.  This flag is on by
                       default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.28
                       or higher.

     pam_rhost         On systems that use PAM for authentication, sudo
                       will set the PAM remote host value to the name of
                       the local host when the pam_rhost flag is
                       enabled.  On Linux systems, enabling pam_rhost
                       may result in DNS lookups of the local host name
                       when PAM is initialized.  On Solaris versions
                       prior to Solaris 8, pam_rhost must be enabled if
                       pam_ruser is also enabled to avoid a crash in the
                       Solaris PAM implementation.

                       This flag is off by default on systems other than
                       Solaris.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

     pam_ruser         On systems that use PAM for authentication, sudo
                       will set the PAM remote user value to the name of
                       the user that invoked sudo when the pam_ruser
                       flag is enabled.  This flag is on by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

     pam_session       On systems that use PAM for authentication, sudo
                       will create a new PAM session for the command to
                       be run in.  Unless sudo is given the -i or -s
                       options, PAM session modules are run with the
                       “silent” flag enabled.  This prevents last login
                       information from being displayed for every
                       command on some systems.  Disabling pam_session
                       may be needed on older PAM implementations or on
                       operating systems where opening a PAM session
                       changes the utmp or wtmp files.  If PAM session
                       support is disabled, resource limits may not be
                       updated for the command being run.  If
                       pam_session, pam_setcred, and use_pty are
                       disabled, log_servers has not been set and I/O
                       logging has not been configured, sudo will
                       execute the command directly instead of running
                       it as a child process.  This flag is on by
                       default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.7
                       or higher.

     pam_setcred       On systems that use PAM for authentication, sudo
                       will attempt to establish credentials for the
                       target user by default, if supported by the
                       underlying authentication system.  One example of
                       a credential is a Kerberos ticket.  If
                       pam_session, pam_setcred, and use_pty are
                       disabled, log_servers has not been set and I/O
                       logging has not been configured, sudo will
                       execute the command directly instead of running
                       it as a child process.  This flag is on by
                       default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.8
                       or higher.

     passprompt_override
                       If set, the prompt specified by passprompt or the
                       SUDO_PROMPT environment variable will always be
                       used and will replace the prompt provided by a
                       PAM module or other authentication method.  This
                       flag is off by default.

     path_info         Normally, sudo will tell the user when a command
                       could not be found in their PATH environment
                       variable.  Some sites may wish to disable this as
                       it could be used to gather information on the
                       location of executables that the normal user does
                       not have access to.  The disadvantage is that if
                       the executable is simply not in the user's PATH,
                       sudo will tell the user that they are not allowed
                       to run it, which can be confusing.  This flag is
                       on by default.

     preserve_groups   By default, sudo will initialize the group vector
                       to the list of groups the target user is in.
                       When preserve_groups is set, the user's existing
                       group vector is left unaltered.  The real and
                       effective group-IDs, however, are still set to
                       match the target user.  This flag is off by
                       default.

     pwfeedback        By default, sudo reads the password like most
                       other Unix programs, by turning off echo until
                       the user hits the return (or enter) key.  Some
                       users become confused by this as it appears to
                       them that sudo has hung at this point.  When
                       pwfeedback is set, sudo will provide visual
                       feedback when the user presses a key.  Note that
                       this does have a security impact as an onlooker
                       may be able to determine the length of the
                       password being entered.  This flag is off by
                       default.

     requiretty        If set, sudo will only run when the user is
                       logged in to a real tty.  When this flag is set,
                       sudo can only be run from a login session and not
                       via other means such as cron(8) or cgi-bin
                       scripts.  This flag is off by default.

     root_sudo         If set, root is allowed to run sudo too.
                       Disabling this prevents users from “chaining”
                       sudo commands to get a root shell by doing
                       something like “sudo sudo /bin/sh”.  Note,
                       however, that turning off root_sudo will also
                       prevent root from running sudoedit.  Disabling
                       root_sudo provides no real additional security;
                       it exists purely for historical reasons.  This
                       flag is on by default.

     rootpw            If set, sudo will prompt for the root password
                       instead of the password of the invoking user when
                       running a command or editing a file.  This flag
                       is off by default.

     runas_allow_unknown_id
                       If enabled, allow matching of runas user and
                       group IDs that are not present in the password or
                       group databases.  In addition to explicitly
                       matching unknown user or group IDs in a
                       Runas_List, this option also allows the ALL alias
                       to match unknown IDs.  This flag is off by
                       default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.30
                       or higher.  Older versions of sudo always allowed
                       matching of unknown user and group IDs.

     runas_check_shell
                       If enabled, sudo will only run commands as a user
                       whose shell appears in the /etc/shells file, even
                       if the invoking user's Runas_List would otherwise
                       permit it.  If no /etc/shells file is present, a
                       system-dependent list of built-in default shells
                       is used.  On many operating systems, system users
                       such as “bin”, do not have a valid shell and this
                       flag can be used to prevent commands from being
                       run as those users.  This flag is off by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.30
                       or higher.

     runaspw           If set, sudo will prompt for the password of the
                       user defined by the runas_default option
                       (defaults to root) instead of the password of the
                       invoking user when running a command or editing a
                       file.  This flag is off by default.

     set_home          If enabled and sudo is invoked with the -s
                       option, the HOME environment variable will be set
                       to the home directory of the target user (which
                       is the root user unless the -u option is used).
                       This flag is largely obsolete and has no effect
                       unless the env_reset flag has been disabled or
                       HOME is present in the env_keep list, both of
                       which are strongly discouraged.  This flag is off
                       by default.

     set_logname       Normally, sudo will set the LOGNAME and USER
                       environment variables to the name of the target
                       user (usually root unless the -u option is
                       given).  However, since some programs (including
                       the RCS revision control system) use LOGNAME to
                       determine the real identity of the user, it may
                       be desirable to change this behavior.  This can
                       be done by negating the set_logname option.  Note
                       that set_logname will have no effect if the
                       env_reset option has not been disabled and the
                       env_keep list contains LOGNAME or USER.  This
                       flag is on by default.

     set_utmp          When enabled, sudo will create an entry in the
                       utmp (or utmpx) file when a pseudo-terminal is
                       allocated.  A pseudo-terminal is allocated by
                       sudo when it is running in a terminal and one or
                       more of the log_input, log_output or use_pty
                       flags is enabled.  By default, the new entry will
                       be a copy of the user's existing utmp entry (if
                       any), with the tty, time, type and pid fields
                       updated.  This flag is on by default.

     setenv            Allow the user to disable the env_reset option
                       from the command line via the -E option.
                       Additionally, environment variables set via the
                       command line are not subject to the restrictions
                       imposed by env_check, env_delete, or env_keep.
                       As such, only trusted users should be allowed to
                       set variables in this manner.  This flag is off
                       by default.

     shell_noargs      If set and sudo is invoked with no arguments it
                       acts as if the -s option had been given.  That
                       is, it runs a shell as root (the shell is
                       determined by the SHELL environment variable if
                       it is set, falling back on the shell listed in
                       the invoking user's /etc/passwd entry if not).
                       This flag is off by default.

     stay_setuid       Normally, when sudo executes a command the real
                       and effective UIDs are set to the target user
                       (root by default).  This option changes that
                       behavior such that the real UID is left as the
                       invoking user's UID.  In other words, this makes
                       sudo act as a set-user-ID wrapper.  This can be
                       useful on systems that disable some potentially
                       dangerous functionality when a program is run
                       set-user-ID.  This option is only effective on
                       systems that support either the setreuid(2) or
                       setresuid(2) system call.  This flag is off by
                       default.

     sudoedit_checkdir
                       If set, sudoedit will check all directory
                       components of the path to be edited for
                       writability by the invoking user.  Symbolic links
                       will not be followed in writable directories and
                       sudoedit will refuse to edit a file located in a
                       writable directory.  These restrictions are not
                       enforced when sudoedit is run by root.  On some
                       systems, if all directory components of the path
                       to be edited are not readable by the target user,
                       sudoedit will be unable to edit the file.  This
                       flag is on by default.

                       This setting was first introduced in version
                       1.8.15 but initially suffered from a race
                       condition.  The check for symbolic links in
                       writable intermediate directories was added in
                       version 1.8.16.

     sudoedit_follow   By default, sudoedit will not follow symbolic
                       links when opening files.  The sudoedit_follow
                       option can be enabled to allow sudoedit to open
                       symbolic links.  It may be overridden on a per-
                       command basis by the FOLLOW and NOFOLLOW tags.
                       This flag is off by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.15
                       or higher.

     syslog_pid        When logging via syslog(3), include the process
                       ID in the log entry.  This flag is off by
                       default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.21
                       or higher.

     targetpw          If set, sudo will prompt for the password of the
                       user specified by the -u option (defaults to
                       root) instead of the password of the invoking
                       user when running a command or editing a file.
                       Note that this flag precludes the use of a user-
                       ID not listed in the passwd database as an
                       argument to the -u option.  This flag is off by
                       default.

     tty_tickets       If set, users must authenticate on a per-tty
                       basis.  With this flag enabled, sudo will use a
                       separate record in the time stamp file for each
                       terminal.  If disabled, a single record is used
                       for all login sessions.

