systemctl(1) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | COMMANDS | OPTIONS | EXIT STATUS | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | NOTES | COLOPHON

SYSTEMCTL(1)                    systemctl                   SYSTEMCTL(1)

NAME         top

       systemctl - Control the systemd system and service manager

SYNOPSIS         top

       systemctl [OPTIONS...] COMMAND [UNIT...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       systemctl may be used to introspect and control the state of the
       "systemd" system and service manager. Please refer to systemd(1)
       for an introduction into the basic concepts and functionality
       this tool manages.

COMMANDS         top

       The following commands are understood:

   Unit Commands (Introspection and Modification)
       list-units [PATTERN...]
           List units that systemd currently has in memory. This
           includes units that are either referenced directly or through
           a dependency, units that are pinned by applications
           programmatically, or units that were active in the past and
           have failed. By default only units which are active, have
           pending jobs, or have failed are shown; this can be changed
           with option --all. If one or more PATTERNs are specified,
           only units matching one of them are shown. The units that are
           shown are additionally filtered by --type= and --state= if
           those options are specified.

           Produces output similar to

                 UNIT                         LOAD   ACTIVE SUB     DESCRIPTION
                 sys-module-fuse.device       loaded active plugged /sys/module/fuse
                 -.mount                      loaded active mounted Root Mount
                 boot-efi.mount               loaded active mounted /boot/efi
                 systemd-journald.service     loaded active running Journal Service
                 systemd-logind.service       loaded active running Login Service
               ● user@1000.service            loaded failed failed  User Manager for UID 1000
                 ...
                 systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer loaded active waiting Daily Cleanup of Temporary Directories

               LOAD   = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
               ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
               SUB    = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.

               123 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
               To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.

           The header and the last unit of a given type are underlined
           if the terminal supports that. A colored dot is shown next to
           services which were masked, not found, or otherwise failed.

           The LOAD column shows the load state, one of loaded,
           not-found, bad-setting, error, masked. The ACTIVE columns
           shows the general unit state, one of active, reloading,
           inactive, failed, activating, deactivating. The SUB column
           shows the unit-type-specific detailed state of the unit,
           possible values vary by unit type. The list of possible LOAD,
           ACTIVE, and SUB states is not constant and new systemd
           releases may both add and remove values.

               systemctl --state=help

           command maybe be used to display the current set of possible
           values.

           This is the default command.

       list-sockets [PATTERN...]
           List socket units currently in memory, ordered by listening
           address. If one or more PATTERNs are specified, only socket
           units matching one of them are shown. Produces output similar
           to

               LISTEN           UNIT                        ACTIVATES
               /dev/initctl     systemd-initctl.socket      systemd-initctl.service
               ...
               [::]:22          sshd.socket                 sshd.service
               kobject-uevent 1 systemd-udevd-kernel.socket systemd-udevd.service

               5 sockets listed.

           Note: because the addresses might contains spaces, this
           output is not suitable for programmatic consumption.

           Also see --show-types, --all, and --state=.

       list-timers [PATTERN...]
           List timer units currently in memory, ordered by the time
           they elapse next. If one or more PATTERNs are specified, only
           units matching one of them are shown. Produces output similar
           to

               NEXT                         LEFT          LAST                         PASSED     UNIT                         ACTIVATES
               n/a                          n/a           Thu 2017-02-23 13:40:29 EST  3 days ago ureadahead-stop.timer        ureadahead-stop.service
               Sun 2017-02-26 18:55:42 EST  1min 14s left Thu 2017-02-23 13:54:44 EST  3 days ago systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service
               Sun 2017-02-26 20:37:16 EST  1h 42min left Sun 2017-02-26 11:56:36 EST  6h ago     apt-daily.timer              apt-daily.service
               Sun 2017-02-26 20:57:49 EST  2h 3min left  Sun 2017-02-26 11:56:36 EST  6h ago     snapd.refresh.timer          snapd.refresh.service

           NEXT shows the next time the timer will run.

           LEFT shows how long till the next time the timer runs.

           LAST shows the last time the timer ran.

           PASSED shows how long has passed since the timer last ran.

           UNIT shows the name of the timer

           ACTIVATES shows the name the service the timer activates when
           it runs.

           Also see --all and --state=.

       is-active PATTERN...
           Check whether any of the specified units are active (i.e.
           running). Returns an exit code 0 if at least one is active,
           or non-zero otherwise. Unless --quiet is specified, this will
           also print the current unit state to standard output.

       is-failed PATTERN...
           Check whether any of the specified units are in a "failed"
           state. Returns an exit code 0 if at least one has failed,
           non-zero otherwise. Unless --quiet is specified, this will
           also print the current unit state to standard output.

       status [PATTERN...|PID...]]
           Show terse runtime status information about one or more
           units, followed by most recent log data from the journal. If
           no units are specified, show system status. If combined with
           --all, also show the status of all units (subject to
           limitations specified with -t). If a PID is passed, show
           information about the unit the process belongs to.

           This function is intended to generate human-readable output.
           If you are looking for computer-parsable output, use show
           instead. By default, this function only shows 10 lines of
           output and ellipsizes lines to fit in the terminal window.
           This can be changed with --lines and --full, see above. In
           addition, journalctl --unit=NAME or journalctl
           --user-unit=NAME use a similar filter for messages and might
           be more convenient.

           systemd implicitly loads units as necessary, so just running
           the status will attempt to load a file. The command is thus
           not useful for determining if something was already loaded or
           not. The units may possibly also be quickly unloaded after
           the operation is completed if there's no reason to keep it in
           memory thereafter.

           Example 1. Example output from systemctl status

               $ systemctl status bluetooth
               ● bluetooth.service - Bluetooth service
                  Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/bluetooth.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
                  Active: active (running) since Wed 2017-01-04 13:54:04 EST; 1 weeks 0 days ago
                    Docs: man:bluetoothd(8)
                Main PID: 930 (bluetoothd)
                  Status: "Running"
                   Tasks: 1
                  Memory: 648.0K
                     CPU: 435ms
                  CGroup: /system.slice/bluetooth.service
                          └─930 /usr/lib/bluetooth/bluetoothd

               Jan 12 10:46:45 example.com bluetoothd[8900]: Not enough free handles to register service
               Jan 12 10:46:45 example.com bluetoothd[8900]: Current Time Service could not be registered
               Jan 12 10:46:45 example.com bluetoothd[8900]: gatt-time-server: Input/output error (5)

           The dot ("●") uses color on supported terminals to summarize
           the unit state at a glance. Along with its color, its shape
           varies according to its state: "inactive" or "maintenance" is
           a white circle ("○"), "active" is a green dot ("●"),
           "deactivating" is a white dot, "failed" or "error" is a red
           cross ("×"), and "reloading" is a green clockwise circle
           arrow ("↻").

