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GIT-LOG(1)                       Git Manual                       GIT-LOG(1)

NAME         top

       git-log - Show commit logs

SYNOPSIS         top

       git log [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Shows the commit logs.

       The command takes options applicable to the git rev-list command to
       control what is shown and how, and options applicable to the git
       diff-* commands to control how the changes each commit introduces are
       shown.

OPTIONS         top

       --follow
           Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames (works only
           for a single file).

       --no-decorate, --decorate[=short|full|auto|no]
           Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If short
           is specified, the ref name prefixes refs/heads/, refs/tags/ and
           refs/remotes/ will not be printed. If full is specified, the full
           ref name (including prefix) will be printed. If auto is
           specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref
           names are shown as if short were given, otherwise no ref names
           are shown. The default option is short.

       --source
           Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
           commit was reached.

       --use-mailmap
           Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email
           addresses to canonical real names and email addresses. See
           git-shortlog(1).

       --full-diff
           Without this flag, git log -p <path>...  shows commits that touch
           the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified paths.
           With this, the full diff is shown for commits that touch the
           specified paths; this means that "<path>..." limits only commits,
           and doesn’t limit diff for those commits.

           Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g. those
           produced by --stat, etc.

       --log-size
           Include a line “log size <number>” in the output for each commit,
           where <number> is the length of that commit’s message in bytes.
           Intended to speed up tools that read log messages from git log
           output by allowing them to allocate space in advance.

       -L <start>,<end>:<file>, -L :<funcname>:<file>
           Trace the evolution of the line range given by "<start>,<end>"
           (or the function name regex <funcname>) within the <file>. You
           may not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
           a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only give
           zero or one positive revision arguments. You can specify this
           option more than once.

           <start> and <end> can take one of these forms:

           ·   number

               If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an absolute
               line number (lines count from 1).

           ·   /regex/

               This form will use the first line matching the given POSIX
               regex. If <start> is a regex, it will search from the end of
               the previous -L range, if any, otherwise from the start of
               file. If <start> is “^/regex/”, it will search from the start
               of file. If <end> is a regex, it will search starting at the
               line given by <start>.

           ·   +offset or -offset

               This is only valid for <end> and will specify a number of
               lines before or after the line given by <start>.

           If “:<funcname>” is given in place of <start> and <end>, it is a
           regular expression that denotes the range from the first funcname
           line that matches <funcname>, up to the next funcname line.
           “:<funcname>” searches from the end of the previous -L range, if
           any, otherwise from the start of file. “^:<funcname>” searches
           from the start of file.

       <revision range>
           Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
           <revision range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the
           whole history leading to the current commit).  origin..HEAD
           specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit (i.e.
           HEAD), but not from origin. For a complete list of ways to spell
           <revision range>, see the Specifying Ranges section of
           gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
           Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files that
           match the specified paths came to be. See History Simplification
           below for details and other simplification modes.

           Paths may need to be prefixed with ‘`-- '’ to separate them from
           options or the revision range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it
       with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has
       a line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

       --skip=<number>
           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header
           lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
           more than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches
           any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple
           --committer=<pattern>).

       --grep-reflog=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match
           the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the
           given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option
           unless --walk-reflogs is in use.

       --grep=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches
           the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           When --show-notes is in effect, the message from the notes is
           matched as if it were part of the log message.

       --all-match
           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
           instead of ones that match at least one.

       --invert-grep
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not
           match the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
           letter case.

       --basic-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
           this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t
           interpret pattern as a regular expression).

       --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
           expressions. Requires libpcre to be compiled in.

       --remove-empty
           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

       --merges
           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as
           --min-parents=2.

       --no-merges
           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly
           the same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
       --no-max-parents
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many
           parent commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as
           --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
           --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3 all
           octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
           limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit
           has 0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers
           denote no upper limit).

       --first-parent
           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
           This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution
           of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch
           tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
           time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
           brought in to your history by such a merge. Cannot be combined
           with --bisect.

       --not
           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

       --all
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed
           on the command line as <commit>.