                       This option has been superseded by the
                       timestamp_type option.

     umask_override    If set, sudo will set the umask as specified in
                       the sudoers file without modification.  This
                       makes it possible to specify a umask in the
                       sudoers file that is more permissive than the
                       user's own umask and matches historical behavior.
                       If umask_override is not set, sudo will set the
                       umask to be the union of the user's umask and
                       what is specified in sudoers.  This flag is off
                       by default.

     use_netgroups     If set, netgroups (prefixed with ‘+’), may be
                       used in place of a user or host.  For LDAP-based
                       sudoers, netgroup support requires an expensive
                       sub-string match on the server unless the
                       NETGROUP_BASE directive is present in the
                       /etc/ldap.conf file.  If netgroups are not
                       needed, this option can be disabled to reduce the
                       load on the LDAP server.  This flag is on by
                       default.

     use_pty           If set, and sudo is running in a terminal, the
                       command will be run in a pseudo-terminal (even if
                       no I/O logging is being done).  If the sudo
                       process is not attached to a terminal, use_pty
                       has no effect.

                       A malicious program run under sudo may be capable
                       of injecting commands into the user's terminal or
                       running a background process that retains access
                       to the user's terminal device even after the main
                       program has finished executing.  By running the
                       command in a separate pseudo-terminal, this
                       attack is no longer possible.  This flag is off
                       by default.

     user_command_timeouts
                       If set, the user may specify a timeout on the
                       command line.  If the timeout expires before the
                       command has exited, the command will be
                       terminated.  If a timeout is specified both in
                       the sudoers file and on the command line, the
                       smaller of the two timeouts will be used.  See
                       the Timeout_Spec section for a description of the
                       timeout syntax.  This flag is off by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.20
                       or higher.

     utmp_runas        If set, sudo will store the name of the runas
                       user when updating the utmp (or utmpx) file.  By
                       default, sudo stores the name of the invoking
                       user.  This flag is off by default.

     visiblepw         By default, sudo will refuse to run if the user
                       must enter a password but it is not possible to
                       disable echo on the terminal.  If the visiblepw
                       flag is set, sudo will prompt for a password even
                       when it would be visible on the screen.  This
                       makes it possible to run things like “ssh
                       somehost sudo ls” since by default, ssh(1) does
                       not allocate a tty when running a command.  This
                       flag is off by default.

     Integers:

     closefrom         Before it executes a command, sudo will close all
                       open file descriptors other than standard input,
                       standard output and standard error (ie: file
                       descriptors 0-2).  The closefrom option can be
                       used to specify a different file descriptor at
                       which to start closing.  The default is 3.

     command_timeout   The maximum amount of time a command is allowed
                       to run before it is terminated.  See the
                       Timeout_Spec section for a description of the
                       timeout syntax.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.20
                       or higher.

     log_server_timeout
                       The maximum amount of time to wait when
                       connecting to a log server or waiting for a
                       server response.  See the Timeout_Spec section
                       for a description of the timeout syntax.  The
                       default value is 30 seconds.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

     maxseq            The maximum sequence number that will be
                       substituted for the “%{seq}” escape in the I/O
                       log file (see the iolog_dir description below for
                       more information).  While the value substituted
                       for “%{seq}” is in base 36, maxseq itself should
                       be expressed in decimal.  Values larger than
                       2176782336 (which corresponds to the base 36
                       sequence number “ZZZZZZ”) will be silently
                       truncated to 2176782336.  The default value is
                       2176782336.

                       Once the local sequence number reaches the value
                       of maxseq, it will “roll over” to zero, after
                       which sudoers will truncate and re-use any
                       existing I/O log path names.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.7
                       or higher.

     passwd_tries      The number of tries a user gets to enter his/her
                       password before sudo logs the failure and exits.
                       The default is 3.

     syslog_maxlen     On many systems, syslog(3) has a relatively small
                       log buffer.  IETF RFC 5424 states that syslog
                       servers must support messages of at least 480
                       bytes and should support messages up to 2048
                       bytes.  By default, sudoers creates log messages
                       up to 980 bytes which corresponds to the historic
                       BSD syslog implementation which used a 1024 byte
                       buffer to store the message, date, hostname and
                       program name.  To prevent syslog messages from
                       being truncated, sudoers will split up log
                       messages that are larger than syslog_maxlen
                       bytes.  When a message is split, additional parts
                       will include the string “(command continued)”
                       after the user name and before the continued
                       command line arguments.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.19
                       or higher.

     Integers that can be used in a boolean context:

     loglinelen        Number of characters per line for the file log.
                       This value is used to decide when to wrap lines
                       for nicer log files.  This has no effect on the
                       syslog log file, only the file log.  The default
                       is 80 (use 0 or negate the option to disable word
                       wrap).

     passwd_timeout    Number of minutes before the sudo password prompt
                       times out, or 0 for no timeout.  The timeout may
                       include a fractional component if minute
                       granularity is insufficient, for example 2.5.
                       The default is 5.

     timestamp_timeout
                       Number of minutes that can elapse before sudo
                       will ask for a passwd again.  The timeout may
                       include a fractional component if minute
                       granularity is insufficient, for example 2.5.
                       The default is 5.  Set this to 0 to always prompt
                       for a password.  If set to a value less than 0
                       the user's time stamp will not expire until the
                       system is rebooted.  This can be used to allow
                       users to create or delete their own time stamps
                       via “sudo -v” and “sudo -k” respectively.

     umask             File mode creation mask to use when running the
                       command.  Negate this option or set it to 0777 to
                       prevent sudoers from changing the umask.  Unless
                       the umask_override flag is set, the actual umask
                       will be the union of the user's umask and the
                       value of the umask setting, which defaults to
                       0022.  This guarantees that sudo never lowers the
                       umask when running a command.

                       If umask is explicitly set in sudoers, it will
                       override any umask setting in PAM or login.conf.
                       If umask is not set in sudoers, the umask
                       specified by PAM or login.conf will take
                       precedence.  The umask setting in PAM is not used
                       for sudoedit, which does not create a new PAM
                       session.

     Strings:

     authfail_message  Message that is displayed after a user fails to
                       authenticate.  The message may include the ‘%d’
                       escape which will expand to the number of failed
                       password attempts.  If set, it overrides the
                       default message, %d incorrect password
                       attempt(s).

     badpass_message   Message that is displayed if a user enters an
                       incorrect password.  The default is Sorry, try
                       again. unless insults are enabled.

     editor            A colon (‘:’) separated list of editors path
                       names used by sudoedit and visudo.  For sudoedit,
                       this list is used to find an editor when none of
                       the SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL or EDITOR environment
                       variables are set to an editor that exists and is
                       executable.  For visudo, it is used as a white
                       list of allowed editors; visudo will choose the
                       editor that matches the user's SUDO_EDITOR,
                       VISUAL or EDITOR environment variable if
                       possible, or the first editor in the list that
                       exists and is executable if not.  Unless invoked
                       as sudoedit, sudo does not preserve the
                       SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL or EDITOR environment
                       variables unless they are present in the env_keep
                       list or the env_reset option is disabled.  The
                       default is vi.

     iolog_dir         The top-level directory to use when constructing
                       the path name for the input/output log directory.
                       Only used if the log_input or log_output options
                       are enabled or when the LOG_INPUT or LOG_OUTPUT
                       tags are present for a command.  The session
                       sequence number, if any, is stored in the
                       directory.  The default is /var/log/sudo-io.

                       The following percent (‘%’) escape sequences are
                       supported:

                       %{seq}
                             expanded to a monotonically increasing
                             base-36 sequence number, such as 0100A5,
                             where every two digits are used to form a
                             new directory, e.g., 01/00/A5

                       %{user}
                             expanded to the invoking user's login name

                       %{group}
                             expanded to the name of the invoking user's
                             real group-ID

                       %{runas_user}
                             expanded to the login name of the user the
                             command will be run as (e.g., root)

                       %{runas_group}
                             expanded to the group name of the user the
                             command will be run as (e.g., wheel)

                       %{hostname}
                             expanded to the local host name without the
                             domain name

                       %{command}
                             expanded to the base name of the command
                             being run

                       In addition, any escape sequences supported by
                       the system's strftime(3) function will be
                       expanded.

