GIT(1)                           Git Manual                           GIT(1)

NAME         top

       git - the stupid content tracker

SYNOPSIS         top

       git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
           [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
           <command> [<args>]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
       unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
       and full access to internals.

       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a
       useful minimum set of commands. The Git User’s Manual[1] has a more
       in-depth introduction.

       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page
       to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
       individual Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual
       page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.

       A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can
       be viewed at .

OPTIONS         top

           Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.

           Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
           commands. If the option --all or -a is given then all available
           commands are printed. If a Git command is named this option will
           bring up the manual page for that command.

           Other options are available to control how the manual page is
           displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git
           --help ...  is converted internally into git help ....

       -C <path>
           Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the current
           working directory. When multiple -C options are given, each
           subsequent non-absolute -C <path> is interpreted relative to the
           preceding -C <path>.

           This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir
           and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names
           would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
           option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:

               git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status

       -c <name>=<value>
           Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given
           will override values from configuration files. The <name> is
           expected in the same format as listed by git config (subkeys
           separated by dots).

           Note that omitting the = in git -c ...  is allowed and
           sets to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would
           in a config file). Including the equals but with an empty value
           (like git -c ...) sets to the empty string which
           git config --type=bool will convert to false.

           Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
           also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
           variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting
           and then exit.

           Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git’s HTML
           documentation is installed and exit.

           Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version
           of Git and exit.

           Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of
           Git are installed and exit.

       -p, --paginate
           Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output
           is a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration
           options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).

       -P, --no-pager
           Do not pipe Git output into a pager.

           Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
           setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
           path or relative path to current working directory.

           Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
           path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
           controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and
           the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in
           git-config(1) for a more detailed discussion).

           Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
           Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.

           Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path
           from above a repository down to its root. One use is to give
           submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.

           Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
           is not set, it is set to the current working directory.

           Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
           git-replace(1) for more information.

           Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
           This is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS
           environment variable to 1.

           Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling
           globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic

           Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to
           setting the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.
           Enabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using
           pathspec magic ":(glob)"

           Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.

           Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
           equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to 0.

           List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental option
           and may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
           builtins, parseopt (builtin commands that use parse-options),
           main (all commands in libexec directory), others (all other
           commands in $PATH that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see
           categories in command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper
           commands), alias and config (retrieve command list from config
           variable completion.commands)

GIT COMMANDS         top

       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
       ("plumbing") commands.


       We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
       ancillary user utilities.

   Main porcelain commands
           Add file contents to the index.

           Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.

           Create an archive of files from a named tree.

           Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.

           List, create, or delete branches.

           Move objects and refs by archive.

           Switch branches or restore working tree files.

           Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.

           Graphical alternative to git-commit.

           Remove untracked files from the working tree.

           Clone a repository into a new directory.

           Record changes to the repository.

           Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref.

           Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.

           Download objects and refs from another repository.

           Prepare patches for e-mail submission.

           Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.

           Print lines matching a pattern.

           A portable graphical interface to Git.

           Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.

           Show commit logs.

           Join two or more development histories together.

           Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.

           Add or inspect object notes.

           Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local

           Update remote refs along with associated objects.

           Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch).

           Reapply commits on top of another base tip.

           Reset current HEAD to the specified state.

           Revert some existing commits.

           Remove files from the working tree and from the index.

           Summarize git log output.

           Show various types of objects.

           Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.

           Show the working tree status.

           Initialize, update or inspect submodules.

           Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.

           Manage multiple working trees.

           The Git repository browser.

   Ancillary Commands

           Get and set repository or global options.

           Git data exporter.

           Backend for fast Git data importers.

           Rewrite branches.

           Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.

           Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.

           Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

           Manage reflog information.

           Manage set of tracked repositories.

           Pack unpacked objects in a repository.

           Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.


           Annotate file lines with commit information.

           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.

           Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.

           Show changes using common diff tools.

           Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the

           Display help information about Git.

           Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

           Show three-way merge without touching index.

           Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.

           Show branches and their commits.

           Check the GPG signature of commits.

           Check the GPG signature of tags.

           Show logs with difference each commit introduces.

           Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).

   Interacting with Others
       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people
       via patch over e-mail.

           Import a GNU Arch repository into Git.

           Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.

           Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.

           A CVS server emulator for Git.

           Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.

           Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.

           Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.

           Generates a summary of pending changes.

           Send a collection of patches as emails.

           Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.


       Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
       are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains.
       Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about
       git-update-index(1) and git-read-tree(1).

       The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to
       these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than
       Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for
       scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand
       are subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.

       The following description divides the low-level commands into
       commands that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and
       working tree), commands that interrogate and compare objects, and
       commands that move objects and references between repositories.

