NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | GIT URLS | REMOTES | OUTPUT | NOTE ABOUT FAST-FORWARDS | EXAMPLES | SECURITY | GIT | COLOPHON

GIT-PUSH(1)                      Git Manual                      GIT-PUSH(1)

NAME         top

       git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects

SYNOPSIS         top

       git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
                  [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
                  [-u | --set-upstream] [--push-option=<string>]
                  [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
                  [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
                  [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary
       to complete the given refs.

       You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you
       push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for
       git-receive-pack(1).

       When the command line does not specify where to push with the
       <repository> argument, branch.*.remote configuration for the current
       branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the configuration
       is missing, it defaults to origin.

       When the command line does not specify what to push with <refspec>...
       arguments or --all, --mirror, --tags options, the command finds the
       default <refspec> by consulting remote.*.push configuration, and if
       it is not found, honors push.default configuration to decide what to
       push (See git-config(1) for the meaning of push.default).

       When neither the command-line nor the configuration specify what to
       push, the default behavior is used, which corresponds to the simple
       value for push.default: the current branch is pushed to the
       corresponding upstream branch, but as a safety measure, the push is
       aborted if the upstream branch does not have the same name as the
       local one.

OPTIONS         top

       <repository>
           The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation.
           This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS
           below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).

       <refspec>...
           Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +,
           followed by the source object <src>, followed by a colon :,
           followed by the destination ref <dst>.

           The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push,
           but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as master~4
           or HEAD (see gitrevisions(7)).

           The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
           push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref
           must be named. If git push [<repository>] without any <refspec>
           argument is set to update some ref at the destination with <src>
           with remote.<repository>.push configuration variable, :<dst> part
           can be omitted—such a push will update a ref that <src> normally
           updates without any <refspec> on the command line. Otherwise,
           missing :<dst> means to update the same ref as the <src>.

           The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst>
           reference on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if
           <dst> is not a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if
           it can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading +, you
           can tell Git to update the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by
           default (e.g., it is not a fast-forward.) This does not attempt
           to merge <src> into <dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.

           tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.

           Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
           the remote repository.

           The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates)
           directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that
           exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch
           of the same name already exists on the remote side.

       --all
           Push all branches (i.e. refs under refs/heads/); cannot be used
           with other <refspec>.

       --prune
           Remove remote branches that don’t have a local counterpart. For
           example a remote branch tmp will be removed if a local branch
           with the same name doesn’t exist any more. This also respects
           refspecs, e.g.  git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*
           would make sure that remote refs/tmp/foo will be removed if
           refs/heads/foo doesn’t exist.

       --mirror
           Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under
           refs/ (which includes but is not limited to refs/heads/,
           refs/remotes/, and refs/tags/) be mirrored to the remote
           repository. Newly created local refs will be pushed to the remote
           end, locally updated refs will be force updated on the remote
           end, and deleted refs will be removed from the remote end. This
           is the default if the configuration option remote.<remote>.mirror
           is set.

       -n, --dry-run
           Do everything except actually send the updates.

       --porcelain
           Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each
           ref will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr.
           The full symbolic names of the refs will be given.

       --delete
           All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
           the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.

       --tags
           All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs
           explicitly listed on the command line.

       --follow-tags
           Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option, and
           also push annotated tags in refs/tags that are missing from the
           remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are reachable from the
           refs being pushed. This can also be specified with configuration
           variable push.followTags. For more information, see
           push.followTags in git-config(1).

       --[no-]signed, --sign=(true|false|if-asked)
           GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving side,
           to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be logged. If false
           or --no-signed, no signing will be attempted. If true or
           --signed, the push will fail if the server does not support
           signed pushes. If set to if-asked, sign if and only if the server
           supports signed pushes. The push will also fail if the actual
           call to gpg --sign fails. See git-receive-pack(1) for the details
           on the receiving end.

       --[no-]atomic
           Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available. Either
           all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated. If the
           server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.

       -o, --push-option
           Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to the
           pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string
           must not contain a NUL or LF character.

       --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>, --exec=<git-receive-pack>
           Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes
           useful when pushing to a remote repository over ssh, and you do
           not have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.

       --[no-]force-with-lease, --force-with-lease=<refname>,
       --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>
           Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
           ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.

           This option overrides this restriction if the current value of
           the remote ref is the expected value. "git push" fails otherwise.

           Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
           You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
           replace the history you originally published with the rebased
           history. If somebody else built on top of your original history
           while you are rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may
           advance with her commit, and blindly pushing with --force will
           lose her work.

           This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
           updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote
           ref still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure
           that no other people did anything to the ref. It is like taking a
           "lease" on the ref without explicitly locking it, and the remote
           ref is updated only if the "lease" is still valid.

