NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | SEE ALSO | GIT | COLOPHON

GIT-PACK-OBJECTS(1)              Git Manual              GIT-PACK-OBJECTS(1)

NAME         top

       git-pack-objects - Create a packed archive of objects

SYNOPSIS         top

       git pack-objects [-q | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
               [--no-reuse-delta] [--delta-base-offset] [--non-empty]
               [--local] [--incremental] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
               [--revs [--unpacked | --all]] [--stdout | base-name]
               [--shallow] [--keep-true-parents] < object-list

DESCRIPTION         top

       Reads list of objects from the standard input, and writes a packed
       archive with specified base-name, or to the standard output.

       A packed archive is an efficient way to transfer a set of objects
       between two repositories as well as an access efficient archival
       format. In a packed archive, an object is either stored as a
       compressed whole or as a difference from some other object. The
       latter is often called a delta.

       The packed archive format (.pack) is designed to be self-contained so
       that it can be unpacked without any further information. Therefore,
       each object that a delta depends upon must be present within the
       pack.

       A pack index file (.idx) is generated for fast, random access to the
       objects in the pack. Placing both the index file (.idx) and the
       packed archive (.pack) in the pack/ subdirectory of
       $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or any of the directories on
       $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES) enables Git to read from the pack
       archive.

       The git unpack-objects command can read the packed archive and expand
       the objects contained in the pack into "one-file one-object" format;
       this is typically done by the smart-pull commands when a pack is
       created on-the-fly for efficient network transport by their peers.

OPTIONS         top

       base-name
           Write into a pair of files (.pack and .idx), using <base-name> to
           determine the name of the created file. When this option is used,
           the two files are written in <base-name>-<SHA-1>.{pack,idx}
           files. <SHA-1> is a hash based on the pack content and is written
           to the standard output of the command.

       --stdout
           Write the pack contents (what would have been written to .pack
           file) out to the standard output.

       --revs
           Read the revision arguments from the standard input, instead of
           individual object names. The revision arguments are processed the
           same way as git rev-list with the --objects flag uses its commit
           arguments to build the list of objects it outputs. The objects on
           the resulting list are packed. Besides revisions, --not or
           --shallow <SHA-1> lines are also accepted.

       --unpacked
           This implies --revs. When processing the list of revision
           arguments read from the standard input, limit the objects packed
           to those that are not already packed.

       --all
           This implies --revs. In addition to the list of revision
           arguments read from the standard input, pretend as if all refs
           under refs/ are specified to be included.

       --include-tag
           Include unasked-for annotated tags if the object they reference
           was included in the resulting packfile. This can be useful to
           send new tags to native Git clients.

       --window=<n>, --depth=<n>
           These two options affect how the objects contained in the pack
           are stored using delta compression. The objects are first
           internally sorted by type, size and optionally names and compared
           against the other objects within --window to see if using delta
           compression saves space. --depth limits the maximum delta depth;
           making it too deep affects the performance on the unpacker side,
           because delta data needs to be applied that many times to get to
           the necessary object. The default value for --window is 10 and
           --depth is 50.

       --window-memory=<n>
           This option provides an additional limit on top of --window; the
           window size will dynamically scale down so as to not take up more
           than <n> bytes in memory. This is useful in repositories with a
           mix of large and small objects to not run out of memory with a
           large window, but still be able to take advantage of the large
           window for the smaller objects. The size can be suffixed with
           "k", "m", or "g".  --window-memory=0 makes memory usage
           unlimited. The default is taken from the pack.windowMemory
           configuration variable.

       --max-pack-size=<n>
           Maximum size of each output pack file. The size can be suffixed
           with "k", "m", or "g". The minimum size allowed is limited to 1
           MiB. If specified, multiple packfiles may be created, which also
           prevents the creation of a bitmap index. The default is
           unlimited, unless the config variable pack.packSizeLimit is set.

       --honor-pack-keep
           This flag causes an object already in a local pack that has a
           .keep file to be ignored, even if it would have otherwise been
           packed.

       --incremental
           This flag causes an object already in a pack to be ignored even
           if it would have otherwise been packed.

