GIT-BLAME(1)                     Git Manual                     GIT-BLAME(1)

NAME         top

       git-blame - Show what revision and author last modified each line of
       a file

SYNOPSIS         top

       git blame [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental]
                   [-L <range>] [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
                   [--progress] [--abbrev=<n>] [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>..<rev>]
                   [--] <file>

DESCRIPTION         top

       Annotates each line in the given file with information from the
       revision which last modified the line. Optionally, start annotating
       from the given revision.

       When specified one or more times, -L restricts annotation to the
       requested lines.

       The origin of lines is automatically followed across whole-file
       renames (currently there is no option to turn the rename-following
       off). To follow lines moved from one file to another, or to follow
       lines that were copied and pasted from another file, etc., see the -C
       and -M options.

       The report does not tell you anything about lines which have been
       deleted or replaced; you need to use a tool such as git diff or the
       "pickaxe" interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.

       Apart from supporting file annotation, Git also supports searching
       the development history for when a code snippet occurred in a change.
       This makes it possible to track when a code snippet was added to a
       file, moved or copied between files, and eventually deleted or
       replaced. It works by searching for a text string in the diff. A
       small example of the pickaxe interface that searches for blame_usage:

           $ git log --pretty=oneline -S'blame_usage'
           5040f17eba15504bad66b14a645bddd9b015ebb7 blame -S <ancestry-file>
           ea4c7f9bf69e781dd0cd88d2bccb2bf5cc15c9a7 git-blame: Make the output

OPTIONS         top

           Show blank SHA-1 for boundary commits. This can also be
           controlled via the blame.blankboundary config option.

           Do not treat root commits as boundaries. This can also be
           controlled via the blame.showRoot config option.

           Include additional statistics at the end of blame output.

       -L <start>,<end>, -L :<funcname>
           Annotate only the given line range. May be specified multiple
           times. Overlapping ranges are allowed.

           <start> and <end> are optional. “-L <start>” or “-L <start>,”
           spans from <start> to end of file. “-L ,<end>” spans from start
           of file to <end>.

           <start> and <end> can take one of these forms:

           ·   number

               If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an absolute
               line number (lines count from 1).

           ·   /regex/

               This form will use the first line matching the given POSIX
               regex. If <start> is a regex, it will search from the end of
               the previous -L range, if any, otherwise from the start of
               file. If <start> is “^/regex/”, it will search from the start
               of file. If <end> is a regex, it will search starting at the
               line given by <start>.

           ·   +offset or -offset

               This is only valid for <end> and will specify a number of
               lines before or after the line given by <start>.

           If “:<funcname>” is given in place of <start> and <end>, it is a
           regular expression that denotes the range from the first funcname
           line that matches <funcname>, up to the next funcname line.
           “:<funcname>” searches from the end of the previous -L range, if
           any, otherwise from the start of file. “^:<funcname>” searches
           from the start of file.

           Show long rev (Default: off).

           Show raw timestamp (Default: off).

       -S <revs-file>
           Use revisions from revs-file instead of calling git-rev-list(1).

       --reverse <rev>..<rev>
           Walk history forward instead of backward. Instead of showing the
           revision in which a line appeared, this shows the last revision
           in which a line has existed. This requires a range of revision
           like START..END where the path to blame exists in START.  git
           blame --reverse START is taken as git blame --reverse START..HEAD
           for convenience.

       -p, --porcelain
           Show in a format designed for machine consumption.

           Show the porcelain format, but output commit information for each
           line, not just the first time a commit is referenced. Implies

           Show the result incrementally in a format designed for machine

           Specifies the encoding used to output author names and commit
           summaries. Setting it to none makes blame output unconverted
           data. For more information see the discussion about encoding in
           the git-log(1) manual page.

       --contents <file>
           When <rev> is not specified, the command annotates the changes
           starting backwards from the working tree copy. This flag makes
           the command pretend as if the working tree copy has the contents
           of the named file (specify - to make the command read from the
           standard input).

       --date <format>
           Specifies the format used to output dates. If --date is not
           provided, the value of the config variable is used. If
           the config variable is also not set, the iso format is
           used. For supported values, see the discussion of the --date
           option at git-log(1).

