NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CONFIGURATION | EXAMPLE | SEE ALSO | GIT | COLOPHON

GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)                Git Manual                GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

NAME         top

       git-send-email - Send a collection of patches as emails

SYNOPSIS         top

       git send-email [options] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
       git send-email --dump-aliases

DESCRIPTION         top

       Takes the patches given on the command line and emails them out.
       Patches can be specified as files, directories (which will send all
       files in the directory), or directly as a revision list. In the last
       case, any format accepted by git-format-patch(1) can be passed to git
       send-email.

       The header of the email is configurable via command-line options. If
       not specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a
       ReadLine enabled interface to provide the necessary information.

       There are two formats accepted for patch files:

        1. mbox format files

           This is what git-format-patch(1) generates. Most headers and MIME
           formatting are ignored.

        2. The original format used by Greg Kroah-Hartman’s
           send_lots_of_email.pl script

           This format expects the first line of the file to contain the
           "Cc:" value and the "Subject:" of the message as the second line.

OPTIONS         top

   Composing
       --annotate
           Review and edit each patch you’re about to send. Default is the
           value of sendemail.annotate. See the CONFIGURATION section for
           sendemail.multiEdit.

       --bcc=<address>,...
           Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
           sendemail.bcc.

           This option may be specified multiple times.

       --cc=<address>,...
           Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email. Default is the
           value of sendemail.cc.

           This option may be specified multiple times.

       --compose
           Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in git-var(1)) to edit an
           introductory message for the patch series.

           When --compose is used, git send-email will use the From,
           Subject, and In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the
           body of the message (what you type after the headers and a blank
           line) only contains blank (or Git: prefixed) lines, the summary
           won’t be sent, but From, Subject, and In-Reply-To headers will be
           used unless they are removed.

           Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.

           See the CONFIGURATION section for sendemail.multiEdit.

       --from=<address>
           Specify the sender of the emails. If not specified on the command
           line, the value of the sendemail.from configuration option is
           used. If neither the command-line option nor sendemail.from are
           set, then the user will be prompted for the value. The default
           for the prompt will be the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or
           GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not set, as returned by "git var
           -l".

       --in-reply-to=<identifier>
           Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread) appear as
           a reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
           provide a new patch series. The second and subsequent emails will
           be sent as replies according to the --[no-]chain-reply-to
           setting.

           So for example when --thread and --no-chain-reply-to are
           specified, the second and subsequent patches will be replies to
           the first one like in the illustration below where [PATCH v2 0/3]
           is in reply to [PATCH 0/2]:

               [PATCH 0/2] Here is what I did...
                 [PATCH 1/2] Clean up and tests
                 [PATCH 2/2] Implementation
                 [PATCH v2 0/3] Here is a reroll
                   [PATCH v2 1/3] Clean up
                   [PATCH v2 2/3] New tests
                   [PATCH v2 3/3] Implementation

           Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose is not set,
           this will be prompted for.

       --subject=<string>
           Specify the initial subject of the email thread. Only necessary
           if --compose is also set. If --compose is not set, this will be
           prompted for.

       --to=<address>,...
           Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally,
           this will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved.
           Default is the value of the sendemail.to configuration value; if
           that is unspecified, and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be
           prompted for.

           This option may be specified multiple times.

       --8bit-encoding=<encoding>
           When encountering a non-ASCII message or subject that does not
           declare its encoding, add headers/quoting to indicate it is
           encoded in <encoding>. Default is the value of the
           sendemail.assume8bitEncoding; if that is unspecified, this will
           be prompted for if any non-ASCII files are encountered.

           Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate the
           encoding.

       --compose-encoding=<encoding>
           Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the value of the
           sendemail.composeencoding; if that is unspecified, UTF-8 is
           assumed.

       --transfer-encoding=(7bit|8bit|quoted-printable|base64)
           Specify the transfer encoding to be used to send the message over
           SMTP. 7bit will fail upon encountering a non-ASCII message.
           quoted-printable can be useful when the repository contains files
           that contain carriage returns, but makes the raw patch email file
           (as saved from a MUA) much harder to inspect manually. base64 is
           even more fool proof, but also even more opaque. Default is the
           value of the sendemail.transferEncoding configuration value; if
           that is unspecified, git will use 8bit and not add a
           Content-Transfer-Encoding header.

       --xmailer, --no-xmailer
           Add (or prevent adding) the "X-Mailer:" header. By default, the
           header is added, but it can be turned off by setting the
           sendemail.xmailer configuration variable to false.

   Sending
       --envelope-sender=<address>
           Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails. This is
           useful if your default address is not the address that is
           subscribed to a list. In order to use the From address, set the
           value to "auto". If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
           suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of
           the sendemail.envelopeSender configuration variable; if that is
           unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.

       --smtp-encryption=<encryption>
           Specify the encryption to use, either ssl or tls. Any other value
           reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
           sendemail.smtpEncryption.