       --branches[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches
           to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [,
           /* at the end is implied.

       --tags[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

       --remotes[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
           pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --glob=<glob-pattern>
           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
           listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [,
           /* at the end is implied.

       --exclude=<glob-pattern>
           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise
           consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion
           patterns up to the next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or
           --glob option (other options or arguments do not clear
           accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags,
           or refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to
           --glob or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given
           explicitly.

       --reflog
           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
           command line as <commit>.

       --ignore-missing
           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
           the bad input was not given.

       --bisect
           Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was listed
           and as if it was followed by --not and the good bisection refs
           refs/bisect/good-* on the command line. Cannot be combined with
           --first-parent.

       --stdin
           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
           from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
           commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

       --cherry-mark
           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
           rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

       --cherry-pick
           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
           on the “other side” when the set of commits are limited with
           symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to
           list all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right
           (see the example below in the description of the --left-right
           option). However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked
           from the other branch (for example, “3rd on b” may be
           cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of
           commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric
           difference, i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by
           --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
           from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A.
           In other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B.
           More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the
           exact list.

       --cherry
           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to
           limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
           have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git
           log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream
           mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
           you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be
           used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
           this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
           taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the output may be
           shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the reverse-chronological index
           in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp} (with the timestamp for that
           entry), depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the
               index format.

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
               timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command
               line, show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
           --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

       --merge
           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
           conflict and don’t exist on all heads to merge.

       --boundary
           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
           with -.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for
       example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two
       parts of History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits
       and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to
       simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

       <paths>
           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

       --simplify-by-decoration
           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
           final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
           branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
           with the same content)

       --full-history
           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

       --dense
           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
           meaningful history.

       --sparse
           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

       --simplify-merges
           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless
           merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
           commits contributing to this merge.

       --ancestry-path
           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2
           or commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on
           the ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits
           that are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for
       foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                     .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent
       of each merge. The commits are:

       ·   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents
           “asdf”, and a file quux exists with contents “quux”. Initial
           commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       ·   In A, foo contains just “foo”.

       ·   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
           TREESAME to all parents.

       ·   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to “foobar”, so
           it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       ·   D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N and
           D to “foobarbaz”; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       ·   E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the strings
           to “quux xyzzy”.  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       ·   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
           modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P,
           and Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
       commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children) are used. The following settings are
       available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
           (though this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit
           was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that
           parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only
           one of them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                         .-A---N---O
                        /     /   /
                       I---------D

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
           available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was
           considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to
           an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that
           does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have
           shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
           all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
           Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
           included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the
           example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and
           B were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not
           appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to
           talk about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
           we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
           rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
           included themselves. This results in

                         .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /
                         `-------------'

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E
           was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P
           was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C
           and N, and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

       --dense
           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to
           any parent.

       --sparse
           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges:
           if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so
           the other sides of the merge are never walked.

       --simplify-merges
           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history
           with parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
           history according to the following rules:

           ·   Set C' to C.

           ·   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In
               the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents
               or that are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and
               remove duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents
               that we are TREESAME to.

           ·   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
               (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
               remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                         .-A---M---N---O
                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /
                         `---------'

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

           ·   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of
               the other parent M. Still, N remained because it is
               !TREESAME.

           ·   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

           ·   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
               because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

       --ancestry-path
           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
           chain between the “from” and “to” commits in the given commit
           range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the “to”
           commit and descendants of the “from” commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                           D---E-------F
                          /     \       \
                         B---C---G---H---I---J
                        /                     \
                       A-------K---------------L--M

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of
           M, but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful
           to see what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the
           sense that “what does M have that did not exist in D”. The result
           in this example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D
           itself, of course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with
           the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want
           to view only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of
           D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the
           --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range, it
           results in:

                               E-------F
                                \       \
                                 G---H---I---J
                                              \
                                               L--M

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if
       (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of
       the paths given on the command line. All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

       --date-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
           otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.