       --local
           This flag causes an object that is borrowed from an alternate
           object store to be ignored even if it would have otherwise been
           packed.

       --non-empty
           Only create a packed archive if it would contain at least one
           object.

       --progress
           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
           default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is
           specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard
           error stream is not directed to a terminal.

       --all-progress
           When --stdout is specified then progress report is displayed
           during the object count and compression phases but inhibited
           during the write-out phase. The reason is that in some cases the
           output stream is directly linked to another command which may
           wish to display progress status of its own as it processes
           incoming pack data. This flag is like --progress except that it
           forces progress report for the write-out phase as well even if
           --stdout is used.

       --all-progress-implied
           This is used to imply --all-progress whenever progress display is
           activated. Unlike --all-progress this flag doesn’t actually force
           any progress display by itself.

       -q
           This flag makes the command not to report its progress on the
           standard error stream.

       --no-reuse-delta
           When creating a packed archive in a repository that has existing
           packs, the command reuses existing deltas. This sometimes results
           in a slightly suboptimal pack. This flag tells the command not to
           reuse existing deltas but compute them from scratch.

       --no-reuse-object
           This flag tells the command not to reuse existing object data at
           all, including non deltified object, forcing recompression of
           everything. This implies --no-reuse-delta. Useful only in the
           obscure case where wholesale enforcement of a different
           compression level on the packed data is desired.

       --compression=<n>
           Specifies compression level for newly-compressed data in the
           generated pack. If not specified, pack compression level is
           determined first by pack.compression, then by core.compression,
           and defaults to -1, the zlib default, if neither is set. Add
           --no-reuse-object if you want to force a uniform compression
           level on all data no matter the source.

       --thin
           Create a "thin" pack by omitting the common objects between a
           sender and a receiver in order to reduce network transfer. This
           option only makes sense in conjunction with --stdout.

           Note: A thin pack violates the packed archive format by omitting
           required objects and is thus unusable by Git without making it
           self-contained. Use git index-pack --fix-thin (see
           git-index-pack(1)) to restore the self-contained property.

       --shallow
           Optimize a pack that will be provided to a client with a shallow
           repository. This option, combined with --thin, can result in a
           smaller pack at the cost of speed.

       --delta-base-offset
           A packed archive can express the base object of a delta as either
           a 20-byte object name or as an offset in the stream, but ancient
           versions of Git don’t understand the latter. By default, git
           pack-objects only uses the former format for better
           compatibility. This option allows the command to use the latter
           format for compactness. Depending on the average delta chain
           length, this option typically shrinks the resulting packfile by
           3-5 per-cent.

           Note: Porcelain commands such as git gc (see git-gc(1)), git
           repack (see git-repack(1)) pass this option by default in modern
           Git when they put objects in your repository into pack files. So
           does git bundle (see git-bundle(1)) when it creates a bundle.

       --threads=<n>
           Specifies the number of threads to spawn when searching for best
           delta matches. This requires that pack-objects be compiled with
           pthreads otherwise this option is ignored with a warning. This is
           meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor machines. The
           required amount of memory for the delta search window is however
           multiplied by the number of threads. Specifying 0 will cause Git
           to auto-detect the number of CPU’s and set the number of threads
           accordingly.

       --index-version=<version>[,<offset>]
           This is intended to be used by the test suite only. It allows to
           force the version for the generated pack index, and to force
           64-bit index entries on objects located above the given offset.

       --keep-true-parents
           With this option, parents that are hidden by grafts are packed
           nevertheless.

SEE ALSO         top

       git-rev-list(1) git-repack(1) git-prune-packed(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://git-scm.com/⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨http://git-scm.com/community⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨https://github.com/git/git.git⟩ on
       2017-05-03.  If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML ver‐
       sion of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date
       source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original man‐
       ual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

Git 2.10.0.rc2.20.g5             09/01/2016              GIT-PACK-OBJECTS(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-config(1)git-index-pack(1)git-pack-redundant(1)git-prune-packed(1)git-repack(1)git-rev-list(1)