GIT-PULL(1)                      Git Manual                      GIT-PULL(1)

NAME         top

       git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a
       local branch

SYNOPSIS         top

       git pull [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current
       branch. In its default mode, git pull is shorthand for git fetch
       followed by git merge FETCH_HEAD.

       More precisely, git pull runs git fetch with the given parameters and
       calls git merge to merge the retrieved branch heads into the current
       branch. With --rebase, it runs git rebase instead of git merge.

       <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as passed to
       git-fetch(1). <refspec> can name an arbitrary remote ref (for
       example, the name of a tag) or even a collection of refs with
       corresponding remote-tracking branches (e.g.,
       refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*), but usually it is the name of a
       branch in the remote repository.

       Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the
       "remote" and "merge" configuration for the current branch as set by
       git-branch(1) --track.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is

                     A---B---C master on origin
               D---E---F---G master
                   origin/master in your repository

       Then "git pull" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
       master branch since it diverged from the local master (i.e., E) until
       its current commit (C) on top of master and record the result in a
       new commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log
       message from the user describing the changes.

                     A---B---C origin/master
                    /         \
               D---E---F---G---H master

       See git-merge(1) for details, including how conflicts are presented
       and handled.

       In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use git reset
       --merge. Warning: In older versions of Git, running git pull with
       uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in
       a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.

       If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes,
       the merge will be automatically canceled and the work tree untouched.
       It is generally best to get any local changes in working order before
       pulling or stash them away with git-stash(1).

OPTIONS         top

       -q, --quiet
           This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting
           of during transfer, and underlying git-merge to squelch output
           during merging.

       -v, --verbose
           Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.

           This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules
           should be fetched and updated, too (see git-config(1) and

           If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are
           rebased as well.

           If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are
           resolved and checked out.

   Options related to merging
       --commit, --no-commit
           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used
           to override --no-commit.

           With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed
           and do not autocommit, to give the user a chance to inspect and
           further tweak the merge result before committing.

       --edit, -e, --no-edit
           Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to
           further edit the auto-generated merge message, so that the user
           can explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit option can be
           used to accept the auto-generated message (this is generally

           Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not
           allowing the user to edit the merge log message. They will see an
           editor opened when they run git merge. To make it easier to
           adjust such scripts to the updated behaviour, the environment
           variable GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning of

           When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch
           pointer, without creating a merge commit. This is the default

           Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a
           fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an
           annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not stored in its
           natural place in refs/tags/ hierarchy.

           Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the
           current HEAD is already up to date or the merge can be resolved
           as a fast-forward.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
           GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The keyid argument is
           optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it
           must be stuck to the option without a space.

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with
           one-line descriptions from at most <n> actual commits that are
           being merged. See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).

           With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the actual
           commits being merged.

       --signoff, --no-signoff
           Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
           log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but
           it typically certifies that committer has the rights to submit
           this work under the same license and agrees to a Developer
           Certificate of Origin (see for
           more information).

           With --no-signoff do not add a Signed-off-by line.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
           Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also
           controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.

           With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the

       --squash, --no-squash
           Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge
           happened (except for the merge information), but do not actually
           make a commit, move the HEAD, or record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to
           cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit). This
           allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch
           whose effect is the same as merging another branch (or more in
           case of an octopus).

           With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This
           option can be used to override --squash.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
           Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to
           specify them in the order they should be tried. If there is no -s
           option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead (git
           merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
           Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge

       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
           Verify that the tip commit of the side branch being merged is
           signed with a valid key, i.e. a key that has a valid uid: in the
           default trust model, this means the signing key has been signed
           by a trusted key. If the tip commit of the side branch is not
           signed with a valid key, the merge is aborted.

       --summary, --no-summary
           Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will
           be removed in the future.

           By default, git merge command refuses to merge histories that do
           not share a common ancestor. This option can be used to override
           this safety when merging histories of two projects that started
           their lives independently. As that is a very rare occasion, no
           configuration variable to enable this by default exists and will
           not be added.

       -r, --rebase[=false|true|merges|preserve|interactive]
           When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
           branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
           corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch was
           rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information to
           avoid rebasing non-local changes.

           When set to merges, rebase using git rebase --rebase-merges so
           that the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
           git-rebase(1) for details).