       --author-date-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
           otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.

       --topo-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
           showing commits on multiple lines of history intermixed.

           For example, in a commit history like this:

                   ---1----2----4----7
                       \              \
                        3----5----6----8---

           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git
           rev-list and friends with --date-order show the commits in the
           timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6
           5 3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order
           to avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track
           mixed together.

       --reverse
           Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting
           section above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with
           --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

       --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]
           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
           This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
           unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
           given on the command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument
           was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
           by commit time. Cannot be combined with --graph.

       --do-walk
           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
           where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full,
           fuller, email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When
           <format> is none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it
           acts as if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
           each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to
           medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
           name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits
           can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff
           output, if it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This
           negates --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as
           "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used
           together.

       --encoding=<encoding>
           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message
           in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the
           command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
           preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
           UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be encoded in X and we
           are outputting in X, we will output the object verbatim; this
           means that invalid sequences in the original commit may be copied
           to the output.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to
           fill to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the
           log message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the
           log message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default,
           full, and fuller).

       --notes[=<treeish>]
           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when
           showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log,
           git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty,
           --format, or --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
           core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding
           environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more details.

           With an optional <treeish> argument, use the treeish to find the
           notes to display. The treeish can specify the full refname when
           it begins with refs/notes/; when it begins with notes/, refs/ and
           otherwise refs/notes/ is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes
           are being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes
           from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes
           from "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

       --no-notes
           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by
           resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
           Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so
           e.g. "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show
           notes from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<treeish>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
           options instead.

       --show-signature
           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
           signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

       --relative-date
           Synonym for --date=relative.

       --date=<format>
           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
           as when using --pretty.  log.date config variable sets a default
           value for the log command’s --date option. By default, dates are
           shown in the original time zone (either committer’s or author’s).
           If -local is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user’s
           local time zone is used instead.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. “2
           hours ago”. The -local option has no effect for --date=relative.

           --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO
           8601-like format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format
           are:

           ·   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

           ·   a space between time and time zone

           ·   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

           --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in
           strict ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
           format, often found in email messages.

           --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD
           format.

           --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
           00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an
           offset from UTC (a + or - with four digits; the first two are
           hours, and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp
           were formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local
           option does not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is
           always measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying
           timezone value.

           --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds
           since 1970). As with --raw, this is always in UTC and therefore
           -local has no effect.

           --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system strftime.
           Use --date=format:%c to show the date in your system locale’s
           preferred format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of
           format placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is
           --date=format-local:....

           --date=default is the default format, and is similar to
           --date=rfc2822, with a few exceptions:

           ·   there is no comma after the day-of-week

           ·   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

       --parents
           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
           parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification below.

       --children
           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
           child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification below.

       --left-right
           Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable
           from. Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those
           from the right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits
           are prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

       --graph
           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
           on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
           to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
           to be drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
           --date-order option may also be specified.

       --show-linear-break[=<barrier>]
           When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
           which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits do
           not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in
           between them in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the
           string that will be shown instead of the default one.

   Diff Formatting
       Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
       Some of them are specific to git-rev-list(1), however other diff
       options may be given. See git-diff-files(1) for more options.

       -c
           With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the
           differences from each of the parents to the merge result
           simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
           and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
           which were modified from all parents.

       --cc
           This flag implies the -c option and further compresses the patch
           output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in the
           parents have only two variants and the merge result picks one of
           them without modification.

       -m
           This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like regular
           commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry and diff is
           generated. An exception is that only diff against the first
           parent is shown when --first-parent option is given; in that
           case, the output represents the changes the merge brought into
           the then-current branch.

       -r
           Show recursive diffs.

       -t
           Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies -r.

PRETTY FORMATS         top

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits
       are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may
       not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see
       git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       ·   oneline

               <sha1> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       ·   short

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       ·   medium

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·   full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·   fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·   email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full,
           regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and
           parents information show the true parent commits, without taking
           grafts or history simplification into account. Note that this
           format affects the way commits are displayed, but not the way the
           diff is shown e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names
           in a raw diff format, use --no-abbrev.

