NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMIT INFORMATION | DATE FORMATS | DISCUSSION | FILES | SEE ALSO | GIT | COLOPHON

GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)               Git Manual               GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)

NAME         top

       git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object

SYNOPSIS         top

       git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
       git commit-tree [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
                         [(-F <file>)...] <tree>

DESCRIPTION         top

       This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See
       git-commit(1) instead.

       Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and
       emits the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read
       from the standard input, unless -m or -F options are given.

       A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one
       parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes
       the commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root)
       commits have no parents.

       While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
       directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
       to get there.

       Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
       doesn’t care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
       tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
       .git/HEAD, so that we can always see what the last committed state
       was.

OPTIONS         top

       <tree>
           An existing tree object

       -p <parent>
           Each -p indicates the id of a parent commit object.

       -m <message>
           A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more
           than once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.

       -F <file>
           Read the commit log message from the given file. Use - to read
           from the standard input.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
           GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to
           the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
           option without a space.

       --no-gpg-sign
           Do not GPG-sign commit, to countermand a --gpg-sign option given
           earlier on the command line.

COMMIT INFORMATION         top

       A commit encapsulates:

       ·   all parent object ids

       ·   author name, email and date

       ·   committer name and email and the commit time.

       While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and
       committer information is taken from the following environment
       variables, if set:

           GIT_AUTHOR_NAME
           GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
           GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
           GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
           GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
           GIT_COMMITTER_DATE

       (nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)

       In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the
       information is taken from the configuration items user.name and
       user.email, or, if not present, the environment variable EMAIL, or,
       if that is not set, system user name and the hostname used for
       outgoing mail (taken from /etc/mailname and falling back to the fully
       qualified hostname when that file does not exist).

       A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not
       provided via "<" redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for one
       to be entered and terminated with ^D.

DATE FORMATS         top

       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables support
       the following date formats:

       Git internal format
           It is <unix timestamp> <time zone offset>, where <unix timestamp>
           is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time zone
           offset> is a positive or negative offset from UTC. For example
           CET (which is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.

       RFC 2822
           The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
           Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
           2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
           character as well.

               Note
               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following
               formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

DISCUSSION         top

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       ·   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       ·   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This
           applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as
           path names in command line arguments, environment variables and
           config files (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5),
           gitattributes(5) and gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
           sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
           conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using
           non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and file
           systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However,
           repositories created on such systems will not work properly on
           UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa.
           Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path names to be
           UTF-8 and will fail to display other encodings correctly.

       ·   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
           CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx
           etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force
       UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project find
       it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it.
       However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string,
           unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding.
           The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that
           the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
           header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message
           into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the
           desired output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in
           .git/config file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitencoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.

FILES         top

       /etc/mailname

SEE ALSO         top

       git-write-tree(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://git-scm.com/⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨http://git-scm.com/community⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨https://github.com/git/git.git⟩ on
       2017-05-03.  If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML ver‐
       sion of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date
       source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original man‐
       ual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

Git 2.12.0.rc2                   02/18/2017               GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-commit(1)git-config(1)git-filter-branch(1)git-var(1)