                       To include a literal ‘%’ character, the string
                       ‘%%’ should be used.

     iolog_file        The path name, relative to iolog_dir, in which to
                       store input/output logs when the log_input or
                       log_output options are enabled or when the
                       LOG_INPUT or LOG_OUTPUT tags are present for a
                       command.  Note that iolog_file may contain
                       directory components.  The default is “%{seq}”.

                       See the iolog_dir option above for a list of
                       supported percent (‘%’) escape sequences.

                       In addition to the escape sequences, path names
                       that end in six or more Xs will have the Xs
                       replaced with a unique combination of digits and
                       letters, similar to the mktemp(3) function.

                       If the path created by concatenating iolog_dir
                       and iolog_file already exists, the existing I/O
                       log file will be truncated and overwritten unless
                       iolog_file ends in six or more Xs.

     iolog_flush       If set, sudo will flush I/O log data to disk
                       after each write instead of buffering it.  This
                       makes it possible to view the logs in real-time
                       as the program is executing but may significantly
                       reduce the effectiveness of I/O log compression.
                       This flag is off by default.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.20
                       or higher.

     iolog_group       The group name to look up when setting the group-
                       ID on new I/O log files and directories.  If
                       iolog_group is not set, the primary group-ID of
                       the user specified by iolog_user is used.  If
                       neither iolog_group nor iolog_user are set, I/O
                       log files and directories are created with group-
                       ID 0.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.19
                       or higher.

     iolog_mode        The file mode to use when creating I/O log files.
                       Mode bits for read and write permissions for
                       owner, group or other are honored, everything
                       else is ignored.  The file permissions will
                       always include the owner read and write bits,
                       even if they are not present in the specified
                       mode.  When creating I/O log directories, search
                       (execute) bits are added to match the read and
                       write bits specified by iolog_mode.  Defaults to
                       0600 (read and write by user only).

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.19
                       or higher.

     iolog_user        The user name to look up when setting the user
                       and group-IDs on new I/O log files and
                       directories.  If iolog_group is set, it will be
                       used instead of the user's primary group-ID.  By
                       default, I/O log files and directories are
                       created with user and group-ID 0.

                       This setting can be useful when the I/O logs are
                       stored on a Network File System (NFS) share.
                       Having a dedicated user own the I/O log files
                       means that sudoers does not write to the log
                       files as user-ID 0, which is usually not
                       permitted by NFS.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.19
                       or higher.

     lecture_status_dir
                       The directory in which sudo stores per-user
                       lecture status files.  Once a user has received
                       the lecture, a zero-length file is created in
                       this directory so that sudo will not lecture the
                       user again.  This directory should not be cleared
                       when the system reboots.  The default is
                       /var/db/sudo/lectured.

     log_server_cabundle
                       The path to a certificate authority bundle file,
                       in PEM format, to use instead of the system's
                       default certificate authority database when
                       authenticating the log server.  The default is to
                       use the system's default certificate authority
                       database.  This setting has no effect unless
                       log_servers is set and the remote log server is
                       secured with TLS.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

     log_server_peer_cert
                       The path to the client's certificate file, in PEM
                       format.  This setting is required when
                       log_servers is set and the remote log server is
                       secured with TLS.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

     log_server_peer_key
                       The path to the client's private key file, in PEM
                       format.  This setting is required when
                       log_servers is set and the remote log server is
                       secured with TLS.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

     mailsub           Subject of the mail sent to the mailto user.  The
                       escape %h will expand to the host name of the
                       machine.  Default is “*** SECURITY information
                       for %h ***”.

     noexec_file       As of sudo version 1.8.1 this option is no longer
                       supported.  The path to the noexec file should
                       now be set in the sudo.conf(5) file.

     pam_login_service
                       On systems that use PAM for authentication, this
                       is the service name used when the -i option is
                       specified.  The default value is “sudo”.  See the
                       description of pam_service for more information.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.8
                       or higher.

     pam_service       On systems that use PAM for authentication, the
                       service name specifies the PAM policy to apply.
                       This usually corresponds to an entry in the
                       pam.conf file or a file in the /etc/pam.d
                       directory.  The default value is “sudo”.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.8
                       or higher.

     passprompt        The default prompt to use when asking for a
                       password; can be overridden via the -p option or
                       the SUDO_PROMPT environment variable.  The
                       following percent (‘%’) escape sequences are
                       supported:

                       %H    expanded to the local host name including
                             the domain name (only if the machine's host
                             name is fully qualified or the fqdn option
                             is set)

                       %h    expanded to the local host name without the
                             domain name

                       %p    expanded to the user whose password is
                             being asked for (respects the rootpw,
                             targetpw and runaspw flags in sudoers)

                       %U    expanded to the login name of the user the
                             command will be run as (defaults to root)

                       %u    expanded to the invoking user's login name

                       %%    two consecutive % characters are collapsed
                             into a single % character

                       On systems that use PAM for authentication,
                       passprompt will only be used if the prompt
                       provided by the PAM module matches the string
                       “Password: ” or “username's Password: ”.  This
                       ensures that the passprompt setting does not
                       interfere with challenge-response style
                       authentication.  The passprompt_override flag can
                       be used to change this behavior.

                       The default value is “Password: ”.

     runas_default     The default user to run commands as if the -u
                       option is not specified on the command line.
                       This defaults to root.

     sudoers_locale    Locale to use when parsing the sudoers file,
                       logging commands, and sending email.  Note that
                       changing the locale may affect how sudoers is
                       interpreted.  Defaults to “C”.

     timestamp_type    sudoers uses per-user time stamp files for
                       credential caching.  The timestamp_type option
                       can be used to specify the type of time stamp
                       record used.  It has the following possible
                       values:

                       global  A single time stamp record is used for
                               all of a user's login sessions,
                               regardless of the terminal or parent
                               process ID.  An additional record is used
                               to serialize password prompts when sudo
                               is used multiple times in a pipeline, but
                               this does not affect authentication.

                       ppid    A single time stamp record is used for
                               all processes with the same parent
                               process ID (usually the shell).  Commands
                               run from the same shell (or other common
                               parent process) will not require a
                               password for timestamp_timeout minutes (5
                               by default).  Commands run via sudo with
                               a different parent process ID, for
                               example from a shell script, will be
                               authenticated separately.

                       tty     One time stamp record is used for each
                               terminal, which means that a user's login
                               sessions are authenticated separately.
                               If no terminal is present, the behavior
                               is the same as ppid.  Commands run from
                               the same terminal will not require a
                               password for timestamp_timeout minutes (5
                               by default).

                       kernel  The time stamp is stored in the kernel as
                               an attribute of the terminal device.  If
                               no terminal is present, the behavior is
                               the same as ppid.  Negative
                               timestamp_timeout values are not
                               supported and positive values are limited
                               to a maximum of 60 minutes.  This is
                               currently only supported on OpenBSD.

                       The default value is tty.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.8.21
                       or higher.

     timestampdir      The directory in which sudo stores its time stamp
                       files.  This directory should be cleared when the
                       system reboots.  The default is /run/sudo/ts.

     timestampowner    The owner of the lecture status directory, time
                       stamp directory and all files stored therein.
                       The default is root.

     Strings that can be used in a boolean context:

     env_file      The env_file option specifies the fully qualified
                   path to a file containing variables to be set in the
                   environment of the program being run.  Entries in
                   this file should either be of the form
                   “VARIABLE=value” or “export VARIABLE=value”.  The
                   value may optionally be enclosed in single or double
                   quotes.  Variables in this file are only added if the
                   variable does not already exist in the environment.
                   This file is considered to be part of the security
                   policy, its contents are not subject to other sudo
                   environment restrictions such as env_keep and
                   env_check.

     exempt_group  Users in this group are exempt from password and PATH
                   requirements.  The group name specified should not
                   include a % prefix.  This is not set by default.

     fdexec        Determines whether sudo will execute a command by its
                   path or by an open file descriptor.  It has the
                   following possible values:

                   always  Always execute by file descriptor.

                   never   Never execute by file descriptor.

                   digest_only
                           Only execute by file descriptor if the
                           command has an associated digest in the
                           sudoers file.

                   The default value is digest_only.  This avoids a time
                   of check versus time of use race condition when the
                   command is located in a directory writable by the
                   invoking user.

                   Note that fdexec will change the first element of the
                   argument vector for scripts ($0 in the shell) due to
                   the way the kernel runs script interpreters.  Instead
                   of being a normal path, it will refer to a file
                   descriptor.  For example, /dev/fd/4 on Solaris and
                   /proc/self/fd/4 on Linux.  A workaround is to use the
                   SUDO_COMMAND environment variable instead.