           When set to preserve, rebase with the --preserve-merges option
           passed to git rebase so that locally created merge commits will
           not be flattened.

           When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.

           When interactive, enable the interactive mode of rebase.

           See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and branch.autoSetupRebase
           in git-config(1) if you want to make git pull always use --rebase
           instead of merging.

               This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It
               rewrites history, which does not bode well when you published
               that history already. Do not use this option unless you have
               read git-rebase(1) carefully.

           Override earlier --rebase.

       --autostash, --no-autostash
           Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see
           git-stash(1)) if needed, and apply the stash entry when done.
           --no-autostash is useful to override the rebase.autoStash
           configuration variable (see git-config(1)).

           This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.

   Options related to fetching
           Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
           Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing
           contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in
           .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

           Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of
           each remote branch history. If fetching to a shallow repository
           created by git clone with --depth=<depth> option (see
           git-clone(1)), deepen or shorten the history to the specified
           number of commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

           Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits
           from the current shallow boundary instead of from the tip of each
           remote branch history.

           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to include
           all reachable commits after <date>.

           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to exclude
           commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This
           option can be specified multiple times.

           If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow
           repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations
           imposed by shallow repositories.

           If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so
           that the current repository has the same history as the source

           By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch
           refuses refs that require updating .git/shallow. This option
           updates .git/shallow and accept such refs.

           By default, Git will report, to the server, commits reachable
           from all local refs to find common commits in an attempt to
           reduce the size of the to-be-received packfile. If specified, Git
           will only report commits reachable from the given tips. This is
           useful to speed up fetches when the user knows which local ref is
           likely to have commits in common with the upstream ref being

           This option may be specified more than once; if so, Git will
           report commits reachable from any of the given commits.

           The argument to this option may be a glob on ref names, a ref, or
           the (possibly abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit. Specifying a glob
           is equivalent to specifying this option multiple times, one for
           each matching ref name.

           See also the fetch.negotiationAlgorithm configuration variable
           documented in git-config(1).

       -f, --force
           When git fetch is used with <src>:<dst> refspec it may refuse to
           update the local branch as discussed in the <refspec> part of the
           git-fetch(1) documentation. This option overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
           Keep downloaded pack.

           By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from
           the remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option
           disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a
           remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting.
           See git-config(1).

       -u, --update-head-ok
           By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds
           to the current branch. This flag disables the check. This is
           purely for the internal use for git pull to communicate with git
           fetch, and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are
           not supposed to use it.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
           When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git
           fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to
           specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.

           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
           default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is
           specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard
           error stream is not directed to a terminal.

       -o <option>, --server-option=<option>
           Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using
           protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF
           character. When multiple --server-option=<option> are given, they
           are all sent to the other side in the order listed on the command

       -4, --ipv4
           Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

       -6, --ipv6
           Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.

           The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull
           operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section
           GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES

           Specifies which refs to fetch and which local refs to update.
           When no <refspec>s appear on the command line, the refs to fetch
           are read from remote.<repository>.fetch variables instead (see

           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +,
           followed by the source <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by
           the destination ref <dst>. The colon can be omitted when <dst> is
           empty. <src> is typically a ref, but it can also be a fully
           spelled hex object name.

           tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it
           requests fetching everything up to the given tag.

           The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not
           an empty string, an attempt is made to update the local ref that
           matches it.

           Whether that update is allowed without --force depends on the ref
           namespace it’s being fetched to, the type of object being
           fetched, and whether the update is considered to be a
           fast-forward. Generally, the same rules apply for fetching as
           when pushing, see the <refspec>...  section of git-push(1) for
           what those are. Exceptions to those rules particular to git fetch
           are noted below.

           Until Git version 2.20, and unlike when pushing with git-push(1),
           any updates to refs/tags/* would be accepted without + in the
           refspec (or --force). When fetching, we promiscuously considered
           all tag updates from a remote to be forced fetches. Since Git
           version 2.20, fetching to update refs/tags/* works the same way
           as when pushing. I.e. any updates will be rejected without + in
           the refspec (or --force).

           Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), any updates outside of
           refs/{tags,heads}/* will be accepted without + in the refspec (or
           --force), whether that’s swapping e.g. a tree object for a blob,
           or a commit for another commit that’s doesn’t have the previous
           commit as an ancestor etc.

           Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), there is no configuration
           which’ll amend these rules, and nothing like a pre-fetch hook
           analogous to the pre-receive hook.

           As with pushing with git-push(1), all of the rules described
           above about what’s not allowed as an update can be overridden by
           adding an the optional leading + to a refspec (or using --force
           command line option). The only exception to this is that no
           amount of forcing will make the refs/heads/* namespace accept a
           non-commit object.

               When the remote branch you want to fetch is known to be
               rewound and rebased regularly, it is expected that its new
               tip will not be descendant of its previous tip (as stored in
               your remote-tracking branch the last time you fetched). You
               would want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward
               updates will be needed for such branches. There is no way to
               determine or declare that a branch will be made available in
               a repository with this behavior; the pulling user simply must
               know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.

               There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec>
               directly on git pull command line and having multiple
               remote.<repository>.fetch entries in your configuration for a
               <repository> and running a git pull command without any
               explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec>s listed explicitly
               on the command line are always merged into the current branch
               after fetching. In other words, if you list more than one
               remote ref, git pull will create an Octopus merge. On the
               other hand, if you do not list any explicit <refspec>
               parameter on the command line, git pull will fetch all the
               <refspec>s it finds in the remote.<repository>.fetch
               configuration and merge only the first <refspec> found into
               the current branch. This is because making an Octopus from
               remote refs is rarely done, while keeping track of multiple
               remote heads in one-go by fetching more than one is often

GIT URLS         top

       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol,
       the address of the remote server, and the path to the repository.
       Depending on the transport protocol, some of this information may be

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp,
       and ftps can be used for fetching, but this is inefficient and
       deprecated; do not use it).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh

       ·   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the
       first colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a
       colon. For example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an
       absolute path or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
       syntaxes may be used:

       ·   /path/to/repo.git/

       ·   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when
       the former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
       attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists.
       To explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be

       ·   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being
       invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories
       and you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs
       you use will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will
       be rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "ssh://"]
                           pushInsteadOf = git://

       a URL like "git://" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://" for pushes, but pulls will still
       use the original URL.

REMOTES         top

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       ·   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had
       previously configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a
       manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will
       be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be
       used by default when you do not provide a refspec on the command
       line. The entry in the config file would appear like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <url>
                           pushurl = <pushurl>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec
       in this file will be used as default when you do not provide a
       refspec on the command line. This file should have the following

                   URL: one of the above URL format
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches.
       The URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following
       refspecs, if you don’t provide one on the command line. <branch> is
       the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to

       git fetch uses:


       git push uses:



       The merge mechanism (git merge and git pull commands) allows the
       backend merge strategies to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies
       can also take their own options, which can be passed by giving
       -X<option> arguments to git merge and/or git pull.

           This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
           another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It
           tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
           considered generally safe and fast.

           This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm.
           When there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for
           3-way merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and
           uses that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has
           been reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing
           mismerges by tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
           2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and
           handle merges involving renames, but currently cannot make use of
           detected copies. This is the default merge strategy when pulling
           or merging one branch.

           The recursive strategy can take the following options:

               This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved
               cleanly by favoring our version. Changes from the other tree
               that do not conflict with our side are reflected to the merge
               result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from
               our side.

               This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy,
               which does not even look at what the other tree contains at
               all. It discards everything the other tree did, declaring our
               history contains all that happened in it.

               This is the opposite of ours; note that, unlike ours, there
               is no theirs merge strategy to confuse this merge option

               With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time
               to avoid mismerges that sometimes occur due to unimportant
               matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use
               this when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See
               also git-diff(1) --patience.

               Tells merge-recursive to use a different diff algorithm,
               which can help avoid mismerges that occur due to unimportant
               matching lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See
               also git-diff(1) --diff-algorithm.

           ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol,
               Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
               unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace
               changes mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored.
               See also git-diff(1) -b, -w, --ignore-space-at-eol, and

               ·   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a
                   line, our version is used;

               ·   If our version introduces whitespace changes but their
                   version includes a substantial change, their version is

               ·   Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.