       ·   format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which
           information you want to show. It works a little bit like printf
           format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n
           instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was
           >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           ·   %H: commit hash

           ·   %h: abbreviated commit hash

           ·   %T: tree hash

           ·   %t: abbreviated tree hash

           ·   %P: parent hashes

           ·   %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           ·   %an: author name

           ·   %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           ·   %ae: author email

           ·   %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           ·   %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

           ·   %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           ·   %ar: author date, relative

           ·   %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           ·   %ai: author date, ISO 8601-like format

           ·   %aI: author date, strict ISO 8601 format

           ·   %cn: committer name

           ·   %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           ·   %ce: committer email

           ·   %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
               git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·   %cd: committer date (format respects --date= option)

           ·   %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           ·   %cr: committer date, relative

           ·   %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           ·   %ci: committer date, ISO 8601-like format

           ·   %cI: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

           ·   %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

           ·   %D: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

           ·   %e: encoding

           ·   %s: subject

           ·   %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

           ·   %b: body

           ·   %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

           ·   %N: commit notes

           ·   %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

           ·   %G?: show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
               signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
               "X" for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a good
               signature made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature
               made by a revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be checked
               (e.g. missing key) and "N" for no signature

           ·   %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

           ·   %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

           ·   %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
               minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for the
               -g option. The portion before the @ is the refname as given
               on the command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master would
               yield refs/heads/master@{0}).

           ·   %gd: shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
               portion is shortened for human readability (so
               refs/heads/master becomes just master).

           ·   %gn: reflog identity name

           ·   %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
               git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·   %ge: reflog identity email

           ·   %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
               git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·   %gs: reflog subject

           ·   %Cred: switch color to red

           ·   %Cgreen: switch color to green

           ·   %Cblue: switch color to blue

           ·   %Creset: reset color

           ·   %C(...): color specification, as described under Values in
               the "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1); adding
               auto, at the beginning will emit color only when colors are
               enabled for log output (by color.diff, color.ui, or --color,
               and respecting the auto settings of the former if we are
               going to a terminal).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn
               on auto coloring on the next placeholders until the color is
               switched again.

           ·   %m: left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

           ·   %n: newline

           ·   %%: a raw %

           ·   %x00: print a byte from a hex code

           ·   %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w
               option of git-shortlog(1).

           ·   %<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc]): make the next placeholder take
               at least N columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
               Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle
               (mtrunc) or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N
               columns. Note that truncating only works correctly with N >=
               2.

           ·   %<|(<N>): make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
               columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary

           ·   %>(<N>), %>|(<N>): similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively,
               but padding spaces on the left

           ·   %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>): similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
               respectively, except that if the next placeholder takes more
               spaces than given and there are spaces on its left, use those
               spaces

           ·   %><(<N>), %><|(<N>): similar to % <(<N>), %<|(<N>)
               respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is
               centered) -%(trailers): display the trailers of the body as
               interpreted by git-interpret-trailers(1)

           Note
           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
           revision traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options
           will insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog
           entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will
           use the "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already
           provided on the command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that
       immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the
       placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       ·   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
           provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
           In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
           (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
           between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
           format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
           "oneline" format does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
           these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

COMMON DIFF OPTIONS         top

       -p, -u, --patch
           Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

       -s, --no-patch
           Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show that show
           the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of --patch.

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
           Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
           three. Implies -p.

       --raw
           For each commit, show a summary of changes using the raw diff
           format. See the "RAW OUTPUT FORMAT" section of git-diff(1). This
           is different from showing the log itself in raw format, which you
           can achieve with --format=raw.

       --patch-with-raw
           Synonym for -p --raw.

       --indent-heuristic, --no-indent-heuristic
           These are to help debugging and tuning experimental heuristics
           (which are off by default) that shift diff hunk boundaries to
           make patches easier to read.

       --minimal
           Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
           produced.