           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
           default when it is attached to a terminal. This flag enables
           progress reporting even if not attached to a terminal. Can’t use
           --progress together with --porcelain or --incremental.

           Detect moved or copied lines within a file. When a commit moves
           or copies a block of lines (e.g. the original file has A and then
           B, and the commit changes it to B and then A), the traditional
           blame algorithm notices only half of the movement and typically
           blames the lines that were moved up (i.e. B) to the parent and
           assigns blame to the lines that were moved down (i.e. A) to the
           child commit. With this option, both groups of lines are blamed
           on the parent by running extra passes of inspection.

           <num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
           alphanumeric characters that Git must detect as moving/copying
           within a file for it to associate those lines with the parent
           commit. The default value is 20.

           In addition to -M, detect lines moved or copied from other files
           that were modified in the same commit. This is useful when you
           reorganize your program and move code around across files. When
           this option is given twice, the command additionally looks for
           copies from other files in the commit that creates the file. When
           this option is given three times, the command additionally looks
           for copies from other files in any commit.

           <num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
           alphanumeric characters that Git must detect as moving/copying
           between files for it to associate those lines with the parent
           commit. And the default value is 40. If there are more than one
           -C options given, the <num> argument of the last -C will take

           Show help message.

           Use the same output mode as git-annotate(1) (Default: off).

           Include debugging information related to the movement of lines
           between files (see -C) and lines moved within a file (see -M).
           The first number listed is the score. This is the number of
           alphanumeric characters detected as having been moved between or
           within files. This must be above a certain threshold for git
           blame to consider those lines of code to have been moved.

       -f, --show-name
           Show the filename in the original commit. By default the filename
           is shown if there is any line that came from a file with a
           different name, due to rename detection.

       -n, --show-number
           Show the line number in the original commit (Default: off).

           Suppress the author name and timestamp from the output.

       -e, --show-email
           Show the author email instead of author name (Default: off). This
           can also be controlled via the blame.showEmail config option.

           Ignore whitespace when comparing the parent’s version and the
           child’s to find where the lines came from.

           Instead of using the default 7+1 hexadecimal digits as the
           abbreviated object name, use <n>+1 digits. Note that 1 column is
           used for a caret to mark the boundary commit.


       In this format, each line is output after a header; the header at the
       minimum has the first line which has:

       ·   40-byte SHA-1 of the commit the line is attributed to;

       ·   the line number of the line in the original file;

       ·   the line number of the line in the final file;

       ·   on a line that starts a group of lines from a different commit
           than the previous one, the number of lines in this group. On
           subsequent lines this field is absent.

       This header line is followed by the following information at least
       once for each commit:

       ·   the author name ("author"), email ("author-mail"), time
           ("author-time"), and time zone ("author-tz"); similarly for

       ·   the filename in the commit that the line is attributed to.

       ·   the first line of the commit log message ("summary").

       The contents of the actual line is output after the above header,
       prefixed by a TAB. This is to allow adding more header elements

       The porcelain format generally suppresses commit information that has
       already been seen. For example, two lines that are blamed to the same
       commit will both be shown, but the details for that commit will be
       shown only once. This is more efficient, but may require more state
       be kept by the reader. The --line-porcelain option can be used to
       output full commit information for each line, allowing simpler (but
       less efficient) usage like:

           # count the number of lines attributed to each author
           git blame --line-porcelain file |
           sed -n 's/^author //p' |
           sort | uniq -c | sort -rn


       Unlike git blame and git annotate in older versions of git, the
       extent of the annotation can be limited to both line ranges and
       revision ranges. The -L option, which limits annotation to a range of
       lines, may be specified multiple times.

       When you are interested in finding the origin for lines 40-60 for
       file foo, you can use the -L option like so (they mean the same thing
       — both ask for 21 lines starting at line 40):

           git blame -L 40,60 foo
           git blame -L 40,+21 foo

       Also you can use a regular expression to specify the line range:

           git blame -L '/^sub hello {/,/^}$/' foo

       which limits the annotation to the body of the hello subroutine.