       --smtp-domain=<FQDN>
           Specifies the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used in the
           HELO/EHLO command to the SMTP server. Some servers require the
           FQDN to match your IP address. If not set, git send-email
           attempts to determine your FQDN automatically. Default is the
           value of sendemail.smtpDomain.

       --smtp-auth=<mechanisms>
           Whitespace-separated list of allowed SMTP-AUTH mechanisms. This
           setting forces using only the listed mechanisms. Example:

               $ git send-email --smtp-auth="PLAIN LOGIN GSSAPI" ...

           If at least one of the specified mechanisms matches the ones
           advertised by the SMTP server and if it is supported by the
           utilized SASL library, the mechanism is used for authentication.
           If neither sendemail.smtpAuth nor --smtp-auth is specified, all
           mechanisms supported by the SASL library can be used.

       --smtp-pass[=<password>]
           Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no argument
           is specified, then the empty string is used as the password.
           Default is the value of sendemail.smtpPass, however --smtp-pass
           always overrides this value.

           Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration
           files or on the command line. If a username has been specified
           (with --smtp-user or a sendemail.smtpUser), but no password has
           been specified (with --smtp-pass or sendemail.smtpPass), then a
           password is obtained using git-credential.

       --smtp-server=<host>
           If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
           smtp.example.com or a raw IP address). Alternatively it can
           specify a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead; the
           program must support the -i option. Default value can be
           specified by the sendemail.smtpServer configuration option; the
           built-in default is /usr/sbin/sendmail or /usr/lib/sendmail if
           such program is available, or localhost otherwise.

       --smtp-server-port=<port>
           Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP servers
           typically listen to smtp port 25, but may also listen to
           submission port 587, or the common SSL smtp port 465); symbolic
           port names (e.g. "submission" instead of 587) are also accepted.
           The port can also be set with the sendemail.smtpServerPort
           configuration variable.

       --smtp-server-option=<option>
           If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server option to use. Default
           value can be specified by the sendemail.smtpServerOption
           configuration option.

           The --smtp-server-option option must be repeated for each option
           you want to pass to the server. Likewise, different lines in the
           configuration files must be used for each option.

       --smtp-ssl
           Legacy alias for --smtp-encryption ssl.

       --smtp-ssl-cert-path
           Path to a store of trusted CA certificates for SMTP SSL/TLS
           certificate validation (either a directory that has been
           processed by c_rehash, or a single file containing one or more
           PEM format certificates concatenated together: see verify(1)
           -CAfile and -CApath for more information on these). Set it to an
           empty string to disable certificate verification. Defaults to the
           value of the sendemail.smtpsslcertpath configuration variable, if
           set, or the backing SSL library’s compiled-in default otherwise
           (which should be the best choice on most platforms).

       --smtp-user=<user>
           Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of
           sendemail.smtpUser; if a username is not specified (with
           --smtp-user or sendemail.smtpUser), then authentication is not
           attempted.

       --smtp-debug=0|1
           Enable (1) or disable (0) debug output. If enabled, SMTP commands
           and replies will be printed. Useful to debug TLS connection and
           authentication problems.

   Automating
       --to-cmd=<command>
           Specify a command to execute once per patch file which should
           generate patch file specific "To:" entries. Output of this
           command must be single email address per line. Default is the
           value of sendemail.tocmd configuration value.

       --cc-cmd=<command>
           Specify a command to execute once per patch file which should
           generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries. Output of this
           command must be single email address per line. Default is the
           value of sendemail.ccCmd configuration value.

       --[no-]chain-reply-to
           If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the
           previous email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all
           emails after the first will be sent as replies to the first email
           sent. When using this, it is recommended that the first file
           given be an overview of the entire patch series. Disabled by
           default, but the sendemail.chainReplyTo configuration variable
           can be used to enable it.

       --identity=<identity>
           A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
           sendemail.<identity> subsection to take precedence over values in
           the sendemail section. The default identity is the value of
           sendemail.identity.

       --[no-]signed-off-by-cc
           If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines
           to the cc list. Default is the value of sendemail.signedoffbycc
           configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to
           --signed-off-by-cc.

       --[no-]cc-cover
           If this is set, emails found in Cc: headers in the first patch of
           the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the cc list
           for each email set. Default is the value of sendemail.cccover
           configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to
           --no-cc-cover.

       --[no-]to-cover
           If this is set, emails found in To: headers in the first patch of
           the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the to list
           for each email set. Default is the value of sendemail.tocover
           configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to
           --no-to-cover.

       --suppress-cc=<category>
           Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the
           auto-cc of:

           ·   author will avoid including the patch author

           ·   self will avoid including the sender

           ·   cc will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the
               patch header except for self (use self for that).

           ·   bodycc will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in
               the patch body (commit message) except for self (use self for
               that).

           ·   sob will avoid including anyone mentioned in Signed-off-by
               lines except for self (use self for that).