       --patience
           Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

       --histogram
           Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

       --diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
           Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

           default, myers
               The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the
               default.

           minimal
               Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
               produced.

           patience
               Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

           histogram
               This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
               low-occurrence common elements".

           For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
           non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have
           to use --diff-algorithm=default option.

       --stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]
           Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary will
           be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph part.
           Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns if not
           connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The
           width of the filename part can be limited by giving another width
           <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part can be
           limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects all commands
           generating a stat graph) or by setting
           diff.statGraphWidth=<width> (does not affect git format-patch).
           By giving a third parameter <count>, you can limit the output to
           the first <count> lines, followed by ...  if there are more.

           These parameters can also be set individually with
           --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and
           --stat-count=<count>.

       --numstat
           Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
           decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it
           more machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of
           saying 0 0.

       --shortstat
           Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
           number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
           lines.

       --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
           Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
           sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be customized by
           passing it a comma separated list of parameters. The defaults are
           controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable (see
           git-config(1)). The following parameters are available:

           changes
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have
               been removed from the source, or added to the destination.
               This ignores the amount of pure code movements within a file.
               In other words, rearranging lines in a file is not counted as
               much as other changes. This is the default behavior when no
               parameter is given.

           lines
               Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based
               diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts.
               (For binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary
               files have no natural concept of lines). This is a more
               expensive --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but
               it does count rearranged lines within a file as much as other
               changes. The resulting output is consistent with what you get
               from the other --*stat options.

           files
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
               changed. Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat
               analysis. This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat
               behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents
               at all.

           cumulative
               Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory
               as well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the
               percentages reported may exceed 100%. The default
               (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with the
               noncumulative parameter.

           <limit>
               An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by
               default). Directories contributing less than this percentage
               of the changes are not shown in the output.

           Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
           directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed
           files, and accumulating child directory counts in the parent
           directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

       --summary
           Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
           creations, renames and mode changes.

       --patch-with-stat
           Synonym for -p --stat.

       -z
           Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.

           Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not munge
           pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.

           Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are
           quoted as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath
           (see git-config(1)).

       --name-only
           Show only names of changed files.

       --name-status
           Show only names and status of changed files. See the description
           of the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean.

       --submodule[=<format>]
           Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
           --submodule=short the short format is used. This format just
           shows the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the
           range. When --submodule or --submodule=log is specified, the log
           format is used. This format lists the commits in the range like
           git-submodule(1)summary does. When --submodule=diff is specified,
           the diff format is used. This format shows an inline diff of the
           changes in the submodule contents between the commit range.
           Defaults to diff.submodule or the short format if the config
           option is unset.

       --color[=<when>]
           Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the same as
           --color=always.  <when> can be one of always, never, or auto.

       --no-color
           Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

       --word-diff[=<mode>]
           Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By
           default, words are delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex
           below. The <mode> defaults to plain, and must be one of:

           color
               Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

           plain
               Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no attempts to
               escape the delimiters if they appear in the input, so the
               output may be ambiguous.

           porcelain
               Use a special line-based format intended for script
               consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
               usual unified diff format, starting with a +/-/` ` character
               at the beginning of the line and extending to the end of the
               line. Newlines in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a
               line of its own.

           none
               Disable word diff again.

           Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
           highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.

       --word-diff-regex=<regex>
           Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering runs
           of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies --word-diff unless
           it was already enabled.

           Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word.
           Anything between these matches is considered whitespace and
           ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You may want
           to append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make sure
           that it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that
           contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

           For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each character as a
           word and, correspondingly, show differences character by
           character.

           The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
           option, see gitattributes(5) or git-config(1). Giving it
           explicitly overrides any diff driver or configuration setting.
           Diff drivers override configuration settings.

       --color-words[=<regex>]
           Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified)
           --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

       --no-renames
           Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
           the default to do so.

       --check
           Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors.
           What are considered whitespace errors is controlled by
           core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces
           (including lines that solely consist of whitespaces) and a space
           character that is immediately followed by a tab character inside
           the initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
           Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
           with --exit-code.