           The "Loaded:" line in the output will show "loaded" if the
           unit has been loaded into memory. Other possible values for
           "Loaded:" include: "error" if there was a problem loading it,
           "not-found" if no unit file was found for this unit,
           "bad-setting" if an essential unit file setting could not be
           parsed and "masked" if the unit file has been masked. Along
           with showing the path to the unit file, this line will also
           show the enablement state. Enabled commands start at boot.
           See the full table of possible enablement states — including
           the definition of "masked" — in the documentation for the
           is-enabled command.

           The "Active:" line shows active state. The value is usually
           "active" or "inactive". Active could mean started, bound,
           plugged in, etc depending on the unit type. The unit could
           also be in process of changing states, reporting a state of
           "activating" or "deactivating". A special "failed" state is
           entered when the service failed in some way, such as a crash,
           exiting with an error code or timing out. If the failed state
           is entered the cause will be logged for later reference.

       show [PATTERN...|JOB...]
           Show properties of one or more units, jobs, or the manager
           itself. If no argument is specified, properties of the
           manager will be shown. If a unit name is specified,
           properties of the unit are shown, and if a job ID is
           specified, properties of the job are shown. By default, empty
           properties are suppressed. Use --all to show those too. To
           select specific properties to show, use --property=. This
           command is intended to be used whenever computer-parsable
           output is required. Use status if you are looking for
           formatted human-readable output.

           Many properties shown by systemctl show map directly to
           configuration settings of the system and service manager and
           its unit files. Note that the properties shown by the command
           are generally more low-level, normalized versions of the
           original configuration settings and expose runtime state in
           addition to configuration. For example, properties shown for
           service units include the service's current main process
           identifier as "MainPID" (which is runtime state), and time
           settings are always exposed as properties ending in the
           "...USec" suffix even if a matching configuration options end
           in "...Sec", because microseconds is the normalized time unit
           used internally by the system and service manager.

           For details about many of these properties, see the
           documentation of the D-Bus interface backing these
           properties, see org.freedesktop.systemd1(5).

       cat PATTERN...
           Show backing files of one or more units. Prints the
           "fragment" and "drop-ins" (source files) of units. Each file
           is preceded by a comment which includes the file name. Note
           that this shows the contents of the backing files on disk,
           which may not match the system manager's understanding of
           these units if any unit files were updated on disk and the
           daemon-reload command wasn't issued since.

       help PATTERN...|PID...
           Show manual pages for one or more units, if available. If a
           PID is given, the manual pages for the unit the process
           belongs to are shown.

       list-dependencies [UNIT...]
           Shows units required and wanted by the specified units. This
           recursively lists units following the Requires=, Requisite=,
           ConsistsOf=, Wants=, BindsTo= dependencies. If no units are
           specified, default.target is implied.

           By default, only target units are recursively expanded. When
           --all is passed, all other units are recursively expanded as
           well.

           Options --reverse, --after, --before may be used to change
           what types of dependencies are shown.

           Note that this command only lists units currently loaded into
           memory by the service manager. In particular, this command is
           not suitable to get a comprehensive list at all reverse
           dependencies on a specific unit, as it won't list the
           dependencies declared by units currently not loaded.

       start PATTERN...
           Start (activate) one or more units specified on the command
           line.

           Note that unit glob patterns expand to names of units
           currently in memory. Units which are not active and are not
           in a failed state usually are not in memory, and will not be
           matched by any pattern. In addition, in case of instantiated
           units, systemd is often unaware of the instance name until
           the instance has been started. Therefore, using glob patterns
           with start has limited usefulness. Also, secondary alias
           names of units are not considered.

           Option --all may be used to also operate on inactive units
           which are referenced by other loaded units. Note that this is
           not the same as operating on "all" possible units, because as
           the previous paragraph describes, such a list is ill-defined.
           Nevertheless, systemctl start --all GLOB may be useful if all
           the units that should match the pattern are pulled in by some
           target which is known to be loaded.

       stop PATTERN...
           Stop (deactivate) one or more units specified on the command
           line.

           This command will fail if the unit does not exist or if
           stopping of the unit is prohibited (see RefuseManualStop= in
           systemd.unit(5)). It will not fail if any of the commands
           configured to stop the unit (ExecStop=, etc.) fail, because
           the manager will still forcibly terminate the unit.

       reload PATTERN...
           Asks all units listed on the command line to reload their
           configuration. Note that this will reload the
           service-specific configuration, not the unit configuration
           file of systemd. If you want systemd to reload the
           configuration file of a unit, use the daemon-reload command.
           In other words: for the example case of Apache, this will
           reload Apache's httpd.conf in the web server, not the
           apache.service systemd unit file.

           This command should not be confused with the daemon-reload
           command.

       restart PATTERN...
           Stop and then start one or more units specified on the
           command line. If the units are not running yet, they will be
           started.

           Note that restarting a unit with this command does not
           necessarily flush out all of the unit's resources before it
           is started again. For example, the per-service file
           descriptor storage facility (see FileDescriptorStoreMax= in
           systemd.service(5)) will remain intact as long as the unit
           has a job pending, and is only cleared when the unit is fully
           stopped and no jobs are pending anymore. If it is intended
           that the file descriptor store is flushed out, too, during a
           restart operation an explicit systemctl stop command followed
           by systemctl start should be issued.

       try-restart PATTERN...
           Stop and then start one or more units specified on the
           command line if the units are running. This does nothing if
           units are not running.

       reload-or-restart PATTERN...
           Reload one or more units if they support it. If not, stop and
           then start them instead. If the units are not running yet,
           they will be started.

       try-reload-or-restart PATTERN...
           Reload one or more units if they support it. If not, stop and
           then start them instead. This does nothing if the units are
           not running.

       isolate UNIT
           Start the unit specified on the command line and its
           dependencies and stop all others, unless they have
           IgnoreOnIsolate=yes (see systemd.unit(5)). If a unit name
           with no extension is given, an extension of ".target" will be
           assumed.

           This command is dangerous, since it will immediately stop
           processes that are not enabled in the new target, possibly
           including the graphical environment or terminal you are
           currently using.