           --force-with-lease alone, without specifying the details, will
           protect all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring
           their current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch
           we have for them.

           --force-with-lease=<refname>, without specifying the expected
           value, will protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be
           updated, by requiring its current value to be the same as the
           remote-tracking branch we have for it.

           --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> will protect the named ref
           (alone), if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current
           value to be the same as the specified value <expect> (which is
           allowed to be different from the remote-tracking branch we have
           for the refname, or we do not even have to have such a
           remote-tracking branch when this form is used). If <expect> is
           the empty string, then the named ref must not already exist.

           Note that all forms other than
           --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> that specifies the expected
           current value of the ref explicitly are still experimental and
           their semantics may change as we gain experience with this
           feature.

           "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous
           --force-with-lease on the command line.

       -f, --force
           Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not
           an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it. Also, when
           --force-with-lease option is used, the command refuses to update
           a remote ref whose current value does not match what is expected.

           This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote
           repository to lose commits; use it with care.

           Note that --force applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
           using it with push.default set to matching or with multiple push
           destinations configured with remote.*.push may overwrite refs
           other than the current branch (including local refs that are
           strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to
           only one branch, use a + in front of the refspec to push (e.g git
           push origin +master to force a push to the master branch). See
           the <refspec>...  section above for details.

       --repo=<repository>
           This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both
           are specified, the command-line argument takes precedence.

       -u, --set-upstream
           For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
           upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)
           and other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge
           in git-config(1).

       --[no-]thin
           These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin transfer
           significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
           receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
           --thin.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
           unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
           error stream.

       -v, --verbose
           Run verbosely.

       --progress
           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
           default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is
           specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard
           error stream is not directed to a terminal.

       --no-recurse-submodules, --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|only|no
           May be used to make sure all submodule commits used by the
           revisions to be pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch.
           If check is used Git will verify that all submodule commits that
           changed in the revisions to be pushed are available on at least
           one remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push
           will be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If on-demand is
           used all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed
           will be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
           revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
           If only is used all submodules will be recursively pushed while
           the superproject is left unpushed. A value of no or using
           --no-recurse-submodules can be used to override the
           push.recurseSubmodules configuration variable when no submodule
           recursion is required.

       --[no-]verify
           Toggle the pre-push hook (see githooks(5)). The default is
           --verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the push. With
           --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.

       -4, --ipv4
           Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

       -6, --ipv6
           Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.

GIT URLS         top

       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol,
       the address of the remote server, and the path to the repository.
       Depending on the transport protocol, some of this information may be
       absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp,
       and ftps can be used for fetching, but this is inefficient and
       deprecated; do not use it).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh
       protocol:

       ·   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the
       first colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a
       colon. For example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an
       absolute path or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh
       url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
       syntaxes may be used:

       ·   /path/to/repo.git/

       ·   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when
       the former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
       attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists.
       To explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be
       used:

       ·   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being
       invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories
       and you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs
       you use will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will
       be rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be
       "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "ssh://example.org/"]
                           pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/

       a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still
       use the original URL.

REMOTES         top

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       ·   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had
       previously configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a
       manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will
       be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be
       used by default when you do not provide a refspec on the command
       line. The entry in the config file would appear like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <url>
                           pushurl = <pushurl>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to
       <url>.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec
       in this file will be used as default when you do not provide a
       refspec on the command line. This file should have the following
       format:

                   URL: one of the above URL format
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches.
       The URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:

                   <url>#<head>

       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following
       refspecs, if you don’t provide one on the command line. <branch> is
       the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to
       master.

       git fetch uses:

                   refs/heads/<head>:refs/heads/<branch>

       git push uses:

                   HEAD:refs/heads/<head>

OUTPUT         top

       The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
       section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol
       (either locally or via ssh).

       The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
       representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:

            <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)

       If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:

            <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)

       The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or
       --verbose option is used.

       flag
           A single character indicating the status of the ref:

           (space)
               for a successfully pushed fast-forward;

           +
               for a successful forced update;

           -
               for a successfully deleted ref;

           *
               for a successfully pushed new ref;

           !
               for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and

           =
               for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.

       summary
           For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
           values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
           git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new>
           for forced non-fast-forward updates).

           For a failed update, more details are given:

           rejected
               Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
               is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.

           remote rejected
               The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
               on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
               of the following safety options in effect:
               receive.denyCurrentBranch (for pushes to the checked out
               branch), receive.denyNonFastForwards (for forced
               non-fast-forward updates), receive.denyDeletes or
               receive.denyDeleteCurrent. See git-config(1).

           remote failure
               The remote end did not report the successful update of the
               ref, perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side,
               a break in the network connection, or other transient error.

       from
           The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/
           prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the local ref is
           omitted.

       to
           The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/
           prefix.

       reason
           A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
           refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
           failure is described.