                   The fdexec setting is only used when the command is
                   matched by path name.  It has no effect if the
                   command is matched by the built-in ALL alias.

                   This setting is only supported by version 1.8.20 or
                   higher.  If the operating system does not support the
                   fexecve(2) system call, this setting has no effect.

     group_plugin  A string containing a sudoers group plugin with
                   optional arguments.  The string should consist of the
                   plugin path, either fully-qualified or relative to
                   the /usr/local/libexec/sudo directory, followed by
                   any configuration arguments the plugin requires.
                   These arguments (if any) will be passed to the
                   plugin's initialization function.  If arguments are
                   present, the string must be enclosed in double quotes
                   ("").

                   For more information see GROUP PROVIDER PLUGINS.

     lecture       This option controls when a short lecture will be
                   printed along with the password prompt.  It has the
                   following possible values:

                   always  Always lecture the user.

                   never   Never lecture the user.

                   once    Only lecture the user the first time they run
                           sudo.

                   If no value is specified, a value of once is implied.
                   Negating the option results in a value of never being
                   used.  The default value is once.

     lecture_file  Path to a file containing an alternate sudo lecture
                   that will be used in place of the standard lecture if
                   the named file exists.  By default, sudo uses a
                   built-in lecture.

     listpw        This option controls when a password will be required
                   when a user runs sudo with the -l option.  It has the
                   following possible values:

                   all       All the user's sudoers file entries for the
                             current host must have the NOPASSWD flag
                             set to avoid entering a password.

                   always    The user must always enter a password to
                             use the -l option.

                   any       At least one of the user's sudoers file
                             entries for the current host must have the
                             NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a
                             password.

                   never     The user need never enter a password to use
                             the -l option.

                   If no value is specified, a value of any is implied.
                   Negating the option results in a value of never being
                   used.  The default value is any.

     log_format    The event log format.  Supported log formats are:

                   json      Logs in JSON format.  JSON log entries
                             contain the full user details as well as
                             the execution environment if the command
                             was allowed.  Due to limitations of the
                             protocol, JSON events sent via syslog may
                             be truncated.

                   sudo      Traditional sudo-style logs, see LOG FORMAT
                             for a description of the log file format.

                   This setting affects logs sent via syslog(3) as well
                   as the file specified by the logfile setting, if any.
                   The default value is sudo.

     logfile       Path to the sudo log file (not the syslog log file).
                   Setting a path turns on logging to a file; negating
                   this option turns it off.  By default, sudo logs via
                   syslog.

     mailerflags   Flags to use when invoking mailer.  Defaults to -t.

     mailerpath    Path to mail program used to send warning mail.
                   Defaults to the path to sendmail found at configure
                   time.

     mailfrom      Address to use for the “from” address when sending
                   warning and error mail.  The address should be
                   enclosed in double quotes ("") to protect against
                   sudo interpreting the @ sign.  Defaults to the name
                   of the user running sudo.

     mailto        Address to send warning and error mail to.  The
                   address should be enclosed in double quotes ("") to
                   protect against sudo interpreting the @ sign.
                   Defaults to root.

     restricted_env_file
                   The restricted_env_file option specifies the fully
                   qualified path to a file containing variables to be
                   set in the environment of the program being run.
                   Entries in this file should either be of the form
                   “VARIABLE=value” or “export VARIABLE=value”.  The
                   value may optionally be enclosed in single or double
                   quotes.  Variables in this file are only added if the
                   variable does not already exist in the environment.
                   Unlike env_file, the file's contents are not trusted
                   and are processed in a manner similar to that of the
                   invoking user's environment.  If env_reset is
                   enabled, variables in the file will only be added if
                   they are matched by either the env_check or env_keep
                   list.  If env_reset is disabled, variables in the
                   file are added as long as they are not matched by the
                   env_delete list.  In either case, the contents of
                   restricted_env_file are processed before the contents
                   of env_file.

     runchroot     If set, sudo will use this value for the root
                   directory when running a command.  The special value
                   “*” will allow the user to specify the root directory
                   via sudo's -R option.  See the Chroot_Spec section
                   for more details.

                   It is only possible to use runchroot as a command-
                   specific Defaults setting if the command exists with
                   the same path both inside and outside the chroot
                   jail.  This restriction does not apply to generic,
                   host or user-based Defaults settings or to a
                   Cmnd_Spec that includes a Chroot_Spec.

                   This setting is only supported by version 1.9.3 or
                   higher.

     runcwd        If set, sudo will use this value for the working
                   directory when running a command.  The special value
                   “*” will allow the user to specify the working
                   directory via sudo's -D option.  See the Chdir_Spec
                   section for more details.

                   This setting is only supported by version 1.9.3 or
                   higher.

     secure_path   If set, sudo will use this value in place of the
                   user's PATH environment variable.  This option can be
                   used to reset the PATH to a known good value that
                   contains directories for system administrator
                   commands such as /usr/sbin.

                   Users in the group specified by the exempt_group
                   option are not affected by secure_path.  This option
                   is not set by default.

     syslog        Syslog facility if syslog is being used for logging
                   (negate to disable syslog logging).  Defaults to
                   authpriv.

                   The following syslog facilities are supported:
                   authpriv (if your OS supports it), auth, daemon,
                   user, local0, local1, local2, local3, local4, local5,
                   local6, and local7.

     syslog_badpri
                   Syslog priority to use when the user is not allowed
                   to run a command or when authentication is
                   unsuccessful.  Defaults to alert.

                   The following syslog priorities are supported: alert,
                   crit, debug, emerg, err, info, notice, warning, and
                   none.  Negating the option or setting it to a value
                   of none will disable logging of unsuccessful
                   commands.

     syslog_goodpri
                   Syslog priority to use when the user is allowed to
                   run a command and authentication is successful.
                   Defaults to notice.

                   See syslog_badpri for the list of supported syslog
                   priorities.  Negating the option or setting it to a
                   value of none will disable logging of successful
                   commands.

     verifypw      This option controls when a password will be required
                   when a user runs sudo with the -v option.  It has the
                   following possible values:

                   all     All the user's sudoers file entries for the
                           current host must have the NOPASSWD flag set
                           to avoid entering a password.

                   always  The user must always enter a password to use
                           the -v option.

                   any     At least one of the user's sudoers file
                           entries for the current host must have the
                           NOPASSWD flag set to avoid entering a
                           password.

                   never   The user need never enter a password to use
                           the -v option.

                   If no value is specified, a value of all is implied.
                   Negating the option results in a value of never being
                   used.  The default value is all.

     Lists that can be used in a boolean context:

     env_check         Environment variables to be removed from the
                       user's environment unless they are considered
                       “safe”.  For all variables except TZ, “safe”
                       means that the variable's value does not contain
                       any ‘%’ or ‘/’ characters.  This can be used to
                       guard against printf-style format vulnerabilities
                       in poorly-written programs.  The TZ variable is
                       considered unsafe if any of the following are
                       true:

                       It consists of a fully-qualified path name,
                          optionally prefixed with a colon (‘:’), that
                          does not match the location of the zoneinfo
                          directory.

                       It contains a .. path element.

                       It contains white space or non-printable
                          characters.

                       It is longer than the value of PATH_MAX.

                       The argument may be a double-quoted, space-
                       separated list or a single value without double-
                       quotes.  The list can be replaced, added to,
                       deleted from, or disabled by using the =, +=, -=,
                       and ! operators respectively.  Regardless of
                       whether the env_reset option is enabled or
                       disabled, variables specified by env_check will
                       be preserved in the environment if they pass the
                       aforementioned check.  The global list of
                       environment variables to check is displayed when
                       sudo is run by root with the -V option.

     env_delete        Environment variables to be removed from the
                       user's environment when the env_reset option is
                       not in effect.  The argument may be a double-
                       quoted, space-separated list or a single value
                       without double-quotes.  The list can be replaced,
                       added to, deleted from, or disabled by using the
                       =, +=, -=, and ! operators respectively.  The
                       global list of environment variables to remove is
                       displayed when sudo is run by root with the -V
                       option.  Note that many operating systems will
                       remove potentially dangerous variables from the
                       environment of any set-user-ID process (such as
                       sudo).

     env_keep          Environment variables to be preserved in the
                       user's environment when the env_reset option is
                       in effect.  This allows fine-grained control over
                       the environment sudo-spawned processes will
                       receive.  The argument may be a double-quoted,
                       space-separated list or a single value without
                       double-quotes.  The list can be replaced, added
                       to, deleted from, or disabled by using the =, +=,
                       -=, and ! operators respectively.  The global
                       list of variables to keep is displayed when sudo
                       is run by root with the -V option.

