GIT-MERGE(1)                     Git Manual                     GIT-MERGE(1)

NAME         top

       git-merge - Join two or more development histories together

SYNOPSIS         top

       git merge [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
               [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
               [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [-F <file>] [<commit>...]
       git merge --abort
       git merge --continue

DESCRIPTION         top

       Incorporates changes from the named commits (since the time their
       histories diverged from the current branch) into the current branch.
       This command is used by git pull to incorporate changes from another
       repository and can be used by hand to merge changes from one branch
       into another.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is

                     A---B---C topic
               D---E---F---G master

       Then "git merge topic" will replay the changes made on the topic
       branch since it diverged from master (i.e., E) until its current
       commit (C) on top of master, and record the result in a new commit
       along with the names of the two parent commits and a log message from
       the user describing the changes.

                     A---B---C topic
                    /         \
               D---E---F---G---H master

       The second syntax ("git merge --abort") can only be run after the
       merge has resulted in conflicts. git merge --abort will abort the
       merge process and try to reconstruct the pre-merge state. However, if
       there were uncommitted changes when the merge started (and especially
       if those changes were further modified after the merge was started),
       git merge --abort will in some cases be unable to reconstruct the
       original (pre-merge) changes. Therefore:

       Warning: Running git merge with non-trivial uncommitted changes is
       discouraged: while possible, it may leave you in a state that is hard
       to back out of in the case of a conflict.

       The third syntax ("git merge --continue") can only be run after the
       merge has resulted in conflicts.

OPTIONS         top

       --commit, --no-commit
           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used
           to override --no-commit.

           With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed
           and do not autocommit, to give the user a chance to inspect and
           further tweak the merge result before committing.

       --edit, -e, --no-edit
           Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to
           further edit the auto-generated merge message, so that the user
           can explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit option can be
           used to accept the auto-generated message (this is generally
           discouraged). The --edit (or -e) option is still useful if you
           are giving a draft message with the -m option from the command
           line and want to edit it in the editor.

           Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not
           allowing the user to edit the merge log message. They will see an
           editor opened when they run git merge. To make it easier to
           adjust such scripts to the updated behaviour, the environment
           variable GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning of

           When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch
           pointer, without creating a merge commit. This is the default

           Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a
           fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an
           annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not stored in its
           natural place in refs/tags/ hierarchy.

           Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the
           current HEAD is already up to date or the merge can be resolved
           as a fast-forward.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
           GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The keyid argument is
           optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it
           must be stuck to the option without a space.

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with
           one-line descriptions from at most <n> actual commits that are
           being merged. See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).

           With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the actual
           commits being merged.

       --signoff, --no-signoff
           Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
           log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but
           it typically certifies that committer has the rights to submit
           this work under the same license and agrees to a Developer
           Certificate of Origin (see for
           more information).

           With --no-signoff do not add a Signed-off-by line.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
           Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also
           controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.

           With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the

       --squash, --no-squash
           Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge
           happened (except for the merge information), but do not actually
           make a commit, move the HEAD, or record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to
           cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit). This
           allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch
           whose effect is the same as merging another branch (or more in
           case of an octopus).

           With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This
           option can be used to override --squash.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
           Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to
           specify them in the order they should be tried. If there is no -s
           option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead (git
           merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
           Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge

       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
           Verify that the tip commit of the side branch being merged is
           signed with a valid key, i.e. a key that has a valid uid: in the
           default trust model, this means the signing key has been signed
           by a trusted key. If the tip commit of the side branch is not
           signed with a valid key, the merge is aborted.

       --summary, --no-summary
           Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will
           be removed in the future.

       -q, --quiet
           Operate quietly. Implies --no-progress.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       --progress, --no-progress
           Turn progress on/off explicitly. If neither is specified,
           progress is shown if standard error is connected to a terminal.
           Note that not all merge strategies may support progress

           By default, git merge command refuses to merge histories that do
           not share a common ancestor. This option can be used to override
           this safety when merging histories of two projects that started
           their lives independently. As that is a very rare occasion, no
           configuration variable to enable this by default exists and will
           not be added.

       -m <msg>
           Set the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in case
           one is created).

           If --log is specified, a shortlog of the commits being merged
           will be appended to the specified message.

           The git fmt-merge-msg command can be used to give a good default
           for automated git merge invocations. The automated message can
           include the branch description.

       -F <file>, --file=<file>
           Read the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in case
           one is created).

           If --log is specified, a shortlog of the commits being merged
           will be appended to the specified message.

           Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the result of
           auto-conflict resolution if possible.

           Abort the current conflict resolution process, and try to
           reconstruct the pre-merge state.

