GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5)           Git Manual           GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5)

NAME         top

       gitrepository-layout - Git Repository Layout

SYNOPSIS         top


DESCRIPTION         top

       A Git repository comes in two different flavours:

       ·   a .git directory at the root of the working tree;

       ·   a <project>.git directory that is a bare repository (i.e. without
           its own working tree), that is typically used for exchanging
           histories with others by pushing into it and fetching from it.

       Note: Also you can have a plain text file .git at the root of your
       working tree, containing gitdir: <path> to point at the real
       directory that has the repository. This mechanism is often used for a
       working tree of a submodule checkout, to allow you in the containing
       superproject to git checkout a branch that does not have the
       submodule. The checkout has to remove the entire submodule working
       tree, without losing the submodule repository.

       These things may exist in a Git repository.

           Object store associated with this repository. Usually an object
           store is self sufficient (i.e. all the objects that are referred
           to by an object found in it are also found in it), but there are
           a few ways to violate it.

            1. You could have an incomplete but locally usable repository by
               creating a shallow clone. See git-clone(1).

            2. You could be using the objects/info/alternates or
               $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES mechanisms to borrow
               objects from other object stores. A repository with this kind
               of incomplete object store is not suitable to be published
               for use with dumb transports but otherwise is OK as long as
               objects/info/alternates points at the object stores it
               borrows from.

               This directory is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and
               "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/objects" will be used instead.

           A newly created object is stored in its own file. The objects are
           splayed over 256 subdirectories using the first two characters of
           the sha1 object name to keep the number of directory entries in
           objects itself to a manageable number. Objects found here are
           often called unpacked (or loose) objects.

           Packs (files that store many object in compressed form, along
           with index files to allow them to be randomly accessed) are found
           in this directory.

           Additional information about the object store is recorded in this

           This file is to help dumb transports discover what packs are
           available in this object store. Whenever a pack is added or
           removed, git update-server-info should be run to keep this file
           up to date if the repository is published for dumb transports.
           git repack does this by default.

           This file records paths to alternate object stores that this
           object store borrows objects from, one pathname per line. Note
           that not only native Git tools use it locally, but the HTTP
           fetcher also tries to use it remotely; this will usually work if
           you have relative paths (relative to the object database, not to
           the repository!) in your alternates file, but it will not work if
           you use absolute paths unless the absolute path in filesystem and
           web URL is the same. See also objects/info/http-alternates.

           This file records URLs to alternate object stores that this
           object store borrows objects from, to be used when the repository
           is fetched over HTTP.

           References are stored in subdirectories of this directory. The
           git prune command knows to preserve objects reachable from refs
           found in this directory and its subdirectories. This directory is
           ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/refs" will
           be used instead.

           records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branch name

           records any object name (not necessarily a commit object, or a
           tag object that points at a commit object).

           records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branches copied from a
           remote repository.

           records the SHA-1 of the object that replaces <obj-sha1>. This is
           similar to info/grafts and is internally used and maintained by
           git-replace(1). Such refs can be exchanged between repositories
           while grafts are not.

           records the same information as refs/heads/, refs/tags/, and
           friends record in a more efficient way. See git-pack-refs(1).
           This file is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and
           "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/packed-refs" will be used instead.

           A symref (see glossary) to the refs/heads/ namespace describing
           the currently active branch. It does not mean much if the
           repository is not associated with any working tree (i.e. a bare
           repository), but a valid Git repository must have the HEAD file;
           some porcelains may use it to guess the designated "default"
           branch of the repository (usually master). It is legal if the
           named branch name does not (yet) exist. In some legacy setups, it
           is a symbolic link instead of a symref that points at the current

           HEAD can also record a specific commit directly, instead of being
           a symref to point at the current branch. Such a state is often
           called detached HEAD.  See git-checkout(1) for details.