       --ws-error-highlight=<kind>
           Highlight whitespace errors on lines specified by <kind> in the
           color specified by color.diff.whitespace. <kind> is a comma
           separated list of old, new, context. When this option is not
           given, only whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. E.g.
           --ws-error-highlight=new,old highlights whitespace errors on both
           deleted and added lines.  all can be used as a short-hand for
           old,new,context. The diff.wsErrorHighlight configuration variable
           can be used to specify the default behaviour.

       --full-index
           Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre-
           and post-image blob object names on the "index" line when
           generating patch format output.

       --binary
           In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be
           applied with git-apply.

       --abbrev[=<n>]
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
           diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only a
           partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option
           above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
           number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
           Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
           This serves two purposes:

           It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a
           file not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together
           with a very few lines that happen to match textually as the
           context, but as a single deletion of everything old followed by a
           single insertion of everything new, and the number m controls
           this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70% specifies
           that less than 30% of the original should remain in the result
           for Git to consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the
           resulting patch will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed
           together with context lines).

           When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as
           the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
           disappeared as the source of a rename), and the number n controls
           this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
           that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more
           of the file’s size are eligible for being picked up as a possible
           source of a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
           If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit.
           For following files across renames while traversing history, see
           --follow. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
           index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the file’s
           size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add
           pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn’t changed.
           Without a % sign, the number is to be read as a fraction, with a
           decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus the
           same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit
           detection to exact renames, use -M100%. The default similarity
           index is 50%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
           Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder.
           If n is specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

       --find-copies-harder
           For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only
           if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
           changeset. This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files
           as candidates for the source of copy. This is a very expensive
           operation for large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more
           than one -C option has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
           Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
           the diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch
           is not meant to be applied with patch or git apply; this is
           solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
           text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lack
           enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even
           manually, hence the name of the option.

           When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the
           deletion part of a delete/create pair.

       -l<num>
           The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is
           the number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
           rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy
           targets exceeds the specified number.

       --diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)...[*]]
           Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D),
           Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
           symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are
           Unknown (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any
           combination of the filter characters (including none) can be
           used. When * (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths
           are selected if there is any file that matches other criteria in
           the comparison; if there is no file that matches other criteria,
           nothing is selected.

           Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
           --diff-filter=ad excludes added and deleted paths.

       -S<string>
           Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the
           specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for
           the scripter’s use.

           It is useful when you’re looking for an exact block of code (like
           a struct), and want to know the history of that block since it
           first came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the
           interesting block in the preimage back into -S, and keep going
           until you get the very first version of the block.

       -G<regex>
           Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
           lines that match <regex>.

           To illustrate the difference between -S<regex> --pickaxe-regex
           and -G<regex>, consider a commit with the following diff in the
           same file:

               +    return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
               ...
               -    hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);

           While git log -G"regexec\(regexp" will show this commit, git log
           -S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the number
           of occurrences of that string did not change).

           See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

       --pickaxe-all
           When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that
           changeset, not just the files that contain the change in
           <string>.

       --pickaxe-regex
           Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX regular
           expression to match.

       -O<orderfile>
           Control the order in which files appear in the output. This
           overrides the diff.orderFile configuration variable (see
           git-config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

           The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns in
           <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that match the first
           pattern are output first, all files with pathnames that match the
           second pattern (but not the first) are output next, and so on.
           All files with pathnames that do not match any pattern are output
           last, as if there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end of
           the file. If multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match
           the same pattern but no earlier patterns), their output order
           relative to each other is the normal order.

           <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

           ·   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as separators
               for readability.

           ·   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so they can be
               used for comments. Add a backslash ("\") to the beginning of
               the pattern if it starts with a hash.

           ·   Each other line contains a single pattern.

           Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
           fnmantch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
           matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
           components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern
           "foo*bar" matches "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not
           "foobarx".

       -R
           Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk
           file to tree contents.

       --relative[=<path>]
           When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to
           exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative
           to it with this option. When you are not in a subdirectory (e.g.
           in a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make
           the output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.

