This program dumps the given revisions in a form suitable to be piped
into git fast-import.
You can use it as a human-readable bundle replacement (see
git-bundle(1)), or as a kind of an interactive git filter-branch.
Insert progress statements every <n> objects, to be shown by gitfast-import during import.
Specify how to handle signed tags. Since any transformation after
the export can change the tag names (which can also happen when
excluding revisions) the signatures will not match.
When asking to abort (which is the default), this program will
die when encountering a signed tag. With strip, the tags will
silently be made unsigned, with warn-strip they will be made
unsigned but a warning will be displayed, with verbatim, they
will be silently exported and with warn, they will be exported,
but you will see a warning.
Specify how to handle tags whose tagged object is filtered out.
Since revisions and files to export can be limited by path,
tagged objects may be filtered completely.
When asking to abort (which is the default), this program will
die when encountering such a tag. With drop it will omit such
tags from the output. With rewrite, if the tagged object is a
commit, it will rewrite the tag to tag an ancestor commit (via
parent rewriting; see git-rev-list(1))
Perform move and/or copy detection, as described in the
git-diff(1) manual page, and use it to generate rename and copy
commands in the output dump.
Note that earlier versions of this command did not complain and
produced incorrect results if you gave these options.
Dumps the internal marks table to <file> when complete. Marks are
written one per line as :markid SHA-1. Only marks for revisions
are dumped; marks for blobs are ignored. Backends can use this
file to validate imports after they have been completed, or to
save the marks table across incremental runs. As <file> is only
opened and truncated at completion, the same path can also be
safely given to --import-marks. The file will not be written if
no new object has been marked/exported.
Before processing any input, load the marks specified in <file>.
The input file must exist, must be readable, and must use the
same format as produced by --export-marks.
Any commits that have already been marked will not be exported
again. If the backend uses a similar --import-marks file, this
allows for incremental bidirectional exporting of the repository
by keeping the marks the same across runs.
Some old repositories have tags without a tagger. The fast-import
protocol was pretty strict about that, and did not allow that. So
fake a tagger to be able to fast-import the output.
Start the stream with a feature done stanza, and terminate it
with a done command.
Skip output of blob objects and instead refer to blobs via their
original SHA-1 hash. This is useful when rewriting the directory
structure or history of a repository without touching the
contents of individual files. Note that the resulting stream can
only be used by a repository which already contains the necessary
This option will cause fast-export to issue a "deleteall"
directive for each commit followed by a full list of all files in
the commit (as opposed to just listing the files which are
different from the commit’s first parent).
Anonymize the contents of the repository while still retaining
the shape of the history and stored tree. See the section on
Apply the specified refspec to each ref exported. Multiple of
them can be specified.
A list of arguments, acceptable to git rev-parse and gitrev-list, that specifies the specific objects and references to
export. For example, master~10..master causes the current master
reference to be exported along with all objects added since its
10th ancestor commit.
$ git fast-export --all | (cd /empty/repository && git fast-import)
This will export the whole repository and import it into the existing
empty repository. Except for reencoding commits that are not in
UTF-8, it would be a one-to-one mirror.
$ git fast-export master~5..master |
sed "s|refs/heads/master|refs/heads/other|" |
This makes a new branch called other from master~5..master (i.e. if
master has linear history, it will take the last 5 commits).
Note that this assumes that none of the blobs and commit messages
referenced by that revision range contains the string
If the --anonymize option is given, git will attempt to remove all
identifying information from the repository while still retaining
enough of the original tree and history patterns to reproduce some
bugs. The goal is that a git bug which is found on a private
repository will persist in the anonymized repository, and the latter
can be shared with git developers to help solve the bug.
With this option, git will replace all refnames, paths, blob
contents, commit and tag messages, names, and email addresses in the
output with anonymized data. Two instances of the same string will be
replaced equivalently (e.g., two commits with the same author will
have the same anonymized author in the output, but bear no
resemblance to the original author string). The relationship between
commits, branches, and tags is retained, as well as the commit
timestamps (but the commit messages and refnames bear no resemblance
to the originals). The relative makeup of the tree is retained (e.g.,
if you have a root tree with 10 files and 3 trees, so will the
output), but their names and the contents of the files will be
If you think you have found a git bug, you can start by exporting an
anonymized stream of the whole repository:
$ git fast-export --anonymize --all >anon-stream
Then confirm that the bug persists in a repository created from that
stream (many bugs will not, as they really do depend on the exact
$ git init anon-repo
$ cd anon-repo
$ git fast-import <../anon-stream
$ ... test your bug ...
If the anonymized repository shows the bug, it may be worth sharing
anon-stream along with a regular bug report. Note that the anonymized
stream compresses very well, so gzipping it is encouraged. If you
want to examine the stream to see that it does not contain any
private data, you can peruse it directly before sending. You may also
want to try:
$ perl -pe 's/\d+/X/g' <anon-stream | sort -u | less
which shows all of the unique lines (with numbers converted to "X",
to collapse "User 0", "User 1", etc into "User X"). This produces a
much smaller output, and it is usually easy to quickly confirm that
there is no private data in the stream.
This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
project. Information about the project can be found at
⟨http://git-scm.com/⟩. If you have a bug report for this manual page,
see ⟨http://git-scm.com/community⟩. This page was obtained from the
project's upstream Git repository (https://github.com/git/git.git) on
2014-09-24. If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML ver‐
sion of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date
source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original man‐
ual page), send a mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
Git 22.214.171.1243.g97b8860 09/21/2014 GIT-FAST-EXPORT(1)