           Note that this is allowed only on units where AllowIsolate=
           is enabled. See systemd.unit(5) for details.

       kill PATTERN...
           Send a signal to one or more processes of the unit. Use
           --kill-who= to select which process to kill. Use --signal= to
           select the signal to send.

       clean PATTERN...
           Remove the configuration, state, cache, logs or runtime data
           of the specified units. Use --what= to select which kind of
           resource to remove. For service units this may be used to
           remove the directories configured with
           ConfigurationDirectory=, StateDirectory=, CacheDirectory=,
           LogsDirectory= and RuntimeDirectory=, see systemd.exec(5) for
           details. For timer units this may be used to clear out the
           persistent timestamp data if Persistent= is used and
           --what=state is selected, see systemd.timer(5). This command
           only applies to units that use either of these settings. If
           --what= is not specified, both the cache and runtime data are
           removed (as these two types of data are generally redundant
           and reproducible on the next invocation of the unit).

       freeze PATTERN...
           Freeze one or more units specified on the command line using
           cgroup freezer

           Freezing the unit will cause all processes contained within
           the cgroup corresponding to the unit to be suspended. Being
           suspended means that unit's processes won't be scheduled to
           run on CPU until thawed. Note that this command is supported
           only on systems that use unified cgroup hierarchy. Unit is
           automatically thawed just before we execute a job against the
           unit, e.g. before the unit is stopped.

       thaw PATTERN...
           Thaw (unfreeze) one or more units specified on the command
           line.

           This is the inverse operation to the freeze command and
           resumes the execution of processes in the unit's cgroup.

       set-property UNIT PROPERTY=VALUE...
           Set the specified unit properties at runtime where this is
           supported. This allows changing configuration parameter
           properties such as resource control settings at runtime. Not
           all properties may be changed at runtime, but many resource
           control settings (primarily those in
           systemd.resource-control(5)) may. The changes are applied
           immediately, and stored on disk for future boots, unless
           --runtime is passed, in which case the settings only apply
           until the next reboot. The syntax of the property assignment
           follows closely the syntax of assignments in unit files.

           Example: systemctl set-property foobar.service CPUWeight=200

           If the specified unit appears to be inactive, the changes
           will be only stored on disk as described previously hence
           they will be effective when the unit will be started.

           Note that this command allows changing multiple properties at
           the same time, which is preferable over setting them
           individually.

           Example: systemctl set-property foobar.service CPUWeight=200
           MemoryMax=2G IPAccounting=yes

           Like with unit file configuration settings, assigning an
           empty setting usually resets a property to its defaults.

           Example: systemctl set-property avahi-daemon.service
           IPAddressDeny=

       bind UNIT PATH [PATH]
           Bind-mounts a file or directory from the host into the
           specified unit's mount namespace. The first path argument is
           the source file or directory on the host, the second path
           argument is the destination file or directory in the unit's
           mount namespace. When the latter is omitted, the destination
           path in the unit's mount namespace is the same as the source
           path on the host. When combined with the --read-only switch,
           a ready-only bind mount is created. When combined with the
           --mkdir switch, the destination path is first created before
           the mount is applied.

           Note that this option is currently only supported for units
           that run within a mount namespace (e.g.: with RootImage=,
           PrivateMounts=, etc.). This command supports bind-mounting
           directories, regular files, device nodes, AF_UNIX socket
           nodes, as well as FIFOs. The bind mount is ephemeral, and it
           is undone as soon as the current unit process exists. Note
           that the namespace mentioned here, where the bind mount will
           be added to, is the one where the main service process runs.
           Other processes (those exececuted by ExecReload=,
           ExecStartPre=, etc.) run in distinct namespaces.

       mount-image UNIT IMAGE [PATH [PARTITION_NAME:MOUNT_OPTIONS]]
           Mounts an image from the host into the specified unit's mount
           namespace. The first path argument is the source image on the
           host, the second path argument is the destination directory
           in the unit's mount namespace (i.e. inside
           RootImage=/RootDirectory=). The following argument, if any,
           is interpreted as a colon-separated tuple of partition name
           and comma-separated list of mount options for that partition.
           The format is the same as the service MountImages= setting.
           When combined with the --read-only switch, a ready-only mount
           is created. When combined with the --mkdir switch, the
           destination path is first created before the mount is
           applied.

           Note that this option is currently only supported for units
           that run within a mount namespace (i.e. with RootImage=,
           PrivateMounts=, etc.). Note that the namespace mentioned here
           where the image mount will be added to, is the one where the
           main service process runs. Note that the namespace mentioned
           here, where the bind mount will be added to, is the one where
           the main service process runs. Other processes (those
           exececuted by ExecReload=, ExecStartPre=, etc.) run in
           distinct namespaces.

           Example:

               systemctl mount-image foo.service /tmp/img.raw /var/lib/image root:ro,nosuid

               systemctl mount-image --mkdir bar.service /tmp/img.raw /var/lib/baz/img

       service-log-level SERVICE [LEVEL]
           If the LEVEL argument is not given, print the current log
           level as reported by service SERVICE.

           If the optional argument LEVEL is provided, then change the
           current log level of the service to LEVEL. The log level
           should be a typical syslog log level, i.e. a value in the
           range 0...7 or one of the strings emerg, alert, crit, err,
           warning, notice, info, debug; see syslog(3) for details.

           The service must have the appropriate BusName=destination
           property and also implement the generic
           org.freedesktop.LogControl1(5) interface. (systemctl will use
           the generic D-Bus protocol to access the
           org.freedesktop.LogControl1.LogLevel interface for the D-Bus
           name destination.)

       service-log-target SERVICE [TARGET]
           If the TARGET argument is not given, print the current log
           target as reported by service SERVICE.

           If the optional argument TARGET is provided, then change the
           current log target of the service to TARGET. The log target
           should be one of the strings console (for log output to the
           service's standard error stream), kmsg (for log output to the
           kernel log buffer), journal (for log output to
           systemd-journald.service(8) using the native journal
           protocol), syslog (for log output to the classic syslog
           socket /dev/log), null (for no log output whatsoever) or auto
           (for an automatically determined choice, typically equivalent
           to console if the service is invoked interactively, and
           journal or syslog otherwise).

           For most services, only a small subset of log targets make
           sense. In particular, most "normal" services should only
           implement console, journal, and null. Anything else is only
           appropriate for low-level services that are active in very
           early boot before proper logging is established.

           The service must have the appropriate BusName=destination
           property and also implement the generic
           org.freedesktop.LogControl1(5) interface. (systemctl will use
           the generic D-Bus protocol to access the
           org.freedesktop.LogControl1.LogLevel interface for the D-Bus
           name destination.)

       reset-failed [PATTERN...]
           Reset the "failed" state of the specified units, or if no
           unit name is passed, reset the state of all units. When a
           unit fails in some way (i.e. process exiting with non-zero
           error code, terminating abnormally or timing out), it will
           automatically enter the "failed" state and its exit code and
           status is recorded for introspection by the administrator
           until the service is stopped/re-started or reset with this
           command.

           In addition to resetting the "failed" state of a unit it also
           resets various other per-unit properties: the start rate
           limit counter of all unit types is reset to zero, as is the
           restart counter of service units. Thus, if a unit's start
           limit (as configured with
           StartLimitIntervalSec=/StartLimitBurst=) is hit and the unit
           refuses to be started again, use this command to make it
           startable again.