                       Preserving the HOME environment variable has
                       security implications since many programs use it
                       when searching for configuration or data files.
                       Adding HOME to env_keep may enable a user to run
                       unrestricted commands via sudo and is strongly
                       discouraged.  Users wishing to edit files with
                       sudo should run sudoedit (or sudo -e) to get
                       their accustomed editor configuration instead of
                       invoking the editor directly.

     log_servers       A list of one or more servers to use for remote
                       event and I/O log storage, separated by white
                       space.  Log servers must be running sudo_logsrvd
                       or another service that implements the protocol
                       described by sudo_logsrv.proto(5).

                       Server addresses should be of the form
                       “host[:port][(tls)]”.  The host portion may be a
                       host name, an IPv4 address, or an IPv6 address in
                       square brackets.

                       If the optional tls flag is present, the
                       connection will be secured with Transport Layer
                       Security (TLS) version 1.2 or 1.3.  Versions of
                       TLS prior to 1.2 are not supported.

                       If a port is specified, it may either be a port
                       number or a well-known service name as defined by
                       the system service name database.  If no port is
                       specified, port 30343 will be used for plaintext
                       connections and port 30344 will be used for TLS
                       connections.

                       When log_servers is set, event log data will be
                       logged both locally (see the syslog and log_file
                       settings) as well as remotely, but I/O log data
                       will only be logged remotely.  If multiple hosts
                       are specified, they will be attempted in reverse
                       order.  If no log servers are available, the user
                       will not be able to run a command unless either
                       the ignore_iolog_errors flag (I/O logging
                       enabled) or the ignore_log_errors flag (I/O
                       logging disabled) is set.  Likewise, if the
                       connection to the log server is interrupted while
                       sudo is running, the command will be terminated
                       unless the ignore_iolog_errors flag (I/O logging
                       enabled) or the ignore_log_errors flag (I/O
                       logging disabled) is set.

                       This setting is only supported by version 1.9.0
                       or higher.

GROUP PROVIDER PLUGINS         top

     The sudoers plugin supports its own plugin interface to allow non-
     Unix group lookups which can query a group source other than the
     standard Unix group database.  This can be used to implement
     support for the nonunix_group syntax described earlier.

     Group provider plugins are specified via the group_plugin setting.
     The argument to group_plugin should consist of the plugin path,
     either fully-qualified or relative to the /usr/local/libexec/sudo
     directory, followed by any configuration options the plugin
     requires.  These options (if specified) will be passed to the
     plugin's initialization function.  If options are present, the
     string must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

     The following group provider plugins are installed by default:

     group_file
               The group_file plugin supports an alternate group file
               that uses the same syntax as the /etc/group file.  The
               path to the group file should be specified as an option
               to the plugin.  For example, if the group file to be used
               is /etc/sudo-group:

               Defaults group_plugin="group_file.so /etc/sudo-group"

     system_group
               The system_group plugin supports group lookups via the
               standard C library functions getgrnam() and getgrid().
               This plugin can be used in instances where the user
               belongs to groups not present in the user's supplemental
               group vector.  This plugin takes no options:

               Defaults group_plugin=system_group.so

     The group provider plugin API is described in detail in
     sudo_plugin(5).

LOG FORMAT         top

     sudoers can log events in either JSON or sudo format, this section
     describes the sudo log format.  Depending on sudoers configuration,
     sudoers can log events via syslog(3), to a local log file, or both.
     The log format is almost identical in both cases.

   Accepted command log entries
     Commands that sudo runs are logged using the following format
     (split into multiple lines for readability):

         date hostname progname: username : TTY=ttyname ; PWD=cwd ; \
             USER=runasuser ; GROUP=runasgroup ; TSID=logid ; \
             ENV=env_vars COMMAND=command

     Where the fields are as follows:

     date          The date the command was run.  Typically, this is in
                   the format “MMM, DD, HH:MM:SS”.  If logging via
                   syslog(3), the actual date format is controlled by
                   the syslog daemon.  If logging to a file and the
                   log_year option is enabled, the date will also
                   include the year.

     hostname      The name of the host sudo was run on.  This field is
                   only present when logging via syslog(3).

     progname      The name of the program, usually sudo or sudoedit.
                   This field is only present when logging via
                   syslog(3).

     username      The login name of the user who ran sudo.

     ttyname       The short name of the terminal (e.g., “console”,
                   “tty01”, or “pts/0”) sudo was run on, or “unknown” if
                   there was no terminal present.

     cwd           The current working directory that sudo was run in.

     runasuser     The user the command was run as.

     runasgroup    The group the command was run as if one was specified
                   on the command line.

     logid         An I/O log identifier that can be used to replay the
                   command's output.  This is only present when the
                   log_input or log_output option is enabled.

     env_vars      A list of environment variables specified on the
                   command line, if specified.

     command       The actual command that was executed.

     Messages are logged using the locale specified by sudoers_locale,
     which defaults to the “C” locale.

   Denied command log entries
     If the user is not allowed to run the command, the reason for the
     denial will follow the user name.  Possible reasons include:

     user NOT in sudoers
       The user is not listed in the sudoers file.

     user NOT authorized on host
       The user is listed in the sudoers file but is not allowed to run
       commands on the host.

     command not allowed
       The user is listed in the sudoers file for the host but they are
       not allowed to run the specified command.

     3 incorrect password attempts
       The user failed to enter their password after 3 tries.  The
       actual number of tries will vary based on the number of failed
       attempts and the value of the passwd_tries option.

     a password is required
       The -n option was specified but a password was required.

     sorry, you are not allowed to set the following environment
       variables
       The user specified environment variables on the command line that
       were not allowed by sudoers.

   Error log entries
     If an error occurs, sudoers will log a message and, in most cases,
     send a message to the administrator via email.  Possible errors
     include:

     parse error in /etc/sudoers near line N
       sudoers encountered an error when parsing the specified file.  In
       some cases, the actual error may be one line above or below the
       line number listed, depending on the type of error.

     problem with defaults entries
       The sudoers file contains one or more unknown Defaults settings.
       This does not prevent sudo from running, but the sudoers file
       should be checked using visudo.

     timestamp owner (username): No such user
       The time stamp directory owner, as specified by the
       timestampowner setting, could not be found in the password
       database.

     unable to open/read /etc/sudoers
       The sudoers file could not be opened for reading.  This can
       happen when the sudoers file is located on a remote file system
       that maps user-ID 0 to a different value.  Normally, sudoers
       tries to open the sudoers file using group permissions to avoid
       this problem.  Consider either changing the ownership of
       /etc/sudoers or adding an argument like “sudoers_uid=N” (where
       ‘N’ is the user-ID that owns the sudoers file) to the end of the
       sudoers Plugin line in the sudo.conf(5) file.

     unable to stat /etc/sudoers
       The /etc/sudoers file is missing.

     /etc/sudoers is not a regular file
       The /etc/sudoers file exists but is not a regular file or
       symbolic link.

     /etc/sudoers is owned by uid N, should be 0
       The sudoers file has the wrong owner.  If you wish to change the
       sudoers file owner, please add “sudoers_uid=N” (where ‘N’ is the
       user-ID that owns the sudoers file) to the sudoers Plugin line in
       the sudo.conf(5) file.

     /etc/sudoers is world writable
       The permissions on the sudoers file allow all users to write to
       it.  The sudoers file must not be world-writable, the default
       file mode is 0440 (readable by owner and group, writable by
       none).  The default mode may be changed via the “sudoers_mode”
       option to the sudoers Plugin line in the sudo.conf(5) file.

     /etc/sudoers is owned by gid N, should be 1
       The sudoers file has the wrong group ownership.  If you wish to
       change the sudoers file group ownership, please add
       “sudoers_gid=N” (where ‘N’ is the group-ID that owns the sudoers
       file) to the sudoers Plugin line in the sudo.conf(5) file.

     unable to open /run/sudo/ts/username
       sudoers was unable to read or create the user's time stamp file.
       This can happen when timestampowner is set to a user other than
       root and the mode on /run/sudo is not searchable by group or
       other.  The default mode for /run/sudo is 0711.

     unable to write to /run/sudo/ts/username
       sudoers was unable to write to the user's time stamp file.

     /run/sudo/ts is owned by uid X, should be Y
       The time stamp directory is owned by a user other than
       timestampowner.  This can occur when the value of timestampowner
       has been changed.  sudoers will ignore the time stamp directory
       until the owner is corrected.

     /run/sudo/ts is group writable
       The time stamp directory is group-writable; it should be writable
       only by timestampowner.  The default mode for the time stamp
       directory is 0700.  sudoers will ignore the time stamp directory
       until the mode is corrected.