           If there were uncommitted worktree changes present when the merge
           started, git merge --abort will in some cases be unable to
           reconstruct these changes. It is therefore recommended to always
           commit or stash your changes before running git merge.

           git merge --abort is equivalent to git reset --merge when
           MERGE_HEAD is present.

           After a git merge stops due to conflicts you can conclude the
           merge by running git merge --continue (see "HOW TO RESOLVE
           CONFLICTS" section below).

           Commits, usually other branch heads, to merge into our branch.
           Specifying more than one commit will create a merge with more
           than two parents (affectionately called an Octopus merge).

           If no commit is given from the command line, merge the
           remote-tracking branches that the current branch is configured to
           use as its upstream. See also the configuration section of this
           manual page.

           When FETCH_HEAD (and no other commit) is specified, the branches
           recorded in the .git/FETCH_HEAD file by the previous invocation
           of git fetch for merging are merged to the current branch.

PRE-MERGE CHECKS         top

       Before applying outside changes, you should get your own work in good
       shape and committed locally, so it will not be clobbered if there are
       conflicts. See also git-stash(1). git pull and git merge will stop
       without doing anything when local uncommitted changes overlap with
       files that git pull/git merge may need to update.

       To avoid recording unrelated changes in the merge commit, git pull
       and git merge will also abort if there are any changes registered in
       the index relative to the HEAD commit. (Special narrow exceptions to
       this rule may exist depending on which merge strategy is in use, but
       generally, the index must match HEAD.)

       If all named commits are already ancestors of HEAD, git merge will
       exit early with the message "Already up to date."


       Often the current branch head is an ancestor of the named commit.
       This is the most common case especially when invoked from git pull:
       you are tracking an upstream repository, you have committed no local
       changes, and now you want to update to a newer upstream revision. In
       this case, a new commit is not needed to store the combined history;
       instead, the HEAD (along with the index) is updated to point at the
       named commit, without creating an extra merge commit.

       This behavior can be suppressed with the --no-ff option.

TRUE MERGE         top

       Except in a fast-forward merge (see above), the branches to be merged
       must be tied together by a merge commit that has both of them as its

       A merged version reconciling the changes from all branches to be
       merged is committed, and your HEAD, index, and working tree are
       updated to it. It is possible to have modifications in the working
       tree as long as they do not overlap; the update will preserve them.

       When it is not obvious how to reconcile the changes, the following

        1. The HEAD pointer stays the same.

        2. The MERGE_HEAD ref is set to point to the other branch head.

        3. Paths that merged cleanly are updated both in the index file and
           in your working tree.

        4. For conflicting paths, the index file records up to three
           versions: stage 1 stores the version from the common ancestor,
           stage 2 from HEAD, and stage 3 from MERGE_HEAD (you can inspect
           the stages with git ls-files -u). The working tree files contain
           the result of the "merge" program; i.e. 3-way merge results with
           familiar conflict markers <<< === >>>.

        5. No other changes are made. In particular, the local modifications
           you had before you started merge will stay the same and the index
           entries for them stay as they were, i.e. matching HEAD.

       If you tried a merge which resulted in complex conflicts and want to
       start over, you can recover with git merge --abort.

MERGING TAG         top

       When merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag, Git always
       creates a merge commit even if a fast-forward merge is possible, and
       the commit message template is prepared with the tag message.
       Additionally, if the tag is signed, the signature check is reported
       as a comment in the message template. See also git-tag(1).

       When you want to just integrate with the work leading to the commit
       that happens to be tagged, e.g. synchronizing with an upstream
       release point, you may not want to make an unnecessary merge commit.

       In such a case, you can "unwrap" the tag yourself before feeding it
       to git merge, or pass --ff-only when you do not have any work on your
       own. e.g.

           git fetch origin
           git merge v1.2.3^0
           git merge --ff-only v1.2.3


       During a merge, the working tree files are updated to reflect the
       result of the merge. Among the changes made to the common ancestor’s
       version, non-overlapping ones (that is, you changed an area of the
       file while the other side left that area intact, or vice versa) are
       incorporated in the final result verbatim. When both sides made
       changes to the same area, however, Git cannot randomly pick one side
       over the other, and asks you to resolve it by leaving what both sides
       did to that area.

       By default, Git uses the same style as the one used by the "merge"
       program from the RCS suite to present such a conflicted hunk, like

           Here are lines that are either unchanged from the common
           ancestor, or cleanly resolved because only one side changed.
           <<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
           Conflict resolution is hard;
           let's go shopping.
           Git makes conflict resolution easy.
           >>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
           And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or unmodified.

       The area where a pair of conflicting changes happened is marked with
       markers <<<<<<<, =======, and >>>>>>>. The part before the ======= is
       typically your side, and the part afterwards is typically their side.