               This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three
               stages of a file when resolving a three-way merge. This
               option is meant to be used when merging branches with
               different clean filters or end-of-line normalization rules.
               See "Merging branches with differing checkin/checkout
               attributes" in gitattributes(5) for details.

               Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the
               merge.renormalize configuration variable.

               Turn off rename detection. This overrides the merge.renames
               configuration variable. See also git-diff(1) --no-renames.

               Turn on rename detection, optionally setting the similarity
               threshold. This is the default. This overrides the
               merge.renames configuration variable. See also git-diff(1)

               Deprecated synonym for find-renames=<n>.

               This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy,
               where the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must be
               shifted to match with each other when merging. Instead, the
               specified path is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning)
               to make the shape of two trees to match.

           This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a
           complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant
           to be used for bundling topic branch heads together. This is the
           default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one

           This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the
           merge is always that of the current branch head, effectively
           ignoring all changes from all other branches. It is meant to be
           used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note
           that this is different from the -Xours option to the recursive
           merge strategy.

           This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and
           B, if B corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to
           match the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at
           the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common
           ancestor tree.

       With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default,
       recursive), if a change is made on both branches, but later reverted
       on one of the branches, that change will be present in the merged
       result; some people find this behavior confusing. It occurs because
       only the heads and the merge base are considered when performing a
       merge, not the individual commits. The merge algorithm therefore
       considers the reverted change as no change at all, and substitutes
       the changed version instead.


       Often people use git pull without giving any parameter.
       Traditionally, this has been equivalent to saying git pull origin.
       However, when configuration branch.<name>.remote is present while on
       branch <name>, that value is used instead of origin.

       In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value of the
       configuration remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not
       any such variable, the value on the URL: line in
       $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> is used.

       In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and optionally
       store in the remote-tracking branches) when the command is run
       without any refspec parameters on the command line, values of the
       configuration variable remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted, and if
       there aren’t any, $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> is consulted and its
       Pull: lines are used. In addition to the refspec formats described in
       the OPTIONS section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like


       A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store what
       were fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS must
       end with /*. The above specifies that all remote branches are tracked
       using remote-tracking branches in refs/remotes/origin/ hierarchy
       under the same name.

       The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after fetching is
       a bit involved, in order not to break backward compatibility.

       If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull, they
       are all merged.

       When no refspec was given on the command line, then git pull uses the
       refspec from the configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such
       cases, the following rules apply:

        1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch
           <name> exists, that is the name of the branch at the remote site
           that is merged.

        2. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.

        3. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.

EXAMPLES         top

       ·   Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned
           from, then merge one of them into your current branch:

               $ git pull
               $ git pull origin

           Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote
           repository, but the choice is determined by the
           branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options; see
           git-config(1) for details.

       ·   Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:

               $ git pull origin next

           This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but does
           not update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking
           branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:

               $ git fetch origin
               $ git merge origin/next

       If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and would
       want to start over, you can recover with git reset.

SECURITY         top

       The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side
       from stealing data from the other repository that was not intended to
       be shared. If you have private data that you need to protect from a
       malicious peer, your best option is to store it in another
       repository. This applies to both clients and servers. In particular,
       namespaces on a server are not effective for read access control; you
       should only grant read access to a namespace to clients that you
       would trust with read access to the entire repository.

       The known attack vectors are as follows:

        1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it
           has that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used
           to optimize the transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker
           chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn’t
           required to send the content of X because the victim already has
           it. Now the victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends
           the content of X back to the attacker later. (This attack is most
           straightforward for a client to perform on a server, by creating
           a ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then
           fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a
           client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the
           user does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to
           the server without noticing the merge.)

        2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The
           victim sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and the
           attacker falsely claims to have X and not Y, so the victim sends
           Y as a delta against X. The delta reveals regions of X that are
           similar to Y to the attacker.

BUGS         top

       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already
       checked out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new
       submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject the
       submodule itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check
       out that submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This is
       expected to be fixed in a future Git version.

SEE ALSO         top

       git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2018-10-29.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2018-10-26.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           10/28/2018                      GIT-PULL(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-config(1)git-fetch(1)git-merge(1)git-push(1)giteveryday(7)gitglossary(7)gittutorial(7)gitworkflows(7)