This merges the file listing in the directory cache index with the
actual working directory list, and shows different combinations of
One or more of the options below may be used to determine the files
Show cached files in the output (default)
Show deleted files in the output
Show modified files in the output
Show other (i.e. untracked) files in the output
Show only ignored files in the output. When showing files in the
index, print only those matched by an exclude pattern. When
showing "other" files, show only those matched by an exclude
Show staged contents' object name, mode bits and stage number in
If a whole directory is classified as "other", show just its name
(with a trailing slash) and not its whole contents.
Do not list empty directories. Has no effect without --directory.
Show unmerged files in the output (forces --stage)
Show files on the filesystem that need to be removed due to
file/directory conflicts for checkout-index to succeed.
\0 line termination on output and do not quote filenames. See
OUTPUT below for more information.
-x <pattern>, --exclude=<pattern>
Skip untracked files matching pattern. Note that pattern is a
shell wildcard pattern. See EXCLUDE PATTERNS below for more
-X <file>, --exclude-from=<file>
Read exclude patterns from <file>; 1 per line.
Read additional exclude patterns that apply only to the directory
and its subdirectories in <file>.
Add the standard Git exclusions: .git/info/exclude, .gitignore in
each directory, and the user’s global exclusion file.
If any <file> does not appear in the index, treat this as an
error (return 1).
When using --error-unmatch to expand the user supplied <file>
(i.e. path pattern) arguments to paths, pretend that paths which
were removed in the index since the named <tree-ish> are still
present. Using this option with -s or -u options does not make
This feature is semi-deprecated. For scripting purpose,
git-status(1)--porcelain and git-diff-files(1)--name-status are
almost always superior alternatives, and users should look at
git-status(1)--short or git-diff(1)--name-status for more
This option identifies the file status with the following tags
(followed by a space) at the start of each line:
to be killed
Similar to -t, but use lowercase letters for files that are
marked as assume unchanged (see git-update-index(1)).
When run from a subdirectory, the command usually outputs paths
relative to the current directory. This option forces paths to be
output relative to the project top directory.
Recursively calls ls-files on each submodule in the repository.
Currently there is only support for the --cached mode.
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object lines,
show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be
specified with --abbrev=<n>.
After each line that describes a file, add more data about its
cache entry. This is intended to show as much information as
possible for manual inspection; the exact format may change at
Show <eolinfo> and <eolattr> of files. <eolinfo> is the file
content identification used by Git when the "text" attribute is
"auto" (or not set and core.autocrlf is not false). <eolinfo> is
either "-text", "none", "lf", "crlf", "mixed" or "".
"" means the file is not a regular file, it is not in the index
or not accessible in the working tree.
<eolattr> is the attribute that is used when checking out or
committing, it is either "", "-text", "text", "text=auto", "text
eol=lf", "text eol=crlf". Since Git 2.10 "text=auto eol=lf" and
"text=auto eol=crlf" are supported.
Both the <eolinfo> in the index ("i/<eolinfo>") and in the
working tree ("w/<eolinfo>") are shown for regular files,
followed by the ("attr/<eolattr>").
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
Files to show. If no files are given all files which match the
other specified criteria are shown.
git ls-files just outputs the filenames unless --stage is specified
in which case it outputs:
[<tag> ]<mode> <object> <stage> <file>
git ls-files --eol will show
git ls-files --unmerged and git ls-files --stage can be used to
examine detailed information on unmerged paths.
For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA-1 pair,
the index records up to three such pairs; one from tree O in stage 1,
A in stage 2, and B in stage 3. This information can be used by the
user (or the porcelain) to see what should eventually be recorded at
the path. (see git-read-tree(1) for more information on state)
Without the -z option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted
as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see
git-config(1)). Using -z the filename is output verbatim and the line
is terminated by a NUL byte.
git ls-files can use a list of "exclude patterns" when traversing the
directory tree and finding files to show when the flags --others or
--ignored are specified. gitignore(5) specifies the format of exclude
These exclude patterns come from these places, in order:
1. The command-line flag --exclude=<pattern> specifies a single
pattern. Patterns are ordered in the same order they appear in
the command line.
2. The command-line flag --exclude-from=<file> specifies a file
containing a list of patterns. Patterns are ordered in the same
order they appear in the file.
3. The command-line flag --exclude-per-directory=<name> specifies a
name of the file in each directory git ls-files examines,
normally .gitignore. Files in deeper directories take precedence.
Patterns are ordered in the same order they appear in the files.
A pattern specified on the command line with --exclude or read from
the file specified with --exclude-from is relative to the top of the
directory tree. A pattern read from a file specified by
--exclude-per-directory is relative to the directory that the pattern
file appears in.
This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
project. Information about the project can be found at
⟨http://git-scm.com/⟩. If you have a bug report for this manual page,
see ⟨http://git-scm.com/community⟩. This page was obtained from the
project's upstream Git repository ⟨https://github.com/git/git.git⟩ on
2017-03-13. If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML ver‐
sion of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date
source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original man‐
ual page), send a mail to email@example.com
Git 188.8.131.524.gd6db3f 03/13/2017 GIT-LS-FILES(1)