GIT-COMMIT(1)                    Git Manual                    GIT-COMMIT(1)

NAME         top

       git-commit - Record changes to the repository

SYNOPSIS         top

       git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
                  [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
                  [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
                  [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
                  [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
                  [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along with a
       log message from the user describing the changes.

       The content to be added can be specified in several ways:

        1. by using git add to incrementally "add" changes to the index
           before using the commit command (Note: even modified files must
           be "added");

        2. by using git rm to remove files from the working tree and the
           index, again before using the commit command;

        3. by listing files as arguments to the commit command (without
           --interactive or --patch switch), in which case the commit will
           ignore changes staged in the index, and instead record the
           current content of the listed files (which must already be known
           to Git);

        4. by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically
           "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are
           already listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in
           the index that have been removed from the working tree, and then
           perform the actual commit;

        5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the commit
           command to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part
           of the commit in addition to contents in the index, before
           finalizing the operation. See the “Interactive Mode” section of
           git-add(1) to learn how to operate these modes.

       The --dry-run option can be used to obtain a summary of what is
       included by any of the above for the next commit by giving the same
       set of parameters (options and paths).

       If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after that,
       you can recover from it with git reset.

OPTIONS         top

       -a, --all
           Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been
           modified and deleted, but new files you have not told Git about
           are not affected.

       -p, --patch
           Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose which
           changes to commit. See git-add(1) for details.

       -C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
           Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the
           authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating
           the commit.

       -c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
           Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can
           further edit the commit message.

           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The
           commit message will be the subject line from the specified commit
           with a prefix of "fixup! ". See git-rebase(1) for details.

           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The
           commit message subject line is taken from the specified commit
           with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional commit
           message options (-m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for details.

           When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
           conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
           resulting commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews
           the author timestamp.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
           git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

           Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
           format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format. Implies

       -z, --null
           When showing short or porcelain status output, print the filename
           verbatim and terminate the entries with NUL, instead of LF. If no
           format is given, implies the --porcelain output format. Without
           the -z option, filenames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
           explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see

       -F <file>, --file=<file>
           Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the
           message from the standard input.

           Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
           standard A U Thor <> format. Otherwise <author>
           is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
           commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
           the commit author is then copied from the first such commit

           Override the author date used in the commit.

       -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
           Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If multiple -m options
           are given, their values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.

           The -m option is mutually exclusive with -c, -C, and -F.

       -t <file>, --template=<file>
           When editing the commit message, start the editor with the
           contents in the given file. The commit.template configuration
           variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the
           command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to
           guide participants with some hints on what to write in the
           message in what order. If the user exits the editor without
           editing the message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect
           when a message is given by other means, e.g. with the -m or -F

       -s, --signoff
           Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
           log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but
           it typically certifies that committer has the rights to submit
           this work under the same license and agrees to a Developer
           Certificate of Origin (see for
           more information).

       -n, --no-verify
           This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks. See
           also githooks(5).

           Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
           sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
           from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
           is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.

           Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign
           SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
           empty commit message without using plumbing commands like

           This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
           cleaned up before committing. The <mode> can be strip,
           whitespace, verbatim, scissors or default.

               Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace,
               commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.

               Same as strip except #commentary is not removed.

               Do not change the message at all.

               Same as whitespace except that everything from (and
               including) the line found below is truncated, if the message
               is to be edited. "#" can be customized with core.commentChar.

                   # ------------------------ >8 ------------------------

               Same as strip if the message is to be edited. Otherwise

           The default can be changed by the commit.cleanup configuration
           variable (see git-config(1)).

       -e, --edit
           The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and
           from commit object with -C are usually used as the commit log
           message unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message
           taken from these sources.

           Use the selected commit message without launching an editor. For
           example, git commit --amend --no-edit amends a commit without
           changing its commit message.

           Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new commit.
           The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including the effect of
           the -i and -o options and explicit pathspec), and the message
           from the original commit is used as the starting point, instead
           of an empty message, when no other message is specified from the
           command line via options such as -m, -F, -c, etc. The new commit
           has the same parents and author as the current one (the
           --reset-author option can countermand this).

           It is a rough equivalent for:

                       $ git reset --soft HEAD^
                       $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
                       $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

           but can be used to amend a merge commit.

           You should understand the implications of rewriting history if
           you amend a commit that has already been published. (See the
           "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)

           Bypass the post-rewrite hook.

       -i, --include
           Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the
           contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is
           usually not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted

       -o, --only
           Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents of the
           paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents
           that have been staged for other paths. This is the default mode
           of operation of git commit if any paths are given on the command
           line, in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is
           specified together with --amend, then no paths need to be
           specified, which can be used to amend the last commit without
           committing changes that have already been staged. If used
           together with --allow-empty paths are also not required, and an
           empty commit will be created.

       -u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
           Show untracked files.

           The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to
           specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
           default is normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.