   Unit File Commands
       list-unit-files [PATTERN...]
           List unit files installed on the system, in combination with
           their enablement state (as reported by is-enabled). If one or
           more PATTERNs are specified, only unit files whose name
           matches one of them are shown (patterns matching unit file
           system paths are not supported).

       enable UNIT..., enable PATH...
           Enable one or more units or unit instances. This will create
           a set of symlinks, as encoded in the [Install] sections of
           the indicated unit files. After the symlinks have been
           created, the system manager configuration is reloaded (in a
           way equivalent to daemon-reload), in order to ensure the
           changes are taken into account immediately. Note that this
           does not have the effect of also starting any of the units
           being enabled. If this is desired, combine this command with
           the --now switch, or invoke start with appropriate arguments
           later. Note that in case of unit instance enablement (i.e.
           enablement of units of the form foo@bar.service), symlinks
           named the same as instances are created in the unit
           configuration directory, however they point to the single
           template unit file they are instantiated from.

           This command expects either valid unit names (in which case
           various unit file directories are automatically searched for
           unit files with appropriate names), or absolute paths to unit
           files (in which case these files are read directly). If a
           specified unit file is located outside of the usual unit file
           directories, an additional symlink is created, linking it
           into the unit configuration path, thus ensuring it is found
           when requested by commands such as start. The file system
           where the linked unit files are located must be accessible
           when systemd is started (e.g. anything underneath /home/ or
           /var/ is not allowed, unless those directories are located on
           the root file system).

           This command will print the file system operations executed.
           This output may be suppressed by passing --quiet.

           Note that this operation creates only the symlinks suggested
           in the [Install] section of the unit files. While this
           command is the recommended way to manipulate the unit
           configuration directory, the administrator is free to make
           additional changes manually by placing or removing symlinks
           below this directory. This is particularly useful to create
           configurations that deviate from the suggested default
           installation. In this case, the administrator must make sure
           to invoke daemon-reload manually as necessary, in order to
           ensure the changes are taken into account.

           Enabling units should not be confused with starting
           (activating) units, as done by the start command. Enabling
           and starting units is orthogonal: units may be enabled
           without being started and started without being enabled.
           Enabling simply hooks the unit into various suggested places
           (for example, so that the unit is automatically started on
           boot or when a particular kind of hardware is plugged in).
           Starting actually spawns the daemon process (in case of
           service units), or binds the socket (in case of socket
           units), and so on.

           Depending on whether --system, --user, --runtime, or --global
           is specified, this enables the unit for the system, for the
           calling user only, for only this boot of the system, or for
           all future logins of all users. Note that in the last case,
           no systemd daemon configuration is reloaded.

           Using enable on masked units is not supported and results in
           an error.

       disable UNIT...
           Disables one or more units. This removes all symlinks to the
           unit files backing the specified units from the unit
           configuration directory, and hence undoes any changes made by
           enable or link. Note that this removes all symlinks to
           matching unit files, including manually created symlinks, and
           not just those actually created by enable or link. Note that
           while disable undoes the effect of enable, the two commands
           are otherwise not symmetric, as disable may remove more
           symlinks than a prior enable invocation of the same unit
           created.

           This command expects valid unit names only, it does not
           accept paths to unit files.

           In addition to the units specified as arguments, all units
           are disabled that are listed in the Also= setting contained
           in the [Install] section of any of the unit files being
           operated on.

           This command implicitly reloads the system manager
           configuration after completing the operation. Note that this
           command does not implicitly stop the units that are being
           disabled. If this is desired, either combine this command
           with the --now switch, or invoke the stop command with
           appropriate arguments later.

           This command will print information about the file system
           operations (symlink removals) executed. This output may be
           suppressed by passing --quiet.

           This command honors --system, --user, --runtime and --global
           in a similar way as enable.

       reenable UNIT...
           Reenable one or more units, as specified on the command line.
           This is a combination of disable and enable and is useful to
           reset the symlinks a unit file is enabled with to the
           defaults configured in its [Install] section. This command
           expects a unit name only, it does not accept paths to unit
           files.

       preset UNIT...
           Reset the enable/disable status one or more unit files, as
           specified on the command line, to the defaults configured in
           the preset policy files. This has the same effect as disable
           or enable, depending how the unit is listed in the preset
           files.

           Use --preset-mode= to control whether units shall be enabled
           and disabled, or only enabled, or only disabled.

           If the unit carries no install information, it will be
           silently ignored by this command.  UNIT must be the real unit
           name, any alias names are ignored silently.

           For more information on the preset policy format, see
           systemd.preset(5).

       preset-all
           Resets all installed unit files to the defaults configured in
           the preset policy file (see above).

           Use --preset-mode= to control whether units shall be enabled
           and disabled, or only enabled, or only disabled.

       is-enabled UNIT...
           Checks whether any of the specified unit files are enabled
           (as with enable). Returns an exit code of 0 if at least one
           is enabled, non-zero otherwise. Prints the current enable
           status (see table). To suppress this output, use --quiet. To
           show installation targets, use --full.