       -a, --text
           Treat all files as text.

       --ignore-space-at-eol
           Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
           Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
           at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
           whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
           Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
           even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

       --ignore-blank-lines
           Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

       --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
           Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
           of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
           Defaults to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the config option is
           unset.

       -W, --function-context
           Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

       --ext-diff
           Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
           external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
           option with git-log(1) and friends.

       --no-ext-diff
           Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
           Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run
           when comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for details.
           Because textconv filters are typically a one-way conversion, the
           resulting diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be
           applied. For this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default
           only for git-diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for
           git-format-patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

       --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
           Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can
           be either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the
           default. Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when
           it either contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD
           differs from the commit recorded in the superproject and can be
           used to override any settings of the ignore option in
           git-config(1) or gitmodules(5). When "untracked" is used
           submodules are not considered dirty when they only contain
           untracked content (but they are still scanned for modified
           content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work tree of
           submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the
           superproject are shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using
           "all" hides all changes to submodules.

       --src-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

       --dst-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

       --no-prefix
           Do not show any source or destination prefix.

       --line-prefix=<prefix>
           Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

       --ita-invisible-in-index
           By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing
           empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached".
           This option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff"
           and non-existent in "git diff --cached". This option could be
           reverted with --ita-visible-in-index. Both options are
           experimental and could be removed in future.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
       gitdiffcore(7).

GENERATING PATCHES WITH -P         top

       When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
       with a -p option, "git diff" without the --raw option, or "git log"
       with the "-p" option, they do not produce the output described above;
       instead they produce a patch file. You can customize the creation of
       such patches via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS
       environment variables.

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the
       traditional diff format:

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:

               diff --git a/file1 b/file2

           The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
           involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion,
           /dev/null is not used in place of the a/ or b/ filenames.

           When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of
           the source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
           rename/copy produces, respectively.

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

               old mode <mode>
               new mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               copy from <path>
               copy to <path>
               rename from <path>
               rename to <path>
               similarity index <number>
               dissimilarity index <number>
               index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

           File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the
           file type and file permission bits.

           Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and b/
           prefixes.

           The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and
           the dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is
           a rounded down integer, followed by a percent sign. The
           similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal
           files, while 100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old
           file made it into the new one.

           The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the
           change. The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change;
           otherwise, separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.

        3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for
           the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

        4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the
           commit, and all the file2 files refer to files after the commit.
           It is incorrect to apply each change to each file sequentially.
           For example, this patch will swap a and b:

               diff --git a/a b/b
               rename from a
               rename to b
               diff --git a/b b/a
               rename from b
               rename to a

COMBINED DIFF FORMAT         top

       Any diff-generating command can take the -c or --cc option to produce
       a combined diff when showing a merge. This is the default format when
       showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-show(1). Note also that you
       can give the -m option to any of these commands to force generation
       of diffs with individual parents of a merge.

       A combined diff format looks like this:

           diff --combined describe.c
           index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
           --- a/describe.c
           +++ b/describe.c
           @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
             }

           - static void describe(char *arg)
            -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
           ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
             {
            +      unsigned char sha1[20];
            +      struct commit *cmit;
                   struct commit_list *list;
                   static int initialized = 0;
                   struct commit_name *n;

            +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
            +      if (!cmit)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +
                   if (!initialized) {
                           initialized = 1;
                           for_each_ref(get_name);

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this
           (when -c option is used):

               diff --combined file

           or like this (when --cc option is used):

               diff --cc file

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
           shows a merge with two parents):

               index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
               mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

           The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one
           of the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
           information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
           detection) are designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and
           are not used by combined diff format.

        3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

               --- a/file
               +++ b/file

           Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
           /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.