NOTE ABOUT FAST-FORWARDS         top

       When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used
       to point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
       fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.

       In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the
       original commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new
       commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.

       In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For
       example, suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X,
       and you built a history leading to commit B while the other person
       built a history leading to commit A. The history looks like this:

                 B
                /
            ---X---A

       Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading
       to A back to the original repository from which you two obtained the
       original commit X.

       The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to
       point at commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.

       But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
       now points at A) with commit B. This does not fast-forward. If you
       did so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because
       everybody will now start building on top of B.

       The command by default does not allow an update that is not a
       fast-forward to prevent such loss of history.

       If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the
       work by the other person (history from X to A), you would need to
       first fetch the history from the repository, create a history that
       contains changes done by both parties, and push the result back.

       You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git
       push" the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between
       commits A and B.

                 B---C
                /   /
            ---X---A

       Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
       push will be accepted.

       Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of
       A, with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase
       will create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on
       top of A.

                 B   D
                /   /
            ---X---A

       Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push
       will be accepted.

       There is another common situation where you may encounter
       non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and it is possible
       even when you are pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into.
       After you push commit A yourself (in the first picture in this
       section), replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B,
       and you try to push it out, because forgot that you have pushed A out
       already. In such a case, and only if you are certain that nobody in
       the meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on
       top of it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other
       words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for a case where you
       do mean to lose history.

EXAMPLES         top

       git push
           Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current
           branch’s remote (or origin, if no remote is configured for the
           current branch).

       git push origin
           Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to
           the configured upstream (remote.origin.merge configuration
           variable) if it has the same name as the current branch, and
           errors out without pushing otherwise.

           The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given
           can be configured by setting the push option of the remote, or
           the push.default configuration variable.

           For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to
           origin use git config remote.origin.push HEAD. Any valid
           <refspec> (like the ones in the examples below) can be configured
           as the default for git push origin.

       git push origin :
           Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the OPTIONS
           section above for a description of "matching" branches.

       git push origin master
           Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most
           likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and update the same ref
           (e.g.  refs/heads/master) in origin repository with it. If master
           did not exist remotely, it would be created.

       git push origin HEAD
           A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
           remote.

       git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
           Use the source ref that matches master (e.g.  refs/heads/master)
           to update the ref that matches satellite/master (most probably
           refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the mothership repository; do
           the same for dev and satellite/dev.

           This is to emulate git fetch run on the mothership using git push
           that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate the
           work done on satellite, and is often necessary when you can only
           make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
           mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
           because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).

           After running this git push on the satellite machine, you would
           ssh into the mothership and run git merge there to complete the
           emulation of git pull that were run on mothership to pull changes
           made on satellite.

       git push origin HEAD:master
           Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the
           origin repository. This form is convenient to push the current
           branch without thinking about its local name.

       git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
           Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by
           copying the current master branch. This form is only needed to
           create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when the
           local name and the remote name are different; otherwise, the ref
           name on its own will work.

       git push origin :experimental
           Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository
           (e.g.  refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.

       git push origin +dev:master
           Update the origin repository’s master branch with the dev branch,
           allowing non-fast-forward updates.  This can leave unreferenced
           commits dangling in the origin repository.  Consider the
           following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:

                           o---o---o---A---B  origin/master
                                    \
                                     X---Y---Z  dev

           The above command would change the origin repository to

                                     A---B  (unnamed branch)
                                    /
                           o---o---o---X---Y---Z  master

           Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a
           symbolic name, and so would be unreachable. As such, these
           commits would be removed by a git gc command on the origin
           repository.

SECURITY         top

       The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side
       from stealing data from the other repository that was not intended to
       be shared. If you have private data that you need to protect from a
       malicious peer, your best option is to store it in another
       repository. This applies to both clients and servers. In particular,
       namespaces on a server are not effective for read access control; you
       should only grant read access to a namespace to clients that you
       would trust with read access to the entire repository.

       The known attack vectors are as follows:

        1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it
           has that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used
           to optimize the transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker
           chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn’t
           required to send the content of X because the victim already has
           it. Now the victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends
           the content of X back to the attacker later. (This attack is most
           straightforward for a client to perform on a server, by creating
           a ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then
           fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a
           client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the
           user does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to
           the server without noticing the merge.)

        2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The
           victim sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and the
           attacker falsely claims to have X and not Y, so the victim sends
           Y as a delta against X. The delta reveals regions of X that are
           similar to Y to the attacker.

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Git 2.12.0.rc2                   02/18/2017                      GIT-PUSH(1)