           Table 1.  is-enabled output
           ┌──────────────────┬─────────────────────────┬───────────┐
           │Name              Description             Exit Code │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"enabled"         │ Enabled via             │           │
           ├──────────────────┤ .wants/,                │           │
           │"enabled-runtime" │ .requires/ or           │           │
           │                  │ Alias= symlinks         │ 0         │
           │                  │ (permanently in         │           │
           │                  │ /etc/systemd/system/,   │           │
           │                  │ or transiently in       │           │
           │                  │ /run/systemd/system/).  │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"linked"          │ Made available through  │           │
           ├──────────────────┤ one or more symlinks    │           │
           │"linked-runtime"  │ to the unit file        │           │
           │                  │ (permanently in         │           │
           │                  │ /etc/systemd/system/    │           │
           │                  │ or transiently in       │ > 0       │
           │                  │ /run/systemd/system/),  │           │
           │                  │ even though the unit    │           │
           │                  │ file might reside       │           │
           │                  │ outside of the unit     │           │
           │                  │ file search path.       │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"alias"           │ The name is an alias    │ 0         │
           │                  │ (symlink to another     │           │
           │                  │ unit file).             │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"masked"          │ Completely disabled,    │           │
           ├──────────────────┤ so that any start       │           │
           │"masked-runtime"  │ operation on it fails   │           │
           │                  │ (permanently in         │ > 0       │
           │                  │ /etc/systemd/system/    │           │
           │                  │ or transiently in       │           │
           │                  │ /run/systemd/systemd/). │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"static"          │ The unit file is not    │ 0         │
           │                  │ enabled, and has no     │           │
           │                  │ provisions for enabling │           │
           │                  │ in the [Install] unit   │           │
           │                  │ file section.           │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"indirect"        │ The unit file itself is │ 0         │
           │                  │ not enabled, but it has │           │
           │                  │ a non-empty Also=       │           │
           │                  │ setting in the          │           │
           │                  │ [Install] unit file     │           │
           │                  │ section, listing other  │           │
           │                  │ unit files that might   │           │
           │                  │ be enabled, or it has   │           │
           │                  │ an alias under a        │           │
           │                  │ different name through  │           │
           │                  │ a symlink that is not   │           │
           │                  │ specified in Also=. For │           │
           │                  │ template unit files, an │           │
           │                  │ instance different than │           │
           │                  │ the one specified in    │           │
           │                  │ DefaultInstance= is     │           │
           │                  │ enabled.                │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"disabled"        │ The unit file is not    │ > 0       │
           │                  │ enabled, but contains   │           │
           │                  │ an [Install] section    │           │
           │                  │ with installation       │           │
           │                  │ instructions.           │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"generated"       │ The unit file was       │ 0         │
           │                  │ generated dynamically   │           │
           │                  │ via a generator tool.   │           │
           │                  │ See                     │           │
           │                  │ systemd.generator(7).   │           │
           │                  │ Generated unit files    │           │
           │                  │ may not be enabled,     │           │
           │                  │ they are enabled        │           │
           │                  │ implicitly by their     │           │
           │                  │ generator.              │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"transient"       │ The unit file has been  │ 0         │
           │                  │ created dynamically     │           │
           │                  │ with the runtime API.   │           │
           │                  │ Transient units may not │           │
           │                  │ be enabled.             │           │
           ├──────────────────┼─────────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │"bad"             │ The unit file is        │ > 0       │
           │                  │ invalid or another      │           │
           │                  │ error occurred. Note    │           │
           │                  │ that is-enabled will    │           │
           │                  │ not actually return     │           │
           │                  │ this state, but print   │           │
           │                  │ an error message        │           │
           │                  │ instead. However the    │           │
           │                  │ unit file listing       │           │
           │                  │ printed by              │           │
           │                  │ list-unit-files might   │           │
           │                  │ show it.                │           │
           └──────────────────┴─────────────────────────┴───────────┘

       mask UNIT...
           Mask one or more units, as specified on the command line.
           This will link these unit files to /dev/null, making it
           impossible to start them. This is a stronger version of
           disable, since it prohibits all kinds of activation of the
           unit, including enablement and manual activation. Use this
           option with care. This honors the --runtime option to only
           mask temporarily until the next reboot of the system. The
           --now option may be used to ensure that the units are also
           stopped. This command expects valid unit names only, it does
           not accept unit file paths.

       unmask UNIT...
           Unmask one or more unit files, as specified on the command
           line. This will undo the effect of mask. This command expects
           valid unit names only, it does not accept unit file paths.

       link PATH...
           Link a unit file that is not in the unit file search paths
           into the unit file search path. This command expects an
           absolute path to a unit file. The effect of this may be
           undone with disable. The effect of this command is that a
           unit file is made available for commands such as start, even
           though it is not installed directly in the unit search path.
           The file system where the linked unit files are located must
           be accessible when systemd is started (e.g. anything
           underneath /home/ or /var/ is not allowed, unless those
           directories are located on the root file system).

       revert UNIT...
           Revert one or more unit files to their vendor versions. This
           command removes drop-in configuration files that modify the
           specified units, as well as any user-configured unit file
           that overrides a matching vendor supplied unit file.
           Specifically, for a unit "foo.service" the matching
           directories "foo.service.d/" with all their contained files
           are removed, both below the persistent and runtime
           configuration directories (i.e. below /etc/systemd/system and
           /run/systemd/system); if the unit file has a vendor-supplied
           version (i.e. a unit file located below /usr/) any matching
           persistent or runtime unit file that overrides it is removed,
           too. Note that if a unit file has no vendor-supplied version
           (i.e. is only defined below /etc/systemd/system or
           /run/systemd/system, but not in a unit file stored below
           /usr/), then it is not removed. Also, if a unit is masked, it
           is unmasked.

           Effectively, this command may be used to undo all changes
           made with systemctl edit, systemctl set-property and
           systemctl mask and puts the original unit file with its
           settings back in effect.

       add-wants TARGET UNIT..., add-requires TARGET UNIT...
           Adds "Wants=" or "Requires=" dependencies, respectively, to
           the specified TARGET for one or more units.

           This command honors --system, --user, --runtime and --global
           in a way similar to enable.

       edit UNIT...
           Edit a drop-in snippet or a whole replacement file if --full
           is specified, to extend or override the specified unit.

           Depending on whether --system (the default), --user, or
           --global is specified, this command creates a drop-in file
           for each unit either for the system, for the calling user, or
           for all futures logins of all users. Then, the editor (see
           the "Environment" section below) is invoked on temporary
           files which will be written to the real location if the
           editor exits successfully.

           If --full is specified, this will copy the original units
           instead of creating drop-in files.

           If --force is specified and any units do not already exist,
           new unit files will be opened for editing.

           If --runtime is specified, the changes will be made
           temporarily in /run/ and they will be lost on the next
           reboot.

           If the temporary file is empty upon exit, the modification of
           the related unit is canceled.

           After the units have been edited, systemd configuration is
           reloaded (in a way that is equivalent to daemon-reload).

           Note that this command cannot be used to remotely edit units
           and that you cannot temporarily edit units which are in
           /etc/, since they take precedence over /run/.

       get-default
           Return the default target to boot into. This returns the
           target unit name default.target is aliased (symlinked) to.

       set-default TARGET
           Set the default target to boot into. This sets (symlinks) the
           default.target alias to the given target unit.

   Machine Commands
       list-machines [PATTERN...]
           List the host and all running local containers with their
           state. If one or more PATTERNs are specified, only containers
           matching one of them are shown.

   Job Commands
       list-jobs [PATTERN...]
           List jobs that are in progress. If one or more PATTERNs are
           specified, only jobs for units matching one of them are
           shown.

           When combined with --after or --before the list is augmented
           with information on which other job each job is waiting for,
           and which other jobs are waiting for it, see above.

       cancel JOB...
           Cancel one or more jobs specified on the command line by
           their numeric job IDs. If no job ID is specified, cancel all
           pending jobs.