   Notes on logging via syslog
     By default, sudoers logs messages via syslog(3).  The date,
     hostname, and progname fields are added by the system's syslog()
     function, not sudoers itself.  As such, they may vary in format on
     different systems.

     The maximum size of syslog messages varies from system to system.
     The syslog_maxlen setting can be used to change the maximum syslog
     message size from the default value of 980 bytes.  For more
     information, see the description of syslog_maxlen.

   Notes on logging to a file
     If the logfile option is set, sudoers will log to a local file,
     such as /var/log/sudo.  When logging to a file, sudoers uses a
     format similar to syslog(3), with a few important differences:

     1.   The progname and hostname fields are not present.

     2.   If the log_year option is enabled, the date will also include
          the year.

     3.   Lines that are longer than loglinelen characters (80 by
          default) are word-wrapped and continued on the next line with
          a four character indent.  This makes entries easier to read
          for a human being, but makes it more difficult to use grep(1)
          on the log files.  If the loglinelen option is set to 0 (or
          negated with a ‘!’), word wrap will be disabled.

I/O LOG FILES         top

     When I/O logging is enabled, sudo will run the command in a pseudo-
     terminal and log all user input and/or output, depending on which
     options are enabled.  I/O can be logged either to the local machine
     or to a remote log server.  For local logs, I/O is logged to the
     directory specified by the iolog_dir option (/var/log/sudo-io by
     default) using a unique session ID that is included in the sudo log
     line, prefixed with “TSID=”.  The iolog_file option may be used to
     control the format of the session ID.  For remote logs, the
     log_servers setting is used to specify one or more log servers
     running sudo_logsrvd or another server that implements the protocol
     described by sudo_logsrv.proto(5).

     For both local and remote I/O logs, each log is stored in a
     separate directory that contains the following files:

     log       A text file containing information about the command.
               The first line consists of the following colon-delimited
               fields: the time the command was run, the name of the
               user who ran sudo, the name of the target user, the name
               of the target group (optional), the terminal that sudo
               was run from, and the number of lines and columns of the
               terminal.  The second and third lines contain the working
               directory the command was run from and the path name of
               the command itself (with arguments if present).

     log.json  A JSON-formatted file containing information about the
               command.  This is similar to the log file but contains
               additional information and is easily extensible.  The
               log.json file will be used by sudoreplay(8) in preference
               to the log file if it exists.  The file may contain the
               following elements:

               timestamp
                         A JSON object containing time the command was
                         run.  It consists of two values, seconds and
                         nanoseconds.

               columns   The number of columns of the terminal the
                         command ran on, or zero if no terminal was
                         present.

               command   The fully-qualified path of the command that
                         was run.

               lines     The number of lines of the terminal the command
                         ran on, or zero if no terminal was present.

               runargv   A JSON array representing the command's
                         argument vector as passed to the execve(2)
                         system call.

               runenv    A JSON array representing the command's
                         environment as passed to the execve(2) system
                         call.

               rungid    The group ID the command ran as.  This element
                         is only present when the user specifies a group
                         on the command line.

               rungroup  The name of the group the command ran as.  This
                         element is only present when the user specifies
                         a group on the command line.

               runuid    The user ID the command ran as.

               runuser   The name of the user the command ran as.

               submitcwd
                         The current working directory at the time sudo
                         was run.

               submithost
                         The name of the host the command was run on.

               submituser
                         The name of the user who ran the command via
                         sudo.

               ttyname   The path name of the terminal the user invoked
                         sudo from.  If the command was run in a pseudo-
                         terminal, ttyname will be different from the
                         terminal the command actually ran in.

     timing    Timing information used to replay the session.  Each line
               consists of the I/O log entry type and amount of time
               since the last entry, followed by type-specific data.
               The I/O log entry types and their corresponding type-
               specific data are:

               0     standard input, number of bytes in the entry
               1     standard output, number of bytes in the entry
               2     standard error, number of bytes in the entry
               3     terminal input, number of bytes in the entry
               4     terminal output, number of bytes in the entry
               5     window change, new number lines and columns
               6     bug compatibility for sudo 1.8.7 terminal output
               7     command suspend or resume, signal received

     ttyin     Raw input from the user's terminal, exactly as it was
               received.  No post-processing is performed.  For manual
               viewing, you may wish to convert carriage return
               characters in the log to line feeds.  For example:
               ‘gunzip -c ttyin | tr "\r" "\n"’

     stdin     The standard input when no terminal is present, or input
               redirected from a pipe or file.

     ttyout    Output from the pseudo-terminal (what the command writes
               to the screen).  Note that terminal-specific post-
               processing is performed before the data is logged.  This
               means that, for example, line feeds are usually converted
               to line feed/carriage return pairs and tabs may be
               expanded to spaces.

     stdout    The standard output when no terminal is present, or
               output redirected to a pipe or file.

     stderr    The standard error redirected to a pipe or file.

     All files other than log are compressed in gzip format unless the
     compress_io flag has been disabled.  Due to buffering, it is not
     normally possible to display the I/O logs in real-time as the
     program is executing.  The I/O log data will not be complete until
     the program run by sudo has exited or has been terminated by a
     signal.  The iolog_flush flag can be used to disable buffering, in
     which case I/O log data is written to disk as soon as it is
     available.  The output portion of an I/O log file can be viewed
     with the sudoreplay(8) utility, which can also be used to list or
     search the available logs.

     Note that user input may contain sensitive information such as
     passwords (even if they are not echoed to the screen), which will
     be stored in the log file unencrypted.  In most cases, logging the
     command output via log_output or LOG_OUTPUT is all that is
     required.

     Since each session's I/O logs are stored in a separate directory,
     traditional log rotation utilities cannot be used to limit the
     number of I/O logs.  The simplest way to limit the number of I/O is
     by setting the maxseq option to the maximum number of logs you wish
     to store.  Once the I/O log sequence number reaches maxseq, it will
     be reset to zero and sudoers will truncate and re-use any existing
     I/O logs.

FILES         top

     /etc/sudo.conf            Sudo front end configuration

     /etc/sudoers              List of who can run what

     /etc/group                Local groups file

     /etc/netgroup             List of network groups

     /var/log/sudo-io          I/O log files

     /run/sudo/ts              Directory containing time stamps for the
                               sudoers security policy

     /var/db/sudo/lectured     Directory containing lecture status files
                               for the sudoers security policy

     /etc/environment          Initial environment for -i mode on AIX
                               and Linux systems

EXAMPLES         top

     Below are example sudoers file entries.  Admittedly, some of these
     are a bit contrived.  First, we allow a few environment variables
     to pass and then define our aliases:

     # Run X applications through sudo; HOME is used to find the
     # .Xauthority file.  Note that other programs use HOME to find
     # configuration files and this may lead to privilege escalation!
     Defaults env_keep += "DISPLAY HOME"

     # User alias specification
     User_Alias      FULLTIMERS = millert, mikef, dowdy
     User_Alias      PARTTIMERS = bostley, jwfox, crawl
     User_Alias      WEBADMIN = will, wendy, wim

     # Runas alias specification
     Runas_Alias     OP = root, operator
     Runas_Alias     DB = oracle, sybase
     Runas_Alias     ADMINGRP = adm, oper

     # Host alias specification
     Host_Alias      SPARC = bigtime, eclipse, moet, anchor :\
                     SGI = grolsch, dandelion, black :\
                     ALPHA = widget, thalamus, foobar :\
                     HPPA = boa, nag, python
     Host_Alias      CUNETS = 128.138.0.0/255.255.0.0
     Host_Alias      CSNETS = 128.138.243.0, 128.138.204.0/24, 128.138.242.0
     Host_Alias      SERVERS = primary, mail, www, ns
     Host_Alias      CDROM = orion, perseus, hercules

     # Cmnd alias specification
     Cmnd_Alias      DUMPS = /usr/bin/mt, /usr/sbin/dump, /usr/sbin/rdump,\
                             /usr/sbin/restore, /usr/sbin/rrestore,\
                             sha224:0GomF8mNN3wlDt1HD9XldjJ3SNgpFdbjO1+NsQ== \
                             /home/operator/bin/start_backups
     Cmnd_Alias      KILL = /usr/bin/kill
     Cmnd_Alias      PRINTING = /usr/sbin/lpc, /usr/bin/lprm
     Cmnd_Alias      SHUTDOWN = /usr/sbin/shutdown
     Cmnd_Alias      HALT = /usr/sbin/halt
     Cmnd_Alias      REBOOT = /usr/sbin/reboot
     Cmnd_Alias      SHELLS = /usr/bin/sh, /usr/bin/csh, /usr/bin/ksh,\
                              /usr/local/bin/tcsh, /usr/bin/rsh,\
                              /usr/local/bin/zsh
     Cmnd_Alias      SU = /usr/bin/su
     Cmnd_Alias      PAGERS = /usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/pg, /usr/bin/less

     Here we override some of the compiled in default values.  We want
     sudo to log via syslog(3) using the auth facility in all cases and
     for commands to be run with the target user's home directory as the
     working directory.  We don't want to subject the full time staff to
     the sudo lecture and we want to allow them to run commands in a
     chroot(2) “sandbox” via the -R option.  User millert need not
     provide a password and we don't want to reset the LOGNAME or USER
     environment variables when running commands as root.  Additionally,
     on the machines in the SERVERS Host_Alias, we keep an additional
     local log file and make sure we log the year in each log line since
     the log entries will be kept around for several years.  Lastly, we
     disable shell escapes for the commands in the PAGERS Cmnd_Alias
     (/usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/pg and /usr/bin/less).  Note that this
     will not effectively constrain users with sudo ALL privileges.