       When you are not interested in changes older than version v2.6.18, or
       changes older than 3 weeks, you can use revision range specifiers
       similar to git rev-list:

           git blame v2.6.18.. -- foo
           git blame --since=3.weeks -- foo

       When revision range specifiers are used to limit the annotation,
       lines that have not changed since the range boundary (either the
       commit v2.6.18 or the most recent commit that is more than 3 weeks
       old in the above example) are blamed for that range boundary commit.

       A particularly useful way is to see if an added file has lines
       created by copy-and-paste from existing files. Sometimes this
       indicates that the developer was being sloppy and did not refactor
       the code properly. You can first find the commit that introduced the
       file with:

           git log --diff-filter=A --pretty=short -- foo

       and then annotate the change between the commit and its parents,
       using commit^! notation:

           git blame -C -C -f $commit^! -- foo


       When called with --incremental option, the command outputs the result
       as it is built. The output generally will talk about lines touched by
       more recent commits first (i.e. the lines will be annotated out of
       order) and is meant to be used by interactive viewers.

       The output format is similar to the Porcelain format, but it does not
       contain the actual lines from the file that is being annotated.

        1. Each blame entry always starts with a line of:

               <40-byte hex sha1> <sourceline> <resultline> <num_lines>

           Line numbers count from 1.

        2. The first time that a commit shows up in the stream, it has
           various other information about it printed out with a one-word
           tag at the beginning of each line describing the extra commit
           information (author, email, committer, dates, summary, etc.).

        3. Unlike the Porcelain format, the filename information is always
           given and terminates the entry:

               "filename" <whitespace-quoted-filename-goes-here>

           and thus it is really quite easy to parse for some line- and
           word-oriented parser (which should be quite natural for most
           scripting languages).

               For people who do parsing: to make it more robust, just
               ignore any lines between the first and last one ("<sha1>" and
               "filename" lines) where you do not recognize the tag words
               (or care about that particular one) at the beginning of the
               "extended information" lines. That way, if there is ever
               added information (like the commit encoding or extended
               commit commentary), a blame viewer will not care.


       If the file .mailmap exists at the toplevel of the repository, or at
       the location pointed to by the mailmap.file or mailmap.blob
       configuration options, it is used to map author and committer names
       and email addresses to canonical real names and email addresses.

       In the simple form, each line in the file consists of the canonical
       real name of an author, whitespace, and an email address used in the
       commit (enclosed by < and >) to map to the name. For example:

           Proper Name <commit@email.xx>

       The more complex forms are:

           <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace only the email part of a commit, and:

           Proper Name <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a
       commit matching the specified commit email address, and:

           Proper Name <proper@email.xx> Commit Name <commit@email.xx>

       which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a
       commit matching both the specified commit name and email address.

       Example 1: Your history contains commits by two authors, Jane and
       Joe, whose names appear in the repository under several forms:

           Joe Developer <>
           Joe R. Developer <>
           Jane Doe <>
           Jane Doe <jane@laptop.(none)>
           Jane D. <jane@desktop.(none)>

       Now suppose that Joe wants his middle name initial used, and Jane
       prefers her family name fully spelled out. A proper .mailmap file
       would look like:

           Jane Doe         <jane@desktop.(none)>
           Joe R. Developer <>

       Note how there is no need for an entry for <jane@laptop.(none)>,
       because the real name of that author is already correct.

       Example 2: Your repository contains commits from the following

           nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
           nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
           nick2 <nick2@company.xx>
           santa <me@company.xx>
           claus <me@company.xx>
           CTO <cto@coompany.xx>

       Then you might want a .mailmap file that looks like:

           <cto@company.xx>                       <cto@coompany.xx>
           Some Dude <some@dude.xx>         nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
           Other Author <other@author.xx>   nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
           Other Author <other@author.xx>         <nick2@company.xx>
           Santa Claus <santa.claus@northpole.xx> <me@company.xx>

       Use hash # for comments that are either on their own line, or after
       the email address.

SEE ALSO         top


GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2018-10-29.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2018-10-26.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           11/23/2017                     GIT-BLAME(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-annotate(1)git-bisect(1)git-config(1)git-diff-tree(1)git-log(1)git-rev-list(1)git-show(1)gitweb.conf(5)gitworkflows(7)