   Environment Commands
       systemd supports an environment block that is passed to processes
       the manager spawns. The names of the variables can contain ASCII
       letters, digits, and the underscore character. Variable names
       cannot be empty or start with a digit. In variable values, most
       characters are allowed, but the whole sequence must be valid
       UTF-8. (Note that control characters like newline (NL), tab
       (TAB), or the escape character (ESC), are valid ASCII and thus
       valid UTF-8). The total length of the environment block is
       limited to _SC_ARG_MAX value defined by sysconf(3).

       show-environment
           Dump the systemd manager environment block. This is the
           environment block that is passed to all processes the manager
           spawns. The environment block will be dumped in
           straight-forward form suitable for sourcing into most shells.
           If no special characters or whitespace is present in the
           variable values, no escaping is performed, and the
           assignments have the form "VARIABLE=value". If whitespace or
           characters which have special meaning to the shell are
           present, dollar-single-quote escaping is used, and
           assignments have the form "VARIABLE=$'value'". This syntax is
           known to be supported by bash(1), zsh(1), ksh(1), and
           busybox(1)'s ash(1), but not dash(1) or fish(1).

       set-environment VARIABLE=VALUE...
           Set one or more systemd manager environment variables, as
           specified on the command line. This command will fail if
           variable names and values do not conform to the rules listed
           above.

       unset-environment VARIABLE...
           Unset one or more systemd manager environment variables. If
           only a variable name is specified, it will be removed
           regardless of its value. If a variable and a value are
           specified, the variable is only removed if it has the
           specified value.

       import-environment VARIABLE...
           Import all, one or more environment variables set on the
           client into the systemd manager environment block. If a list
           of environment variable names is passed, client-side values
           are then imported into the manager's environment block. If
           any names are not valid environment variable names or have
           invalid values according to the rules described above, an
           error is raised. If no arguments are passed, the entire
           environment block inherited by the systemctl process is
           imported. In this mode, any inherited invalid environment
           variables are quietly ignored.

           Importing of the full inherited environment block (calling
           this command without any arguments) is deprecated. A shell
           will set dozens of variables which only make sense locally
           and are only meant for processes which are descendants of the
           shell. Such variables in the global environment block are
           confusing to other processes.

   Manager State Commands
       daemon-reload
           Reload the systemd manager configuration. This will rerun all
           generators (see systemd.generator(7)), reload all unit files,
           and recreate the entire dependency tree. While the daemon is
           being reloaded, all sockets systemd listens on behalf of user
           configuration will stay accessible.

           This command should not be confused with the reload command.

       daemon-reexec
           Reexecute the systemd manager. This will serialize the
           manager state, reexecute the process and deserialize the
           state again. This command is of little use except for
           debugging and package upgrades. Sometimes, it might be
           helpful as a heavy-weight daemon-reload. While the daemon is
           being reexecuted, all sockets systemd listening on behalf of
           user configuration will stay accessible.

       log-level [LEVEL]
           If no argument is given, print the current log level of the
           manager. If an optional argument LEVEL is provided, then the
           command changes the current log level of the manager to LEVEL
           (accepts the same values as --log-level= described in
           systemd(1)).

       log-target [TARGET]
           If no argument is given, print the current log target of the
           manager. If an optional argument TARGET is provided, then the
           command changes the current log target of the manager to
           TARGET (accepts the same values as --log-target=, described
           in systemd(1)).

       service-watchdogs [yes|no]
           If no argument is given, print the current state of service
           runtime watchdogs of the manager. If an optional boolean
           argument is provided, then globally enables or disables the
           service runtime watchdogs (WatchdogSec=) and emergency
           actions (e.g.  OnFailure= or StartLimitAction=); see
           systemd.service(5). The hardware watchdog is not affected by
           this setting.

   System Commands
       is-system-running
           Checks whether the system is operational. This returns
           success (exit code 0) when the system is fully up and
           running, specifically not in startup, shutdown or maintenance
           mode, and with no failed services. Failure is returned
           otherwise (exit code non-zero). In addition, the current
           state is printed in a short string to standard output, see
           the table below. Use --quiet to suppress this output.

           Use --wait to wait until the boot process is completed before
           printing the current state and returning the appropriate
           error status. If --wait is in use, states initializing or
           starting will not be reported, instead the command will block
           until a later state (such as running or degraded) is reached.

           Table 2. is-system-running output
           ┌─────────────┬────────────────────┬───────────┐
           │Name         Description        Exit Code │
           ├─────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │initializing │ Early bootup,      │ > 0       │
           │             │ before             │           │
           │             │ basic.target is    │           │
           │             │ reached or the     │           │
           │             │ maintenance state  │           │
           │             │ entered.           │           │
           ├─────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │starting     │ Late bootup,       │ > 0       │
           │             │ before the job     │           │
           │             │ queue becomes idle │           │
           │             │ for the first      │           │
           │             │ time, or one of    │           │
           │             │ the rescue targets │           │
           │             │ are reached.       │           │
           ├─────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │running      │ The system is      │ 0         │
           │             │ fully operational. │           │
           ├─────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │degraded     │ The system is      │ > 0       │
           │             │ operational but    │           │
           │             │ one or more units  │           │
           │             │ failed.            │           │
           ├─────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │maintenance  │ The rescue or      │ > 0       │
           │             │ emergency target   │           │
           │             │ is active.         │           │
           ├─────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │stopping     │ The manager is     │ > 0       │
           │             │ shutting down.     │           │
           ├─────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │offline      │ The manager is not │ > 0       │
           │             │ running.           │           │
           │             │ Specifically, this │           │
           │             │ is the operational │           │
           │             │ state if an        │           │
           │             │ incompatible       │           │
           │             │ program is running │           │
           │             │ as system manager  │           │
           │             │ (PID 1).           │           │
           ├─────────────┼────────────────────┼───────────┤
           │unknown      │ The operational    │ > 0       │
           │             │ state could not be │           │
           │             │ determined, due to │           │
           │             │ lack of resources  │           │
           │             │ or another error   │           │
           │             │ cause.             │           │
           └─────────────┴────────────────────┴───────────┘

       default
           Enter default mode. This is equivalent to systemctl isolate
           default.target. This operation is blocking by default, use
           --no-block to request asynchronous behavior.

       rescue
           Enter rescue mode. This is equivalent to systemctl isolate
           rescue.target. This operation is blocking by default, use
           --no-block to request asynchronous behavior.

       emergency
           Enter emergency mode. This is equivalent to systemctl isolate
           emergency.target. This operation is blocking by default, use
           --no-block to request asynchronous behavior.

       halt
           Shut down and halt the system. This is mostly equivalent to
           systemctl start halt.target --job-mode=replace-irreversibly
           --no-block, but also prints a wall message to all users. This
           command is asynchronous; it will return after the halt
           operation is enqueued, without waiting for it to complete.
           Note that this operation will simply halt the OS kernel after
           shutting down, leaving the hardware powered on. Use systemctl
           poweroff for powering off the system (see below).