     # Override built-in defaults
     Defaults                syslog=auth,runcwd=~
     Defaults>root           !set_logname
     Defaults:FULLTIMERS     !lecture,runchroot=*
     Defaults:millert        !authenticate
     Defaults@SERVERS        log_year, logfile=/var/log/sudo.log
     Defaults!PAGERS         noexec

     The User specification is the part that actually determines who may
     run what.

     root            ALL = (ALL) ALL
     %wheel          ALL = (ALL) ALL

     We let root and any user in group wheel run any command on any host
     as any user.

     FULLTIMERS      ALL = NOPASSWD: ALL

     Full time sysadmins (millert, mikef, and dowdy) may run any command
     on any host without authenticating themselves.

     PARTTIMERS      ALL = ALL

     Part time sysadmins bostley, jwfox, and crawl) may run any command
     on any host but they must authenticate themselves first (since the
     entry lacks the NOPASSWD tag).

     jack            CSNETS = ALL

     The user jack may run any command on the machines in the CSNETS
     alias (the networks 128.138.243.0, 128.138.204.0, and
     128.138.242.0).  Of those networks, only 128.138.204.0 has an
     explicit netmask (in CIDR notation) indicating it is a class C
     network.  For the other networks in CSNETS, the local machine's
     netmask will be used during matching.

     lisa            CUNETS = ALL

     The user lisa may run any command on any host in the CUNETS alias
     (the class B network 128.138.0.0).

     operator        ALL = DUMPS, KILL, SHUTDOWN, HALT, REBOOT, PRINTING,\
                     sudoedit /etc/printcap, /usr/oper/bin/

     The operator user may run commands limited to simple maintenance.
     Here, those are commands related to backups, killing processes, the
     printing system, shutting down the system, and any commands in the
     directory /usr/oper/bin/.  Note that one command in the DUMPS
     Cmnd_Alias includes a sha224 digest,
     /home/operator/bin/start_backups.  This is because the directory
     containing the script is writable by the operator user.  If the
     script is modified (resulting in a digest mismatch) it will no
     longer be possible to run it via sudo.

     joe             ALL = /usr/bin/su operator

     The user joe may only su(1) to operator.

     pete            HPPA = /usr/bin/passwd [A-Za-z]*, !/usr/bin/passwd *root*

     %opers          ALL = (: ADMINGRP) /usr/sbin/

     Users in the opers group may run commands in /usr/sbin/ as
     themselves with any group in the ADMINGRP Runas_Alias (the adm and
     oper groups).

     The user pete is allowed to change anyone's password except for
     root on the HPPA machines.  Because command line arguments are
     matched as a single, concatenated string, the ‘*’ wildcard will
     match multiple words.  This example assumes that passwd(1) does not
     take multiple user names on the command line.  Note that on GNU
     systems, options to passwd(1) may be specified after the user
     argument.  As a result, this rule will also allow:

         passwd username --expire

     which may not be desirable.

     bob             SPARC = (OP) ALL : SGI = (OP) ALL

     The user bob may run anything on the SPARC and SGI machines as any
     user listed in the OP Runas_Alias (root and operator.)

     jim             +biglab = ALL

     The user jim may run any command on machines in the biglab
     netgroup.  sudo knows that “biglab” is a netgroup due to the ‘+’
     prefix.

     +secretaries    ALL = PRINTING, /usr/bin/adduser, /usr/bin/rmuser

     Users in the secretaries netgroup need to help manage the printers
     as well as add and remove users, so they are allowed to run those
     commands on all machines.

     fred            ALL = (DB) NOPASSWD: ALL

     The user fred can run commands as any user in the DB Runas_Alias
     (oracle or sybase) without giving a password.

     john            ALPHA = /usr/bin/su [!-]*, !/usr/bin/su *root*

     On the ALPHA machines, user john may su to anyone except root but
     he is not allowed to specify any options to the su(1) command.

     jen             ALL, !SERVERS = ALL

     The user jen may run any command on any machine except for those in
     the SERVERS Host_Alias (primary, mail, www and ns).

     jill            SERVERS = /usr/bin/, !SU, !SHELLS

     For any machine in the SERVERS Host_Alias, jill may run any
     commands in the directory /usr/bin/ except for those commands
     belonging to the SU and SHELLS Cmnd_Aliases.  While not
     specifically mentioned in the rule, the commands in the PAGERS
     Cmnd_Alias all reside in /usr/bin and have the noexec option set.

     steve           CSNETS = (operator) /usr/local/op_commands/

     The user steve may run any command in the directory
     /usr/local/op_commands/ but only as user operator.

     matt            valkyrie = KILL

     On his personal workstation, valkyrie, matt needs to be able to
     kill hung processes.

     WEBADMIN        www = (www) ALL, (root) /usr/bin/su www

     On the host www, any user in the WEBADMIN User_Alias (will, wendy,
     and wim), may run any command as user www (which owns the web
     pages) or simply su(1) to www.

     ALL             CDROM = NOPASSWD: /sbin/umount /CDROM,\
                     /sbin/mount -o nosuid\,nodev /dev/cd0a /CDROM

     Any user may mount or unmount a CD-ROM on the machines in the CDROM
     Host_Alias (orion, perseus, hercules) without entering a password.
     This is a bit tedious for users to type, so it is a prime candidate
     for encapsulating in a shell script.

SECURITY NOTES         top

   Limitations of the ‘!’ operator
     It is generally not effective to “subtract” commands from ALL using
     the ‘!’ operator.  A user can trivially circumvent this by copying
     the desired command to a different name and then executing that.
     For example:

     bill    ALL = ALL, !SU, !SHELLS

     Doesn't really prevent bill from running the commands listed in SU
     or SHELLS since he can simply copy those commands to a different
     name, or use a shell escape from an editor or other program.
     Therefore, these kind of restrictions should be considered advisory
     at best (and reinforced by policy).

     In general, if a user has sudo ALL there is nothing to prevent them
     from creating their own program that gives them a root shell (or
     making their own copy of a shell) regardless of any ‘!’ elements in
     the user specification.

   Security implications of fast_glob
     If the fast_glob option is in use, it is not possible to reliably
     negate commands where the path name includes globbing (aka
     wildcard) characters.  This is because the C library's fnmatch(3)
     function cannot resolve relative paths.  While this is typically
     only an inconvenience for rules that grant privileges, it can
     result in a security issue for rules that subtract or revoke
     privileges.

     For example, given the following sudoers file entry:

     john    ALL = /usr/bin/passwd [a-zA-Z0-9]*, /usr/bin/chsh [a-zA-Z0-9]*,\
                   /usr/bin/chfn [a-zA-Z0-9]*, !/usr/bin/* root

     User john can still run /usr/bin/passwd root if fast_glob is
     enabled by changing to /usr/bin and running ./passwd root instead.

   Preventing shell escapes
     Once sudo executes a program, that program is free to do whatever
     it pleases, including run other programs.  This can be a security
     issue since it is not uncommon for a program to allow shell
     escapes, which lets a user bypass sudo's access control and
     logging.  Common programs that permit shell escapes include shells
     (obviously), editors, paginators, mail and terminal programs.

     There are two basic approaches to this problem:

     restrict  Avoid giving users access to commands that allow the user
               to run arbitrary commands.  Many editors have a
               restricted mode where shell escapes are disabled, though
               sudoedit is a better solution to running editors via
               sudo.  Due to the large number of programs that offer
               shell escapes, restricting users to the set of programs
               that do not is often unworkable.

     noexec    Many systems that support shared libraries have the
               ability to override default library functions by pointing
               an environment variable (usually LD_PRELOAD) to an
               alternate shared library.  On such systems, sudo's noexec
               functionality can be used to prevent a program run by
               sudo from executing any other programs.  Note, however,
               that this applies only to dynamically-linked executables.
               Statically-linked executables and executables running
               under binary emulation are not affected.