       The default format does not show what the original said in the
       conflicting area. You cannot tell how many lines are deleted and
       replaced with Barbie’s remark on your side. The only thing you can
       tell is that your side wants to say it is hard and you’d prefer to go
       shopping, while the other side wants to claim it is easy.

       An alternative style can be used by setting the "merge.conflictStyle"
       configuration variable to "diff3". In "diff3" style, the above
       conflict may look like this:

           Here are lines that are either unchanged from the common
           ancestor, or cleanly resolved because only one side changed.
           <<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
           Conflict resolution is hard;
           let's go shopping.
           Conflict resolution is hard.
           Git makes conflict resolution easy.
           >>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
           And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or unmodified.

       In addition to the <<<<<<<, =======, and >>>>>>> markers, it uses
       another ||||||| marker that is followed by the original text. You can
       tell that the original just stated a fact, and your side simply gave
       in to that statement and gave up, while the other side tried to have
       a more positive attitude. You can sometimes come up with a better
       resolution by viewing the original.


       After seeing a conflict, you can do two things:

       ·   Decide not to merge. The only clean-ups you need are to reset the
           index file to the HEAD commit to reverse 2. and to clean up
           working tree changes made by 2. and 3.; git merge --abort can be
           used for this.

       ·   Resolve the conflicts. Git will mark the conflicts in the working
           tree. Edit the files into shape and git add them to the index.
           Use git commit or git merge --continue to seal the deal. The
           latter command checks whether there is a (interrupted) merge in
           progress before calling git commit.

       You can work through the conflict with a number of tools:

       ·   Use a mergetool.  git mergetool to launch a graphical mergetool
           which will work you through the merge.

       ·   Look at the diffs.  git diff will show a three-way diff,
           highlighting changes from both the HEAD and MERGE_HEAD versions.

       ·   Look at the diffs from each branch.  git log --merge -p <path>
           will show diffs first for the HEAD version and then the
           MERGE_HEAD version.

       ·   Look at the originals.  git show :1:filename shows the common
           ancestor, git show :2:filename shows the HEAD version, and git
           show :3:filename shows the MERGE_HEAD version.

EXAMPLES         top

       ·   Merge branches fixes and enhancements on top of the current
           branch, making an octopus merge:

               $ git merge fixes enhancements

       ·   Merge branch obsolete into the current branch, using ours merge

               $ git merge -s ours obsolete

       ·   Merge branch maint into the current branch, but do not make a new
           commit automatically:

               $ git merge --no-commit maint

           This can be used when you want to include further changes to the
           merge, or want to write your own merge commit message.

           You should refrain from abusing this option to sneak substantial
           changes into a merge commit. Small fixups like bumping
           release/version name would be acceptable.


       The merge mechanism (git merge and git pull commands) allows the
       backend merge strategies to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies
       can also take their own options, which can be passed by giving
       -X<option> arguments to git merge and/or git pull.

           This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
           another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It
           tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
           considered generally safe and fast.

           This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm.
           When there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for
           3-way merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and
           uses that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has
           been reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing
           mismerges by tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
           2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and
           handle merges involving renames, but currently cannot make use of
           detected copies. This is the default merge strategy when pulling
           or merging one branch.

           The recursive strategy can take the following options:

               This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved
               cleanly by favoring our version. Changes from the other tree
               that do not conflict with our side are reflected to the merge
               result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from
               our side.

               This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy,
               which does not even look at what the other tree contains at
               all. It discards everything the other tree did, declaring our
               history contains all that happened in it.

               This is the opposite of ours; note that, unlike ours, there
               is no theirs merge strategy to confuse this merge option

               With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time
               to avoid mismerges that sometimes occur due to unimportant
               matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use
               this when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See
               also git-diff(1) --patience.

               Tells merge-recursive to use a different diff algorithm,
               which can help avoid mismerges that occur due to unimportant
               matching lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See
               also git-diff(1) --diff-algorithm.

           ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol,
               Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
               unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace
               changes mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored.
               See also git-diff(1) -b, -w, --ignore-space-at-eol, and

               ·   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a
                   line, our version is used;

               ·   If our version introduces whitespace changes but their
                   version includes a substantial change, their version is

               ·   Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.

               This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three
               stages of a file when resolving a three-way merge. This
               option is meant to be used when merging branches with
               different clean filters or end-of-line normalization rules.
               See "Merging branches with differing checkin/checkout
               attributes" in gitattributes(5) for details.

               Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the
               merge.renormalize configuration variable.

               Turn off rename detection. This overrides the merge.renames
               configuration variable. See also git-diff(1) --no-renames.

               Turn on rename detection, optionally setting the similarity
               threshold. This is the default. This overrides the
               merge.renames configuration variable. See also git-diff(1)

               Deprecated synonym for find-renames=<n>.

               This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy,
               where the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must be
               shifted to match with each other when merging. Instead, the
               specified path is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning)
               to make the shape of two trees to match.