           The possible options are:

           ·   no - Show no untracked files

           ·   normal - Shows untracked files and directories

           ·   all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.

               The default can be changed using the
               status.showUntrackedFiles configuration variable documented
               in git-config(1).

       -v, --verbose
           Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be
           committed at the bottom of the commit message template to help
           the user describe the commit by reminding what changes the commit
           has. Note that this diff output doesn’t have its lines prefixed
           with #. This diff will not be a part of the commit message. See
           the commit.verbose configuration variable in git-config(1).

           If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between
           what would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged
           changes to tracked files.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress commit summary message.

           Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are to be
           committed, paths with local changes that will be left uncommitted
           and paths that are untracked.

           Include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message
           template when using an editor to prepare the commit message.
           Defaults to on, but can be used to override configuration
           variable commit.status.

           Do not include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message
           template when using an editor to prepare the default commit

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
           GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to
           the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
           option without a space.

           Countermand commit.gpgSign configuration variable that is set to
           force each and every commit to be signed.

           Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

           When files are given on the command line, the command commits the
           contents of the named files, without recording the changes
           already staged. The contents of these files are also staged for
           the next commit on top of what have been staged before.

DATE FORMATS         top

       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables and the
       --date option support the following date formats:

       Git internal format
           It is <unix timestamp> <time zone offset>, where <unix timestamp>
           is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time zone
           offset> is a positive or negative offset from UTC. For example
           CET (which is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.

       RFC 2822
           The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
           Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
           2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
           character as well.

               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following
               formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

EXAMPLES         top

       When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in your
       working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area called the
       "index" with git add. A file can be reverted back, only in the index
       but not in the working tree, to that of the last commit with git
       reset HEAD -- <file>, which effectively reverts git add and prevents
       the changes to this file from participating in the next commit. After
       building the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
       git commit (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
       has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the command.
       An example:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ git rm goodbye.c
           $ git add hello.c
           $ git commit

       Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can tell
       git commit to notice the changes to the files whose contents are
       tracked in your working tree and do corresponding git add and git rm
       for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier example
       if there is no other change in your working tree:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ rm goodbye.c
           $ git commit -a

       The command git commit -a first looks at your working tree, notices
       that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c, and performs
       necessary git add and git rm for you.

       After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
       changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to git commit. When
       pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that only records the
       changes made to the named paths:

           $ edit hello.c hello.h
           $ git add hello.c hello.h
           $ edit Makefile
           $ git commit Makefile

       This makes a commit that records the modification to Makefile. The
       changes staged for hello.c and hello.h are not included in the
       resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost — they are
       still staged and merely held back. After the above sequence, if you

           $ git commit

       this second commit would record the changes to hello.c and hello.h as

       After a merge (initiated by git merge or git pull) stops because of
       conflicts, cleanly merged paths are already staged to be committed
       for you, and paths that conflicted are left in unmerged state. You
       would have to first check which paths are conflicting with git status
       and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would stage
       the result as usual with git add:

           $ git status | grep unmerged
           unmerged: hello.c
           $ edit hello.c
           $ git add hello.c

       After resolving conflicts and staging the result, git ls-files -u
       would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done, run git
       commit to finally record the merge:

           $ git commit

       As with the case to record your own changes, you can use -a option to
       save typing. One difference is that during a merge resolution, you
       cannot use git commit with pathnames to alter the order the changes
       are committed, because the merge should be recorded as a single
       commit. In fact, the command refuses to run when given pathnames (but
       see -i option).

DISCUSSION         top

       Though not required, it’s a good idea to begin the commit message
       with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
       change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough
       description. The text up to the first blank line in a commit message
       is treated as the commit title, and that title is used throughout
       Git. For example, git-format-patch(1) turns a commit into email, and
       it uses the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in
       the body.

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       ·   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       ·   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This
           applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as
           path names in command line arguments, environment variables and
           config files (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5),
           gitattributes(5) and gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
           sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
           conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using
           non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and file
           systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However,
           repositories created on such systems will not work properly on
           UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa.
           Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path names to be
           UTF-8 and will fail to display other encodings correctly.

       ·   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
           CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force
       UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project find
       it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it.
       However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string,
           unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding.
           The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

                       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that
           the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
           header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message
           into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the
           desired output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in
           .git/config file, like this:

                       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


       The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from
       the GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration
       variable, the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment
       variable (in that order). See git-var(1) for details.

HOOKS         top

       This command can run commit-msg, prepare-commit-msg, pre-commit,
       post-commit and post-rewrite hooks. See githooks(5) for more

FILES         top

           This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress. If
           git commit exits due to an error before creating a commit, any
           commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in an
           editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
           overwritten by the next invocation of git commit.

SEE ALSO         top

       git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mv(1), git-merge(1), git-commit-tree(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2018-10-29.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2018-10-26.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           01/24/2018                    GIT-COMMIT(1)

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