               The noexec feature is known to work on SunOS, Solaris,
               *BSD, Linux, IRIX, Tru64 UNIX, macOS, HP-UX 11.x and AIX
               5.3 and above.  It should be supported on most operating
               systems that support the LD_PRELOAD environment variable.
               Check your operating system's manual pages for the
               dynamic linker (usually ld.so, ld.so.1, dyld, dld.sl,
               rld, or loader) to see if LD_PRELOAD is supported.

               On Solaris 10 and higher, noexec uses Solaris privileges
               instead of the LD_PRELOAD environment variable.

               To enable noexec for a command, use the NOEXEC tag as
               documented in the User Specification section above.  Here
               is that example again:

               aaron   shanty = NOEXEC: /usr/bin/more, /usr/bin/vi

               This allows user aaron to run /usr/bin/more and
               /usr/bin/vi with noexec enabled.  This will prevent those
               two commands from executing other commands (such as a
               shell).  If you are unsure whether or not your system is
               capable of supporting noexec you can always just try it
               out and check whether shell escapes work when noexec is
               enabled.

     Note that restricting shell escapes is not a panacea.  Programs
     running as root are still capable of many potentially hazardous
     operations (such as changing or overwriting files) that could lead
     to unintended privilege escalation.  In the specific case of an
     editor, a safer approach is to give the user permission to run
     sudoedit (see below).

   Secure editing
     The sudoers plugin includes sudoedit support which allows users to
     securely edit files with the editor of their choice.  As sudoedit
     is a built-in command, it must be specified in the sudoers file
     without a leading path.  However, it may take command line
     arguments just as a normal command does.  Wildcards used in
     sudoedit command line arguments are expected to be path names, so a
     forward slash (‘/’) will not be matched by a wildcard.

     Unlike other sudo commands, the editor is run with the permissions
     of the invoking user and with the environment unmodified.  More
     information may be found in the description of the -e option in
     sudo(8).

     For example, to allow user operator to edit the “message of the
     day” file:

           operator        sudoedit /etc/motd

     The operator user then runs sudoedit as follows:

           $ sudoedit /etc/motd

     The editor will run as the operator user, not root, on a temporary
     copy of /etc/motd.  After the file has been edited, /etc/motd will
     be updated with the contents of the temporary copy.

     Users should never be granted sudoedit permission to edit a file
     that resides in a directory the user has write access to, either
     directly or via a wildcard.  If the user has write access to the
     directory it is possible to replace the legitimate file with a link
     to another file, allowing the editing of arbitrary files.  To
     prevent this, starting with version 1.8.16, symbolic links will not
     be followed in writable directories and sudoedit will refuse to
     edit a file located in a writable directory unless the
     sudoedit_checkdir option has been disabled or the invoking user is
     root.  Additionally, in version 1.8.15 and higher, sudoedit will
     refuse to open a symbolic link unless either the sudoedit_follow
     option is enabled or the sudoedit command is prefixed with the
     FOLLOW tag in the sudoers file.

   Time stamp file checks
     sudoers will check the ownership of its time stamp directory
     (/run/sudo/ts by default) and ignore the directory's contents if it
     is not owned by root or if it is writable by a user other than
     root.  Older versions of sudo stored time stamp files in /tmp; this
     is no longer recommended as it may be possible for a user to create
     the time stamp themselves on systems that allow unprivileged users
     to change the ownership of files they create.

     While the time stamp directory should be cleared at reboot time,
     not all systems contain a /run or /var/run directory.  To avoid
     potential problems, sudoers will ignore time stamp files that date
     from before the machine booted on systems where the boot time is
     available.

     Some systems with graphical desktop environments allow unprivileged
     users to change the system clock.  Since sudoers relies on the
     system clock for time stamp validation, it may be possible on such
     systems for a user to run sudo for longer than timestamp_timeout by
     setting the clock back.  To combat this, sudoers uses a monotonic
     clock (which never moves backwards) for its time stamps if the
     system supports it.

     sudoers will not honor time stamps set far in the future.  Time
     stamps with a date greater than current_time + 2 * TIMEOUT will be
     ignored and sudoers will log and complain.

     If the timestamp_type option is set to “tty”, the time stamp record
     includes the device number of the terminal the user authenticated
     with.  This provides per-terminal granularity but time stamp
     records may still outlive the user's session.

     Unless the timestamp_type option is set to “global”, the time stamp
     record also includes the session ID of the process that last
     authenticated.  This prevents processes in different terminal
     sessions from using the same time stamp record.  On systems where a
     process's start time can be queried, the start time of the session
     leader is recorded in the time stamp record.  If no terminal is
     present or the timestamp_type option is set to “ppid”, the start
     time of the parent process is used instead.  In most cases this
     will prevent a time stamp record from being re-used without the
     user entering a password when logging out and back in again.

DEBUGGING         top

     Versions 1.8.4 and higher of the sudoers plugin support a flexible
     debugging framework that can help track down what the plugin is
     doing internally if there is a problem.  This can be configured in
     the sudo.conf(5) file.

     The sudoers plugin uses the same debug flag format as the sudo
     front-end: subsystem@priority.

     The priorities used by sudoers, in order of decreasing severity,
     are: crit, err, warn, notice, diag, info, trace and debug.  Each
     priority, when specified, also includes all priorities higher than
     it.  For example, a priority of notice would include debug messages
     logged at notice and higher.

     The following subsystems are used by the sudoers plugin:

     alias     User_Alias, Runas_Alias, Host_Alias and Cmnd_Alias
               processing

     all       matches every subsystem

     audit     BSM and Linux audit code

     auth      user authentication

     defaults  sudoers file Defaults settings

     env       environment handling

     ldap      LDAP-based sudoers

     logging   logging support

     match     matching of users, groups, hosts and netgroups in the
               sudoers file

     netif     network interface handling

     nss       network service switch handling in sudoers

     parser    sudoers file parsing

     perms     permission setting

     plugin    The equivalent of main for the plugin.

     pty       pseudo-terminal related code

     rbtree    redblack tree internals

     sssd      SSSD-based sudoers

     util      utility functions
     For example:

     Debug sudo /var/log/sudo_debug match@info,nss@info

     For more information, see the sudo.conf(5) manual.

SEE ALSO         top

     ssh(1), su(1), fnmatch(3), glob(3), mktemp(3), strftime(3),
     sudo.conf(5), sudo_plugin(5), sudoers.ldap(5),
     sudoers_timestamp(5), sudo(8), visudo(8)

AUTHORS         top

     Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version
     consists of code written primarily by:

           Todd C. Miller

     See the CONTRIBUTORS file in the sudo distribution
     (https://www.sudo.ws/contributors.html) for an exhaustive list of
     people who have contributed to sudo.

CAVEATS         top

     The sudoers file should always be edited by the visudo utility
     which locks the file and checks for syntax errors.  If sudoers
     contains syntax errors, sudo may refuse to run, which is a serious
     problem if sudo is your only method of obtaining superuser
     privileges.  Recent versions of sudoers will attempt to recover
     after a syntax error by ignoring the rest of the line after
     encountering an error.  Older versions of sudo will not run if
     sudoers contains a syntax error.

     When using netgroups of machines (as opposed to users), if you
     store fully qualified host name in the netgroup (as is usually the
     case), you either need to have the machine's host name be fully
     qualified as returned by the hostname command or use the fqdn
     option in sudoers.

BUGS         top

     If you feel you have found a bug in sudo, please submit a bug
     report at https://bugzilla.sudo.ws/

SUPPORT         top

     Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list,
     see https://www.sudo.ws/mailman/listinfo/sudo-users to subscribe or
     search the archives.

DISCLAIMER         top

     sudo is provided “AS IS” and any express or implied warranties,
     including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
     merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are
     disclaimed.  See the LICENSE file distributed with sudo or
     https://www.sudo.ws/license.html for complete details.

COLOPHON         top

     This page is part of the sudo (execute a command as another user)
     project.  Information about the project can be found at
     https://www.sudo.ws/.  If you have a bug report for this manual
     page, see ⟨https://bugzilla.sudo.ws/⟩.  This page was obtained from
     the project's upstream Git repository
     ⟨https://github.com/sudo-project/sudo⟩ on 2020-12-18.  (At that
     time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
     repository was 2020-12-15.)  If you discover any rendering problems
     in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better
     or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
     improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
     of the original manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

Sudo 1.9.4p1                December 11, 2020               Sudo 1.9.4p1

Pages that refer to this page: proc(5)