           Repository specific configuration file. This file is ignored if
           $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/config" will be used

           A slightly deprecated way to store shorthands to be used to
           specify a URL to git fetch, git pull and git push. A file can be
           stored as branches/<name> and then name can be given to these
           commands in place of repository argument. See the REMOTES section
           in git-fetch(1) for details. This mechanism is legacy and not
           likely to be found in modern repositories. This directory is
           ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/branches"
           will be used instead.

           Hooks are customization scripts used by various Git commands. A
           handful of sample hooks are installed when git init is run, but
           all of them are disabled by default. To enable, the .sample
           suffix has to be removed from the filename by renaming. Read
           githooks(5) for more details about each hook. This directory is
           ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/hooks"
           will be used instead.

           The current index file for the repository. It is usually not
           found in a bare repository.

           The shared index part, to be referenced by $GIT_DIR/index and
           other temporary index files. Only valid in split index mode.

           Additional information about the repository is recorded in this
           directory. This directory is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set
           and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/info" will be used instead.

           This file helps dumb transports discover what refs are available
           in this repository. If the repository is published for dumb
           transports, this file should be regenerated by git
           update-server-info every time a tag or branch is created or
           modified. This is normally done from the hooks/update hook, which
           is run by the git-receive-pack command when you git push into the

           This file records fake commit ancestry information, to pretend
           the set of parents a commit has is different from how the commit
           was actually created. One record per line describes a commit and
           its fake parents by listing their 40-byte hexadecimal object
           names separated by a space and terminated by a newline.

           Note that the grafts mechanism is outdated and can lead to
           problems transferring objects between repositories; see
           git-replace(1) for a more flexible and robust system to do the
           same thing.

           This file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the exclude
           pattern list.  .gitignore is the per-directory ignore file.  git
           status, git add, git rm and git clean look at it but the core Git
           commands do not look at it. See also: gitignore(5).

           Defines which attributes to assign to a path, similar to
           per-directory .gitattributes files. See also: gitattributes(5).

           This file stores sparse checkout patterns. See also:

           Stores shorthands for URL and default refnames for use when
           interacting with remote repositories via git fetch, git pull and
           git push commands. See the REMOTES section in git-fetch(1) for
           details. This mechanism is legacy and not likely to be found in
           modern repositories. This directory is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR
           is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/remotes" will be used instead.

           Records of changes made to refs are stored in this directory. See
           git-update-ref(1) for more information. This directory is ignored
           if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/logs" will be used

           Records all changes made to the branch tip named name.

           Records all changes made to the tag named name.

           This is similar to info/grafts but is internally used and
           maintained by shallow clone mechanism. See --depth option to
           git-clone(1) and git-fetch(1). This file is ignored if
           $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/shallow" will be used

           If this file exists, $GIT_COMMON_DIR (see git(1)) will be set to
           the path specified in this file if it is not explicitly set. If
           the specified path is relative, it is relative to $GIT_DIR. The
           repository with commondir is incomplete without the repository
           pointed by "commondir".

           Contains the git-repositories of the submodules.

           Contains administrative data for linked working trees. Each
           subdirectory contains the working tree-related part of a linked
           working tree. This directory is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is
           set, in which case "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/worktrees" will be used

           A text file containing the absolute path back to the .git file
           that points to here. This is used to check if the linked
           repository has been manually removed and there is no need to keep
           this directory any more. The mtime of this file should be updated
           every time the linked repository is accessed.

           If this file exists, the linked working tree may be on a portable
           device and not available. The presence of this file prevents
           worktrees/<id> from being pruned either automatically or manually
           by git worktree prune. The file may contain a string explaining
           why the repository is locked.

SEE ALSO         top

       git-init(1), git-clone(1), git-fetch(1), git-pack-refs(1), git-gc(1),
       git-checkout(1), gitglossary(7), The Git User’s Manual[1]

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES         top

        1. The Git User’s Manual

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2018-10-29.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2018-10-26.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           04/12/2018           GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-show-ref(1)git-update-server-info(1)git-worktree(1)gitignore(5)gitcore-tutorial(7)