           If combined with --force, shutdown of all running services is
           skipped, however all processes are killed and all file
           systems are unmounted or mounted read-only, immediately
           followed by the system halt. If --force is specified twice,
           the operation is immediately executed without terminating any
           processes or unmounting any file systems. This may result in
           data loss. Note that when --force is specified twice the halt
           operation is executed by systemctl itself, and the system
           manager is not contacted. This means the command should
           succeed even when the system manager has crashed.

       poweroff
           Shut down and power-off the system. This is mostly equivalent
           to systemctl start poweroff.target
           --job-mode=replace-irreversibly --no-block, but also prints a
           wall message to all users. This command is asynchronous; it
           will return after the power-off operation is enqueued,
           without waiting for it to complete.

           If combined with --force, shutdown of all running services is
           skipped, however all processes are killed and all file
           systems are unmounted or mounted read-only, immediately
           followed by the powering off. If --force is specified twice,
           the operation is immediately executed without terminating any
           processes or unmounting any file systems. This may result in
           data loss. Note that when --force is specified twice the
           power-off operation is executed by systemctl itself, and the
           system manager is not contacted. This means the command
           should succeed even when the system manager has crashed.

       reboot
           Shut down and reboot the system. This is mostly equivalent to
           systemctl start reboot.target --job-mode=replace-irreversibly
           --no-block, but also prints a wall message to all users. This
           command is asynchronous; it will return after the reboot
           operation is enqueued, without waiting for it to complete.

           If combined with --force, shutdown of all running services is
           skipped, however all processes are killed and all file
           systems are unmounted or mounted read-only, immediately
           followed by the reboot. If --force is specified twice, the
           operation is immediately executed without terminating any
           processes or unmounting any file systems. This may result in
           data loss. Note that when --force is specified twice the
           reboot operation is executed by systemctl itself, and the
           system manager is not contacted. This means the command
           should succeed even when the system manager has crashed.

           If the switch --reboot-argument= is given, it will be passed
           as the optional argument to the reboot(2) system call.

       kexec
           Shut down and reboot the system via kexec. This is equivalent
           to systemctl start kexec.target
           --job-mode=replace-irreversibly --no-block. This command is
           asynchronous; it will return after the reboot operation is
           enqueued, without waiting for it to complete.

           If combined with --force, shutdown of all running services is
           skipped, however all processes are killed and all file
           systems are unmounted or mounted read-only, immediately
           followed by the reboot.

       exit [EXIT_CODE]
           Ask the service manager to quit. This is only supported for
           user service managers (i.e. in conjunction with the --user
           option) or in containers and is equivalent to poweroff
           otherwise. This command is asynchronous; it will return after
           the exit operation is enqueued, without waiting for it to
           complete.

           The service manager will exit with the specified exit code,
           if EXIT_CODE is passed.

       switch-root ROOT [INIT]
           Switches to a different root directory and executes a new
           system manager process below it. This is intended for usage
           in initial RAM disks ("initrd"), and will transition from the
           initrd's system manager process (a.k.a. "init" process) to
           the main system manager process which is loaded from the
           actual host volume. This call takes two arguments: the
           directory that is to become the new root directory, and the
           path to the new system manager binary below it to execute as
           PID 1. If the latter is omitted or the empty string, a
           systemd binary will automatically be searched for and used as
           init. If the system manager path is omitted, equal to the
           empty string or identical to the path to the systemd binary,
           the state of the initrd's system manager process is passed to
           the main system manager, which allows later introspection of
           the state of the services involved in the initrd boot phase.

       suspend
           Suspend the system. This will trigger activation of the
           special target unit suspend.target. This command is
           asynchronous, and will return after the suspend operation is
           successfully enqueued. It will not wait for the
           suspend/resume cycle to complete.

       hibernate
           Hibernate the system. This will trigger activation of the
           special target unit hibernate.target. This command is
           asynchronous, and will return after the hibernation operation
           is successfully enqueued. It will not wait for the
           hibernate/thaw cycle to complete.

       hybrid-sleep
           Hibernate and suspend the system. This will trigger
           activation of the special target unit hybrid-sleep.target.
           This command is asynchronous, and will return after the
           hybrid sleep operation is successfully enqueued. It will not
           wait for the sleep/wake-up cycle to complete.

       suspend-then-hibernate
           Suspend the system and hibernate it after the delay specified
           in systemd-sleep.conf. This will trigger activation of the
           special target unit suspend-then-hibernate.target. This
           command is asynchronous, and will return after the hybrid
           sleep operation is successfully enqueued. It will not wait
           for the sleep/wake-up or hibernate/thaw cycle to complete.

   Parameter Syntax
       Unit commands listed above take either a single unit name
       (designated as UNIT), or multiple unit specifications (designated
       as PATTERN...). In the first case, the unit name with or without
       a suffix must be given. If the suffix is not specified (unit name
       is "abbreviated"), systemctl will append a suitable suffix,
       ".service" by default, and a type-specific suffix in case of
       commands which operate only on specific unit types. For example,

           # systemctl start sshd

       and

           # systemctl start sshd.service

       are equivalent, as are

           # systemctl isolate default

       and

           # systemctl isolate default.target

       Note that (absolute) paths to device nodes are automatically
       converted to device unit names, and other (absolute) paths to
       mount unit names.

           # systemctl status /dev/sda
           # systemctl status /home

       are equivalent to:

           # systemctl status dev-sda.device
           # systemctl status home.mount

       In the second case, shell-style globs will be matched against the
       primary names of all units currently in memory; literal unit
       names, with or without a suffix, will be treated as in the first
       case. This means that literal unit names always refer to exactly
       one unit, but globs may match zero units and this is not
       considered an error.

       Glob patterns use fnmatch(3), so normal shell-style globbing
       rules are used, and "*", "?", "[]" may be used. See glob(7) for
       more details. The patterns are matched against the primary names
       of units currently in memory, and patterns which do not match
       anything are silently skipped. For example:

           # systemctl stop sshd@*.service

       will stop all sshd@.service instances. Note that alias names of
       units, and units that aren't in memory are not considered for
       glob expansion.

       For unit file commands, the specified UNIT should be the name of
       the unit file (possibly abbreviated, see above), or the absolute
       path to the unit file:

           # systemctl enable foo.service

       or

           # systemctl link /path/to/foo.service

OPTIONS         top

       The following options are understood:

       -t, --type=
           The argument should be a comma-separated list of unit types
           such as service and socket.

           If one of the arguments is a unit type, when listing units,
           limit display to certain unit types. Otherwise, units of all
           types will be shown.

           As a special case, if one of the arguments is help, a list of
           allowed values will be printed and the program will exit.

       --state=
           The argument should be a comma-separated list of unit LOAD,
           SUB, or ACTIVE states. When listing units, show only those in
           the specified states. Use --state=failed to show only failed
           units.

           As a special case, if one of the arguments is help, a list of
           allowed values will be printed and the program will exit.