           ·   cccmd will avoid running the --cc-cmd.

           ·   body is equivalent to sob + bodycc

           ·   all will suppress all auto cc values.

           Default is the value of sendemail.suppresscc configuration value;
           if that is unspecified, default to self if --suppress-from is
           specified, as well as body if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.

       --[no-]suppress-from
           If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
           Default is the value of sendemail.suppressFrom configuration
           value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.

       --[no-]thread
           If this is set, the In-Reply-To and References headers will be
           added to each email sent. Whether each mail refers to the
           previous email (deep threading per git format-patch wording) or
           to the first email (shallow threading) is governed by
           "--[no-]chain-reply-to".

           If disabled with "--no-thread", those headers will not be added
           (unless specified with --in-reply-to). Default is the value of
           the sendemail.thread configuration value; if that is unspecified,
           default to --thread.

           It is up to the user to ensure that no In-Reply-To header already
           exists when git send-email is asked to add it (especially note
           that git format-patch can be configured to do the threading
           itself). Failure to do so may not produce the expected result in
           the recipient’s MUA.

   Administering
       --confirm=<mode>
           Confirm just before sending:

           ·   always will always confirm before sending

           ·   never will never confirm before sending

           ·   cc will confirm before sending when send-email has
               automatically added addresses from the patch to the Cc list

           ·   compose will confirm before sending the first message when
               using --compose.

           ·   auto is equivalent to cc + compose

           Default is the value of sendemail.confirm configuration value; if
           that is unspecified, default to auto unless any of the suppress
           options have been specified, in which case default to compose.

       --dry-run
           Do everything except actually send the emails.

       --[no-]format-patch
           When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a
           file name, choose to understand it as a format-patch argument
           (--format-patch) or as a file name (--no-format-patch). By
           default, when such a conflict occurs, git send-email will fail.

       --quiet
           Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be
           all that is output.

       --[no-]validate
           Perform sanity checks on patches. Currently, validation means the
           following:

           ·   Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998
               characters; this is due to SMTP limits as described by
               http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt .

           Default is the value of sendemail.validate; if this is not set,
           default to --validate.

       --force
           Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.

   Information
       --dump-aliases
           Instead of the normal operation, dump the shorthand alias names
           from the configured alias file(s), one per line in alphabetical
           order. Note, this only includes the alias name and not its
           expanded email addresses. See sendemail.aliasesfile for more
           information about aliases.

CONFIGURATION         top

       sendemail.aliasesFile
           To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one or more
           email aliases files. You must also supply
           sendemail.aliasFileType.

       sendemail.aliasFileType
           Format of the file(s) specified in sendemail.aliasesFile. Must be
           one of mutt, mailrc, pine, elm, or gnus, or sendmail.

           What an alias file in each format looks like can be found in the
           documentation of the email program of the same name. The
           differences and limitations from the standard formats are
           described below:

           sendmail

               ·   Quoted aliases and quoted addresses are not supported:
                   lines that contain a " symbol are ignored.

               ·   Redirection to a file (/path/name) or pipe (|command) is
                   not supported.

               ·   File inclusion (:include: /path/name) is not supported.

               ·   Warnings are printed on the standard error output for any
                   explicitly unsupported constructs, and any other lines
                   that are not recognized by the parser.

       sendemail.multiEdit
           If true (default), a single editor instance will be spawned to
           edit files you have to edit (patches when --annotate is used, and
           the summary when --compose is used). If false, files will be
           edited one after the other, spawning a new editor each time.

       sendemail.confirm
           Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending. Must be
           one of always, never, cc, compose, or auto. See --confirm in the
           previous section for the meaning of these values.

EXAMPLE         top

   Use gmail as the smtp server
       To use git send-email to send your patches through the GMail SMTP
       server, edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:

           [sendemail]
                   smtpEncryption = tls
                   smtpServer = smtp.gmail.com
                   smtpUser = yourname@gmail.com
                   smtpServerPort = 587

       If you have multifactor authentication setup on your gmail account,
       you will need to generate an app-specific password for use with git
       send-email. Visit
       https://security.google.com/settings/security/apppasswords to setup
       an app-specific password. Once setup, you can store it with the
       credentials helper:

           $ git credential fill
           protocol=smtp
           host=smtp.gmail.com
           username=youname@gmail.com
           password=app-password

       Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
       following commands:

           $ git format-patch --cover-letter -M origin/master -o outgoing/
           $ edit outgoing/0000-*
           $ git send-email outgoing/*

       Note: the following perl modules are required Net::SMTP::SSL,
       MIME::Base64 and Authen::SASL

SEE ALSO         top

       git-format-patch(1), git-imap-send(1), mbox(5)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://git-scm.com/⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨http://git-scm.com/community⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨https://github.com/git/git.git⟩ on
       2017-04-25.  If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML ver‐
       sion of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date
       source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original man‐
       ual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

Git 2.13.0.rc0.45.ge             04/24/2017                GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

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