NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SPECIFYING REVISIONS | SPECIFYING RANGES | REVISION RANGE SUMMARY | SEE ALSO | GIT | COLOPHON

GITREVISIONS(7)                  Git Manual                  GITREVISIONS(7)

NAME         top

       gitrevisions - specifying revisions and ranges for Git

SYNOPSIS         top

       gitrevisions

DESCRIPTION         top

       Many Git commands take revision parameters as arguments. Depending on
       the command, they denote a specific commit or, for commands which
       walk the revision graph (such as git-log(1)), all commits which are
       reachable from that commit. For commands that walk the revision graph
       one can also specify a range of revisions explicitly.

       In addition, some Git commands (such as git-show(1)) also take
       revision parameters which denote other objects than commits, e.g.
       blobs ("files") or trees ("directories of files").

SPECIFYING REVISIONS         top

       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a
       commit object. It uses what is called an extended SHA-1 syntax. Here
       are various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end
       of this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
           The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
           leading substring that is unique within the repository. E.g.
           dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
           same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
           whose object name starts with dae86e.

       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
           Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed
           by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and
           an abbreviated object name.

       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
           A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit
           object referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have
           both heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say
           heads/master to tell Git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a
           <refname> is disambiguated by taking the first match in the
           following rules:

            1. If $GIT_DIR/<refname> exists, that is what you mean (this is
               usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD,
               MERGE_HEAD and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);

            2. otherwise, refs/<refname> if it exists;

            3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;

            4. otherwise, refs/heads/<refname> if it exists;

            5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname> if it exists;

            6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD if it exists.

               HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the
               working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you
               fetched from a remote repository with your last git fetch
               invocation.  ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your
               HEAD in a drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD
               before their operation, so that you can easily change the tip
               of the branch back to the state before you ran them.
               MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) which you are merging into
               your branch when you run git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records
               the commit which you are cherry-picking when you run git
               cherry-pick.

               Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from
               the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs
               file. While the ref name encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is
               preferred as some output processing may assume ref names in
               UTF-8.

       @
           @ alone is a shortcut for HEAD.

       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed
           in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1
           hour 1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) specifies the value
           of the ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used
           immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an
           existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the
           state of your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your
           local master branch last week. If you want to look at commits
           made during certain times, see --since and --until.

       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification
           enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th
           prior value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate
           prior value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of
           master. This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref
           name and the ref must have an existing log
           ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).

       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
           You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a
           reflog entry of the current branch. For example, if you are on
           branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.

       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
           The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch/commit checked out
           before the current one.

       <branchname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
           The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form
           <branchname>@{u}) refers to the branch that the branch specified
           by branchname is set to build on top of (configured with
           branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge). A missing
           branchname defaults to the current one. These suffixes are also
           accepted when spelled in uppercase, and they mean the same thing
           no matter the case.

       <branchname>@{push}, e.g. master@{push}, @{push}
           The suffix @{push} reports the branch "where we would push to" if
           git push were run while branchname was checked out (or the
           current HEAD if no branchname is specified). Since our push
           destination is in a remote repository, of course, we report the
           local tracking branch that corresponds to that branch (i.e.,
           something in refs/remotes/).

           Here’s an example to make it more clear:

               $ git config push.default current
               $ git config remote.pushdefault myfork
               $ git checkout -b mybranch origin/master

               $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{upstream}
               refs/remotes/origin/master

               $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{push}
               refs/remotes/myfork/mybranch

           Note in the example that we set up a triangular workflow, where
           we pull from one location and push to another. In a
           non-triangular workflow, @{push} is the same as @{upstream}, and
           there is no need for it.

           This suffix is also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and means
           the same thing no matter the case.

       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that
           commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is
           equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^0 means the
           commit itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag
           object that refers to a commit object.

       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
           A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object
           that is the <n>th generation ancestor of the named commit object,
           following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is equivalent to
           <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
           illustration of the usage of this form.

       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
           A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair
           means dereference the object at <rev> recursively until an object
           of type <type> is found or the object cannot be dereferenced
           anymore (in which case, barf). For example, if <rev> is a
           commit-ish, <rev>^{commit} describes the corresponding commit
           object. Similarly, if <rev> is a tree-ish, <rev>^{tree} describes
           the corresponding tree object.  <rev>^0 is a short-hand for
           <rev>^{commit}.

           rev^{object} can be used to make sure rev names an object that
           exists, without requiring rev to be a tag, and without
           dereferencing rev; because a tag is already an object, it does
           not have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.

           rev^{tag} can be used to ensure that rev identifies an existing
           tag object.

       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
           A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could
           be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag
           object is found.

       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that
           contains a text led by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty
           bug syntax below except that it returns the youngest matching
           commit which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.

       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
           A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit
           whose commit message matches the specified regular expression.
           This name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable
           from any ref. The regular expression can match any part of the
           commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one can
           use e.g.  :/^foo. The special sequence :/!  is reserved for
           modifiers to what is matched.  :/!-foo performs a negative match,
           while :/!!foo matches a literal !  character, followed by foo.
           Any other sequence beginning with :/!  is reserved for now.