           This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a
           complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant
           to be used for bundling topic branch heads together. This is the
           default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one

           This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the
           merge is always that of the current branch head, effectively
           ignoring all changes from all other branches. It is meant to be
           used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note
           that this is different from the -Xours option to the recursive
           merge strategy.

           This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and
           B, if B corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to
           match the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at
           the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common
           ancestor tree.

       With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default,
       recursive), if a change is made on both branches, but later reverted
       on one of the branches, that change will be present in the merged
       result; some people find this behavior confusing. It occurs because
       only the heads and the merge base are considered when performing a
       merge, not the individual commits. The merge algorithm therefore
       considers the reverted change as no change at all, and substitutes
       the changed version instead.


           Specify the style in which conflicted hunks are written out to
           working tree files upon merge. The default is "merge", which
           shows a <<<<<<< conflict marker, changes made by one side, a
           ======= marker, changes made by the other side, and then a
           >>>>>>> marker. An alternate style, "diff3", adds a |||||||
           marker and the original text before the ======= marker.

           If merge is called without any commit argument, merge the
           upstream branches configured for the current branch by using
           their last observed values stored in their remote-tracking
           branches. The values of the branch.<current branch>.merge that
           name the branches at the remote named by branch.<current
           branch>.remote are consulted, and then they are mapped via
           remote.<remote>.fetch to their corresponding remote-tracking
           branches, and the tips of these tracking branches are merged.

           By default, Git does not create an extra merge commit when
           merging a commit that is a descendant of the current commit.
           Instead, the tip of the current branch is fast-forwarded. When
           set to false, this variable tells Git to create an extra merge
           commit in such a case (equivalent to giving the --no-ff option
           from the command line). When set to only, only such fast-forward
           merges are allowed (equivalent to giving the --ff-only option
           from the command line).

           If true, this is equivalent to the --verify-signatures command
           line option. See git-merge(1) for details.

           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with the
           branch description text associated with them. Defaults to false.

           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with at
           most the specified number of one-line descriptions from the
           actual commits that are being merged. Defaults to false, and true
           is a synonym for 20.

           The number of files to consider when performing rename detection
           during a merge; if not specified, defaults to the value of
           diff.renameLimit. This setting has no effect if rename detection
           is turned off.

           Whether and how Git detects renames. If set to "false", rename
           detection is disabled. If set to "true", basic rename detection
           is enabled. Defaults to the value of diff.renames.

           Tell Git that canonical representation of files in the repository
           has changed over time (e.g. earlier commits record text files
           with CRLF line endings, but recent ones use LF line endings). In
           such a repository, Git can convert the data recorded in commits
           to a canonical form before performing a merge to reduce
           unnecessary conflicts. For more information, see section "Merging
           branches with differing checkin/checkout attributes" in

           Whether to print the diffstat between ORIG_HEAD and the merge
           result at the end of the merge. True by default.

           Controls which merge tool is used by git-mergetool(1). The list
           below shows the valid built-in values. Any other value is treated
           as a custom merge tool and requires that a corresponding
           mergetool.<tool>.cmd variable is defined.

           ·   araxis

           ·   bc

           ·   bc3

           ·   codecompare

           ·   deltawalker

           ·   diffmerge

           ·   diffuse

           ·   ecmerge

           ·   emerge

           ·   examdiff

           ·   guiffy

           ·   gvimdiff

           ·   gvimdiff2

           ·   gvimdiff3

           ·   kdiff3

           ·   meld

           ·   opendiff

           ·   p4merge

           ·   tkdiff

           ·   tortoisemerge

           ·   vimdiff

           ·   vimdiff2

           ·   vimdiff3

           ·   winmerge

           ·   xxdiff

           Controls the amount of output shown by the recursive merge
           strategy. Level 0 outputs nothing except a final error message if
           conflicts were detected. Level 1 outputs only conflicts, 2
           outputs conflicts and file changes. Level 5 and above outputs
           debugging information. The default is level 2. Can be overridden
           by the GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY environment variable.

           Defines a human-readable name for a custom low-level merge
           driver. See gitattributes(5) for details.

           Defines the command that implements a custom low-level merge
           driver. See gitattributes(5) for details.

           Names a low-level merge driver to be used when performing an
           internal merge between common ancestors. See gitattributes(5) for

           Sets default options for merging into branch <name>. The syntax
           and supported options are the same as those of git merge, but
           option values containing whitespace characters are currently not

SEE ALSO         top

       git-fmt-merge-msg(1), git-pull(1), gitattributes(5), git-reset(1),
       git-diff(1), git-ls-files(1), git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mergetool(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2018-10-29.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2018-10-26.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           10/28/2018                     GIT-MERGE(1)

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