GIT-FOR-EACH-REF(1)              Git Manual              GIT-FOR-EACH-REF(1)

NAME         top

       git-for-each-ref - Output information on each ref

SYNOPSIS         top

       git for-each-ref [--count=<count>] [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl]
                          [(--sort=<key>)...] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
                          (--merged[=<object>] | --no-merged[=<object>])
                          [--contains[=<object>]] [--no-contains[=<object>]]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Iterate over all refs that match <pattern> and show them according to
       the given <format>, after sorting them according to the given set of
       <key>. If <count> is given, stop after showing that many refs. The
       interpolated values in <format> can optionally be quoted as string
       literals in the specified host language allowing their direct
       evaluation in that language.

OPTIONS         top

           If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that match
           against at least one pattern, either using fnmatch(3) or
           literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the
           beginning up to a slash.

           By default the command shows all refs that match <pattern>. This
           option makes it stop after showing that many refs.

           A field name to sort on. Prefix - to sort in descending order of
           the value. When unspecified, refname is used. You may use the
           --sort=<key> option multiple times, in which case the last key
           becomes the primary key.

           A string that interpolates %(fieldname) from a ref being shown
           and the object it points at. If fieldname is prefixed with an
           asterisk (*) and the ref points at a tag object, use the value
           for the field in the object which the tag object refers to
           (instead of the field in the tag object). When unspecified,
           <format> defaults to %(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB
           %(refname). It also interpolates %% to %, and %xx where xx are
           hex digits interpolates to character with hex code xx; for
           example %00 interpolates to \0 (NUL), %09 to \t (TAB) and %0a to
           \n (LF).

           Respect any colors specified in the --format option. The <when>
           field must be one of always, never, or auto (if <when> is absent,
           behave as if always was given).

       --shell, --perl, --python, --tcl
           If given, strings that substitute %(fieldname) placeholders are
           quoted as string literals suitable for the specified host
           language. This is meant to produce a scriptlet that can directly
           be `eval`ed.

           Only list refs which points at the given object.

           Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the specified commit
           (HEAD if not specified), incompatible with --no-merged.

           Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the specified
           commit (HEAD if not specified), incompatible with --merged.

           Only list refs which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not

           Only list refs which don’t contain the specified commit (HEAD if
           not specified).

           Sorting and filtering refs are case insensitive.

FIELD NAMES         top

       Various values from structured fields in referenced objects can be
       used to interpolate into the resulting output, or as sort keys.

       For all objects, the following names can be used:

           The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/). For a
           non-ambiguous short name of the ref append :short. The option
           core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict abbreviation
           mode. If lstrip=<N> (rstrip=<N>) is appended, strips <N>
           slash-separated path components from the front (back) of the
           refname (e.g.  %(refname:lstrip=2) turns refs/tags/foo into foo
           and %(refname:rstrip=2) turns refs/tags/foo into refs). If <N> is
           a negative number, strip as many path components as necessary
           from the specified end to leave -<N> path components (e.g.
           %(refname:lstrip=-2) turns refs/tags/foo into tags/foo and
           %(refname:rstrip=-1) turns refs/tags/foo into refs). When the ref
           does not have enough components, the result becomes an empty
           string if stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full
           refname if stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.

           strip can be used as a synonym to lstrip.

           The type of the object (blob, tree, commit, tag).

           The size of the object (the same as git cat-file -s reports).
           Append :disk to get the size, in bytes, that the object takes up
           on disk. See the note about on-disk sizes in the CAVEATS section

           The object name (aka SHA-1). For a non-ambiguous abbreviation of
           the object name append :short. For an abbreviation of the object
           name with desired length append :short=<length>, where the
           minimum length is MINIMUM_ABBREV. The length may be exceeded to
           ensure unique object names.

           This expands to the object name of the delta base for the given
           object, if it is stored as a delta. Otherwise it expands to the
           null object name (all zeroes).

           The name of a local ref which can be considered “upstream” from
           the displayed ref. Respects :short, :lstrip and :rstrip in the
           same way as refname above. Additionally respects :track to show
           "[ahead N, behind M]" and :trackshort to show the terse version:
           ">" (ahead), "<" (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind), or "=" (in
           sync).  :track also prints "[gone]" whenever unknown upstream ref
           is encountered. Append :track,nobracket to show tracking
           information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M").

           For any remote-tracking branch %(upstream),
           %(upstream:remotename) and %(upstream:remoteref) refer to the
           name of the remote and the name of the tracked remote ref,
           respectively. In other words, the remote-tracking branch can be
           updated explicitly and individually by using the refspec
           %(upstream:remoteref):%(upstream) to fetch from

           Has no effect if the ref does not have tracking information
           associated with it. All the options apart from nobracket are
           mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option is

           The name of a local ref which represents the @{push} location for
           the displayed ref. Respects :short, :lstrip, :rstrip, :track,
           :trackshort, :remotename, and :remoteref options as upstream
           does. Produces an empty string if no @{push} ref is configured.

           * if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '

           Change output color. Followed by :<colorname>, where color names
           are described under Values in the "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of
           git-config(1). For example, %(color:bold red).

           Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between %(align:...)
           and %(end). The "align:" is followed by width=<width> and
           position=<position> in any order separated by a comma, where the
           <position> is either left, right or middle, default being left
           and <width> is the total length of the content with alignment.
           For brevity, the "width=" and/or "position=" prefixes may be
           omitted, and bare <width> and <position> used instead. For
           instance, %(align:<width>,<position>). If the contents length is
           more than the width then no alignment is performed. If used with
           --quote everything in between %(align:...) and %(end) is quoted,
           but if nested then only the topmost level performs quoting.

           Used as %(if)...%(then)...%(end) or
           %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end). If there is an atom with
           value or string literal after the %(if) then everything after the
           %(then) is printed, else if the %(else) atom is used, then
           everything after %(else) is printed. We ignore space when
           evaluating the string before %(then), this is useful when we use
           the %(HEAD) atom which prints either "*" or " " and we want to
           apply the if condition only on the HEAD ref. Append
           ":equals=<string>" or ":notequals=<string>" to compare the value
           between the %(if:...) and %(then) atoms with the given string.

           The ref which the given symbolic ref refers to. If not a symbolic
           ref, nothing is printed. Respects the :short, :lstrip and :rstrip
           options in the same way as refname above.

           The absolute path to the worktree in which the ref is checked
           out, if it is checked out in any linked worktree. Empty string

       In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
       field names (tree, parent, object, type, and tag) can be used to
       specify the value in the header field.

       For commit and tag objects, the special creatordate and creator
       fields will correspond to the appropriate date or name-email-date
       tuple from the committer or tagger fields depending on the object
       type. These are intended for working on a mix of annotated and
       lightweight tags.

       Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (author,
       committer, and tagger) can be suffixed with name, email, and date to
       extract the named component.

       The complete message in a commit and tag object is contents. Its
       first line is contents:subject, where subject is the concatenation of
       all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next
       line is contents:body, where body is all of the lines after the first
       blank line. The optional GPG signature is contents:signature. The
       first N lines of the message is obtained using contents:lines=N.
       Additionally, the trailers as interpreted by
       git-interpret-trailers(1) are obtained as trailers (or by using the
       historical alias contents:trailers). Non-trailer lines from the
       trailer block can be omitted with trailers:only.
       Whitespace-continuations can be removed from trailers so that each
       trailer appears on a line by itself with its full content with
       trailers:unfold. Both can be used together as trailers:unfold,only.

       For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric
       order (objectsize, authordate, committerdate, creatordate,
       taggerdate). All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value

       There is also an option to sort by versions, this can be done by
       using the fieldname version:refname or its alias v:refname.

       In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to the
       object referred by the ref does not cause an error. It returns an
       empty string instead.

       As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format
       for the date by adding : followed by date format name (see the values
       the --date option to git-rev-list(1) takes).

       Some atoms like %(align) and %(if) always require a matching %(end).
       We call them "opening atoms" and sometimes denote them as %($open).

       When a scripting language specific quoting is in effect, everything
       between a top-level opening atom and its matching %(end) is evaluated
       according to the semantics of the opening atom and only its result
       from the top-level is quoted.

EXAMPLES         top

       An example directly producing formatted text. Show the most recent 3
       tagged commits:


           git for-each-ref --count=3 --sort='-*authordate' \
           --format='From: %(*authorname) %(*authoremail)
           Subject: %(*subject)
           Date: %(*authordate)
           Ref: %(*refname)

           ' 'refs/tags'

       A simple example showing the use of shell eval on the output,
       demonstrating the use of --shell. List the prefixes of all heads:


           git for-each-ref --shell --format="ref=%(refname)" refs/heads | \
           while read entry
                   eval "$entry"
                   echo `dirname $ref`

       A bit more elaborate report on tags, demonstrating that the format
       may be an entire script:




                   if test "z$t" = z
                           # could be a lightweight tag
                           kind="Lightweight tag"
                   echo "$kind $T points at a $t object $o"
                   if test "z$t" = zcommit
                           echo "The commit was authored by $n $e
           at $d, and titled


           Its message reads as:
                           echo "$b" | sed -e "s/^/    /"

           eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
                   --sort='*objecttype' \
                   --sort=-taggerdate \
           eval "$eval"

       An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end).
       This prefixes the current branch with a star.

           git for-each-ref --format="%(if)%(HEAD)%(then)* %(else)  %(end)%(refname:short)" refs/heads/

       An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(end). This prints
       the authorname, if present.

           git for-each-ref --format="%(refname)%(if)%(authorname)%(then) Authored by: %(authorname)%(end)"

CAVEATS         top

       Note that the sizes of objects on disk are reported accurately, but
       care should be taken in drawing conclusions about which refs or
       objects are responsible for disk usage. The size of a packed
       non-delta object may be much larger than the size of objects which
       delta against it, but the choice of which object is the base and
       which is the delta is arbitrary and is subject to change during a

       Note also that multiple copies of an object may be present in the
       object database; in this case, it is undefined which copy’s size or
       delta base will be reported.

SEE ALSO         top


GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2020-02-08.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2020-02-05.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           02/08/2020              GIT-FOR-EACH-REF(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-branch(1)git-config(1)git-ls-remote(1)git-show-ref(1)git-tag(1)