       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
           A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given
           path in the tree-ish object named by the part before the colon.
           :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special case of
           the syntax described next: content recorded in the index at the
           given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the
           current working directory. The given path will be converted to be
           relative to the working tree’s root directory. This is most
           useful to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has
           the same tree structure as the working tree.

       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
           A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
           colon, followed by a path, names a blob object in the index at
           the given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that
           follows it) names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the
           common ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch’s version
           (typically the current branch), and stage 3 is the version from
           the branch which is being merged.

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C
       are parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered
       left-to-right.

           G   H   I   J
            \ /     \ /
             D   E   F
              \  |  / \
               \ | /   |
                \|/    |
                 B     C
                  \   /
                   \ /
                    A

           A =      = A^0
           B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
           C = A^2  = A^2
           D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
           E = B^2  = A^^2
           F = B^3  = A^^3
           G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
           H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
           I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
           J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2

SPECIFYING RANGES         top

       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of
       commits, not just a single commit.

       For these commands, specifying a single revision, using the notation
       described in the previous section, means the set of commits reachable
       from the given commit.

       A commit’s reachable set is the commit itself and the commits in its
       ancestry chain.

   Commit Exclusions
       ^<rev> (caret) Notation
           To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation
           is used. E.g.  ^r1 r2 means commits reachable from r2 but exclude
           the ones reachable from r1 (i.e.  r1 and its ancestors).

   Dotted Range Notations
       The .. (two-dot) Range Notation
           The ^r1 r2 set operation appears so often that there is a
           shorthand for it. When you have two commits r1 and r2 (named
           according to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above),
           you can ask for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding
           those that are reachable from r1 by ^r1 r2 and it can be written
           as r1..r2.

       The ... (three dot) Symmetric Difference Notation
           A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1
           and r2 and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1
           r2). It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one
           of r1 (left side) or r2 (right side) but not from both.

       In these two shorthand notations, you can omit one end and let it
       default to HEAD. For example, origin.. is a shorthand for
       origin..HEAD and asks "What did I do since I forked from the origin
       branch?" Similarly, ..origin is a shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks
       "What did the origin do since I forked from them?" Note that .. would
       mean HEAD..HEAD which is an empty range that is both reachable and
       unreachable from HEAD.

   Other <rev>^ Parent Shorthand Notations
       Three other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
       for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits.

       The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.

       The r1^! notation includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.
       By itself, this notation denotes the single commit r1.

       The <rev>^-<n> notation includes <rev> but excludes the <n>th parent
       (i.e. a shorthand for <rev>^<n>..<rev>), with <n> = 1 if not given.
       This is typically useful for merge commits where you can just pass
       <commit>^- to get all the commits in the branch that was merged in
       merge commit <commit> (including <commit> itself).

       While <rev>^<n> was about specifying a single commit parent, these
       three notations also consider its parents. For example you can say
       HEAD^2^@, however you cannot say HEAD^@^2.

REVISION RANGE SUMMARY         top

       <rev>
           Include commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its
           ancestors).

       ^<rev>
           Exclude commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its
           ancestors).

       <rev1>..<rev2>
           Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those
           that are reachable from <rev1>. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is
           omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       <rev1>...<rev2>
           Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2>
           but exclude those that are reachable from both. When either
           <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       <rev>^@, e.g. HEAD^@
           A suffix ^ followed by an at sign is the same as listing all
           parents of <rev> (meaning, include anything reachable from its
           parents, but not the commit itself).

       <rev>^!, e.g. HEAD^!
           A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving
           commit <rev> and then all its parents prefixed with ^ to exclude
           them (and their ancestors).

       <rev>^-<n>, e.g. HEAD^-, HEAD^-2
           Equivalent to <rev>^<n>..<rev>, with <n> = 1 if not given.

       Here are a handful of examples using the Loeliger illustration above,
       with each step in the notation’s expansion and selection carefully
       spelt out:

           Args   Expanded arguments    Selected commits
           D                            G H D
           D F                          G H I J D F
           ^G D                         H D
           ^D B                         E I J F B
           ^D B C                       E I J F B C
           C                            I J F C
           B..C   = ^B C                C
           B...C  = B ^F C              G H D E B C
           B^-    = B^..B
                  = ^B^1 B              E I J F B
           C^@    = C^1
                  = F                   I J F
           B^@    = B^1 B^2 B^3
                  = D E F               D G H E F I J
           C^!    = C ^C^@
                  = C ^C^1
                  = C ^F                C
           B^!    = B ^B^@
                  = B ^B^1 ^B^2 ^B^3
                  = B ^D ^E ^F          B
           F^! D  = F ^I ^J D           G H D F

SEE ALSO         top

       git-rev-parse(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://git-scm.com/⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨http://git-scm.com/community⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨https://github.com/git/git.git⟩ on
       2017-05-03.  If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML ver‐
       sion of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date
       source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original man‐
       ual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

Git 2.13.0.rc0.45.ge             04/24/2017                  GITREVISIONS(7)

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