        4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
           accidentally feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was
           created for review of merge commit changes, and was not meant for
           apply. The change is similar to the change in the extended index
           header:

               @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

           There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk
           header for combined diff format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A
       and B with a single column that has - (minus — appears in A but
       removed in B), + (plus — missing in A but added to B), or " " (space
       — unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more files file1,
       file2,... with one file X, and shows how X differs from each of
       fileN. One column for each of fileN is prepended to the output line
       to note how X’s line is different from it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN
       but it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N
       means that the line appears in the result, and fileN does not have
       that line (in other words, the line was added, from the point of view
       of that parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from
       both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++
       to mean one line that was added does not appear in either file1 or
       file2). Also eight other lines are the same from file1 but do not
       appear in file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge
       commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents).
       When shown by git diff-files -c, it compares the two unresolved merge
       parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our
       version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").

EXAMPLES         top

       git log --no-merges
           Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges

       git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
           Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any file in
           the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories

       git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
           Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file gitk. The
           “--” is necessary to avoid confusion with the branch named gitk

       git log --name-status release..test
           Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not yet in the
           "release" branch, along with the list of paths each commit
           modifies.

       git log --follow builtin/rev-list.c
           Shows the commits that changed builtin/rev-list.c, including
           those commits that occurred before the file was given its present
           name.

       git log --branches --not --remotes=origin
           Shows all commits that are in any of local branches but not in
           any of remote-tracking branches for origin (what you have that
           origin doesn’t).

       git log master --not --remotes=*/master
           Shows all commits that are in local master but not in any remote
           repository master branches.

       git log -p -m --first-parent
           Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the “main
           branch” perspective, skipping commits that come from merged
           branches, and showing full diffs of changes introduced by the
           merges. This makes sense only when following a strict policy of
           merging all topic branches when staying on a single integration
           branch.

       git log -L '/int main/',/^}/:main.c
           Shows how the function main() in the file main.c evolved over
           time.

       git log -3
           Limits the number of commits to show to 3.

DISCUSSION         top

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       ·   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       ·   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This
           applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as
           path names in command line arguments, environment variables and
           config files (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5),
           gitattributes(5) and gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
           sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
           conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using
           non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and file
           systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However,
           repositories created on such systems will not work properly on
           UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa.
           Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path names to be
           UTF-8 and will fail to display other encodings correctly.

       ·   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
           CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx
           etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force
       UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project find
       it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it.
       However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string,
           unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding.
           The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that
           the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
           header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message
           into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the
           desired output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in
           .git/config file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitencoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.

CONFIGURATION         top

       See git-config(1) for core variables and git-diff(1) for settings
       related to diff generation.

       format.pretty
           Default for the --format option. (See Pretty Formats above.)
           Defaults to medium.

       i18n.logOutputEncoding
           Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See Discussion above.)
           Defaults to the value of i18n.commitEncoding if set, and UTF-8
           otherwise.

       log.date
           Default format for human-readable dates. (Compare the --date
           option.) Defaults to "default", which means to write dates like
           Sat May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500.

       log.follow
           If true, git log will act as if the --follow option was used when
           a single <path> is given. This has the same limitations as
           --follow, i.e. it cannot be used to follow multiple files and
           does not work well on non-linear history.

       log.showRoot
           If false, git log and related commands will not treat the initial
           commit as a big creation event. Any root commits in git log -p
           output would be shown without a diff attached. The default is
           true.

       log.showSignature
           If true, git log and related commands will act as if the
           --show-signature option was passed to them.

       mailmap.*
           See git-shortlog(1).

       notes.displayRef
           Which refs, in addition to the default set by core.notesRef or
           GIT_NOTES_REF, to read notes from when showing commit messages
           with the log family of commands. See git-notes(1).

           May be an unabbreviated ref name or a glob and may be specified
           multiple times. A warning will be issued for refs that do not
           exist, but a glob that does not match any refs is silently
           ignored.

           This setting can be disabled by the --no-notes option, overridden
           by the GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF environment variable, and overridden
           by the --notes=<ref> option.

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://git-scm.com/⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨http://git-scm.com/community⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨https://github.com/git/git.git⟩ on
       2017-03-13.  If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML ver‐
       sion of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date
       source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original man‐
       ual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

Git 2.12.0.264.gd6db3f           03/13/2017                       GIT-LOG(1)