   Manipulation commands
           Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.

           Copy files from the index to the working tree.

           Write and verify Git commit-graph files.

           Create a new commit object.

           Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.

           Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.

           Run a three-way file merge.

           Run a merge for files needing merging.

           Creates a tag object.

           Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.

           Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.

           Create a packed archive of objects.

           Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.

           Reads tree information into the index.

           Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.

           Unpack objects from a packed archive.

           Register file contents in the working tree to the index.

           Update the object name stored in a ref safely.

           Create a tree object from the current index.

   Interrogation commands
           Provide content or type and size information for repository

           Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.

           Compares files in the working tree and the index.

           Compare a tree to the working tree or index.

           Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree

           Output information on each ref.

           Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.

           Show information about files in the index and the working tree.

           List references in a remote repository.

           List the contents of a tree object.

           Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.

           Find symbolic names for given revs.

           Find redundant pack files.

           Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.

           Pick out and massage parameters.

           Show packed archive index.

           List references in a local repository.

           Creates a temporary file with a blob’s contents.

           Show a Git logical variable.

           Validate packed Git archive files.

       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
       working tree.

   Synching repositories
           A really simple server for Git repositories.

           Receive missing objects from another repository.

           Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.

           Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.

           Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

       The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

           Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.

           Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.

           Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.

           Receive what is pushed into the repository.

           Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.

           Send archive back to git-archive.

           Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

   Internal helper commands
       These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

           Display gitattributes information.

           Debug gitignore / exclude files.

           Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.

           Ensures that a reference name is well formed.

           Display data in columns.

           Retrieve and store user credentials.

           Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.

           Helper to store credentials on disk.

           Produce a merge commit message.

           add or parse structured information in commit messages.

           Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.

           Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.

           The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.

           Compute unique ID for a patch.

           Git’s i18n setup code for shell scripts.

           Common Git shell script setup code.

           Remove unnecessary whitespace.


       Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like

           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.

           ; core variables
                   ; Don't trust file modes
                   filemode = false

           ; user identity
                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
                   email = ""

       Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
       operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
       about the configuration mechanism.


           Indicates the object name for any type of object.

           Indicates a blob object name.

           Indicates a tree object name.

           Indicates a commit object name.

           Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes
           a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree>
           object but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects
           that point at a <tree>.

           Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
           object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at
           a <commit>.

           Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of:
           blob, tree, commit, or tag.

           Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the
           tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.


       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
       symbolic notation:

           indicates the head of the current branch.

           a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).

           a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).

       For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
       "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).


       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.

       Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.

       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in
       the $GIT_DIR.

TERMINOLOGY         top

       Please see gitglossary(7).


       Various Git commands use the following environment variables:

   The Git Repository
       These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
       Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.

           This environment allows the specification of an alternate index
           file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.

           This environment variable allows the specification of an index
           version for new repositories. It won’t affect existing index
           files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
           git-update-index(1) for more information.

           If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
           variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
           otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

           Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
           archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
           specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git
           object directories which can be used to search for Git objects.
           New objects will not be written to these directories.

               Entries that begin with `"` (double-quote) will be interpreted
               as C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing
               double-quotes and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
               `"path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path` has two paths:
               `path-with-"-and-:-in-it` and `vanilla-path`.

           If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a
           path to use instead of the default .git for the base of the
           repository. The --git-dir command-line option also sets this

           Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
           controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
           core.worktree configuration variable.

           Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
           --namespace command-line option also sets this value.

           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set,
           it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into
           while looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
           slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the
           current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or
           in the environment. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this
           list and resolve any symlink that might be present in order to
           compare them with the current directory. However, if even this
           access is slow, you can add an empty entry to the list to tell
           Git that the subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn’t be
           resolved; e.g.,

           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
           directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
           directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default
           it does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment
           variable can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
           boundaries. Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an
           explicit repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command

           If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
           normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path instead.
           Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
           $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
           details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
           variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...

   Git Commits
           see git-commit-tree(1)

   Git Diffs
           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number
           of context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
           precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on
           the Git diff command line.

           When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the
           program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
           described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:

               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode


           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of

           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

           are the octal representation of the file modes.

           The file parameters can point at the user’s working file (e.g.
           new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a
           new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the
           index).  GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the
           temporary file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
           parameter, <path>.

           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment
           variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.

           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.

           The total number of paths.

           A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
           merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)

           This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an
           empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager.
           See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).

           This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is
           used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor
           is to be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option
           in git-config(1).

           If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch
           and git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when
           they need to connect to a remote system. The command-line
           parameters passed to the configured command are determined by the
           ssh variant. See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.

       + $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted
       by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
       $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which
       can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).

       + Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
       personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for
       further details.

           If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git’s
           autodetection whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand
           refer to OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides
           the config setting ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.

           If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need
           to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
           authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
           command-line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See
           also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).

           If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on
           the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).

           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
           $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be
           used along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a
           predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
           temporarily to avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while
           waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.

           If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as
           git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git
           check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output
           stream after each record have been flushed. If this variable is
           set to "0", the output of these commands will be done using
           completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set,
           Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on
           whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.

           Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
           command execution and external command execution.

           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.

           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and
           lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an
           open file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages
           into this file descriptor.

           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
           (starting with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file
           path and will try to append the trace messages to it.

           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
           (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

           Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
           access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded.
           This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related
           performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
           given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or
           other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting
           with "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
           available trace output options.

           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program.
           Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers,
           and no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to
           direct into a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather
           than displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace

           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
           of clones and fetches.

           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
           time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace
           output options.

           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and
           current working directory after Git has completed its setup
           phase. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning
           of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

           Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
           including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
           This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line.
           This option overrides setting the GIT_CURL_VERBOSE environment
           variable. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not
           dump data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).

           This can be set to a comma-separated list of strings. When a curl
           trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), whenever a
           "Cookies:" header sent by the client is dumped, values of cookies
           whose key is in that list (case-sensitive) are redacted.

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
           literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
           GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits
           that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches.
           You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git
           (e.g., paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff
           output, etc).

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
           as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
           as literal (aka "literal" magic).

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
           as case-insensitive.

           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track
           of the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the
           name of the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition
           to the old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain
           command can use set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup
           to set its name to this variable when it is invoked as the top
           level command by the end user, to be recorded in the body of the

           If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
           over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
           does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
           abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
           this variable automatically when performing destructive
           operations like git-prune(1). You should not need to set it
           yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure an
           operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are cloning a
           repository to make a backup).

           If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
           protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols
           has protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
           configuration). In other words, any protocol not mentioned will
           be disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See
           the description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more

           Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which are
           configured to the user state. This is useful to restrict
           recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted repository
           or for programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git
           commands. See git-config(1) for more details.

           For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
           Contains a colon : separated list of keys with optional values
           key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.

           If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation without
           performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a
           lock. For example, this will prevent git status from refreshing
           the index as a side effect. This is useful for processes running
           in the background which do not want to cause lock contention with
           other operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.

           Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
           handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
           particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
           canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not
           an option because it would require the handles to be marked
           inheritable (and consequently every spawned process would inherit
           them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The primary
           intended use case is to use named pipes for communication (e.g.

           Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
           corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is
           2>&1, standard error will be redirected to the same handle as
           standard output.

       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
           If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
           value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (‐
           git-checkout(1)) and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing
           an ellipsis in the cases mentioned is no longer considered
           adequate and support for it is likely to be removed in the
           foreseeable future (along with the variable).

DISCUSSION         top

       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts
       chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7).

       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among
       other things, a compressed object database representing the complete
       history of the project, an "index" file which links that history to
       the current contents of the working tree, and named pointers into
       that history such as tags and branch heads.

       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs,
       which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to
       build up directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a
       single tree and some number of parent commits.

       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
       "version", represents a step in the project’s history, and each
       parent represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more
       than one parent represent merges of independent lines of development.

       All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
       The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by
       signing just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided
       for this purpose.

       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
       efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".

       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
       may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref.
       Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the
       most recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1
       names of tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref
       named HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.

       The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
       path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object
       represents the contents of the file as of the head of the current
       branch. The attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken
       from the corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes
       to the working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The
       index may be updated with new content, and new commits may be created
       from the content stored in the index.

       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called
       "stages") for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the
       various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.


       See the references in the "description" section to get started using
       Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a
       first-time user.

       The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and
       gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide introductions to the underlying Git

       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.

       See also the howto[3] documents for some useful examples.

       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[4].

       Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).

AUTHORS         top

       Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by
       Junio C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing
       list <[5]>. gives you a more
       complete list of contributors.

       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
       and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the

REPORTING BUGS         top

       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <[5]> where
       the development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to
       be subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list
       archive at for previous bug reports and
       other discussions.

       Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to
       the Git Security mailing list <[6]>.

SEE ALSO         top

       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7),
       gitcvs-migration(7), gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7),
       The Git User’s Manual[1], gitworkflows(7)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES         top

        1. Git User’s Manual

        2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual

        3. howto

        4. Git API documentation



COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2018-10-29.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2018-10-26.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           10/28/2018                           GIT(1)

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