       -p, --property=
           When showing unit/job/manager properties with the show
           command, limit display to properties specified in the
           argument. The argument should be a comma-separated list of
           property names, such as "MainPID". Unless specified, all
           known properties are shown. If specified more than once, all
           properties with the specified names are shown. Shell
           completion is implemented for property names.

           For the manager itself, systemctl show will show all
           available properties. Those properties are documented in
           systemd-system.conf(5).

           Properties for units vary by unit type, so showing any unit
           (even a non-existent one) is a way to list properties
           pertaining to this type. Similarly, showing any job will list
           properties pertaining to all jobs. Properties for units are
           documented in systemd.unit(5), and the pages for individual
           unit types systemd.service(5), systemd.socket(5), etc.

       -P
           Equivalent to --value --property=, i.e. shows the value of
           the property without the property name or "=". Note that
           using -P once will also affect all properties listed with
           -p/--property=.

       -a, --all
           When listing units with list-units, also show inactive units
           and units which are following other units. When showing
           unit/job/manager properties, show all properties regardless
           whether they are set or not.

           To list all units installed in the file system, use the
           list-unit-files command instead.

           When listing units with list-dependencies, recursively show
           dependencies of all dependent units (by default only
           dependencies of target units are shown).

           When used with status, show journal messages in full, even if
           they include unprintable characters or are very long. By
           default, fields with unprintable characters are abbreviated
           as "blob data". (Note that the pager may escape unprintable
           characters again.)

       -r, --recursive
           When listing units, also show units of local containers.
           Units of local containers will be prefixed with the container
           name, separated by a single colon character (":").

       --reverse
           Show reverse dependencies between units with
           list-dependencies, i.e. follow dependencies of type
           WantedBy=, RequiredBy=, PartOf=, BoundBy=, instead of Wants=
           and similar.

       --after
           With list-dependencies, show the units that are ordered
           before the specified unit. In other words, recursively list
           units following the After= dependency.

           Note that any After= dependency is automatically mirrored to
           create a Before= dependency. Temporal dependencies may be
           specified explicitly, but are also created implicitly for
           units which are WantedBy= targets (see systemd.target(5)),
           and as a result of other directives (for example
           RequiresMountsFor=). Both explicitly and implicitly
           introduced dependencies are shown with list-dependencies.

           When passed to the list-jobs command, for each printed job
           show which other jobs are waiting for it. May be combined
           with --before to show both the jobs waiting for each job as
           well as all jobs each job is waiting for.

       --before
           With list-dependencies, show the units that are ordered after
           the specified unit. In other words, recursively list units
           following the Before= dependency.

           When passed to the list-jobs command, for each printed job
           show which other jobs it is waiting for. May be combined with
           --after to show both the jobs waiting for each job as well as
           all jobs each job is waiting for.

       --with-dependencies
           When used with status, cat, list-units, and list-unit-files,
           those commands print all specified units and the dependencies
           of those units.

           Options --reverse, --after, --before may be used to change
           what types of dependencies are shown.

       -l, --full
           Do not ellipsize unit names, process tree entries, journal
           output, or truncate unit descriptions in the output of
           status, list-units, list-jobs, and list-timers.

           Also, show installation targets in the output of is-enabled.

       --value
           When printing properties with show, only print the value, and
           skip the property name and "=". Also see option -P above.

       --show-types
           When showing sockets, show the type of the socket.

       --job-mode=
           When queuing a new job, this option controls how to deal with
           already queued jobs. It takes one of "fail", "replace",
           "replace-irreversibly", "isolate", "ignore-dependencies",
           "ignore-requirements", "flush", or "triggering". Defaults to
           "replace", except when the isolate command is used which
           implies the "isolate" job mode.

           If "fail" is specified and a requested operation conflicts
           with a pending job (more specifically: causes an already
           pending start job to be reversed into a stop job or vice
           versa), cause the operation to fail.

           If "replace" (the default) is specified, any conflicting
           pending job will be replaced, as necessary.

           If "replace-irreversibly" is specified, operate like
           "replace", but also mark the new jobs as irreversible. This
           prevents future conflicting transactions from replacing these
           jobs (or even being enqueued while the irreversible jobs are
           still pending). Irreversible jobs can still be cancelled
           using the cancel command. This job mode should be used on any
           transaction which pulls in shutdown.target.

           "isolate" is only valid for start operations and causes all
           other units to be stopped when the specified unit is started.
           This mode is always used when the isolate command is used.

           "flush" will cause all queued jobs to be canceled when the
           new job is enqueued.

           If "ignore-dependencies" is specified, then all unit
           dependencies are ignored for this new job and the operation
           is executed immediately. If passed, no required units of the
           unit passed will be pulled in, and no ordering dependencies
           will be honored. This is mostly a debugging and rescue tool
           for the administrator and should not be used by applications.

           "ignore-requirements" is similar to "ignore-dependencies",
           but only causes the requirement dependencies to be ignored,
           the ordering dependencies will still be honored.

           "triggering" may only be used with systemctl stop. In this
           mode, the specified unit and any active units that trigger it
           are stopped. See the discussion of Triggers= in
           systemd.unit(5) for more information about triggering units.

       -T, --show-transaction
           When enqueuing a unit job (for example as effect of a
           systemctl start invocation or similar), show brief
           information about all jobs enqueued, covering both the
           requested job and any added because of unit dependencies.
           Note that the output will only include jobs immediately part
           of the transaction requested. It is possible that service
           start-up program code run as effect of the enqueued jobs
           might request further jobs to be pulled in. This means that
           completion of the listed jobs might ultimately entail more
           jobs than the listed ones.

       --fail
           Shorthand for --job-mode=fail.

           When used with the kill command, if no units were killed, the
           operation results in an error.

       --check-inhibitors=
           When system shutdown or sleep state is request, this option
           controls how to deal with inhibitor locks. It takes one of
           "auto", "yes" or "no". Defaults to "auto", which will behave
           like "yes" for interactive invocations (i.e. from a TTY) and
           "no" for non-interactive invocations.  "yes" will let the
           request respect inhibitor locks.  "no" will let the request
           ignore inhibitor locks.

           Applications can establish inhibitor locks to avoid that
           certain important operations (such as CD burning or suchlike)
           are interrupted by system shutdown or a sleep state. Any user
           may take these locks and privileged users may override these
           locks. If any locks are taken, shutdown and sleep state
           requests will normally fail (unless privileged) and a list of
           active locks is printed. However, if "no" is specified or
           "auto" is specified on a non-interactive requests, the
           established locks are ignored and not shown, and the
           operation attempted anyway, possibly requiring additional
           privileges. May be overridden by --force.

       -i
           Shortcut for --check-inhibitors=no.

       --dry-run
           Just print what would be done. Currently supported by verbs
           halt, poweroff, reboot, kexec, suspend, hibernate,
           hybrid-sleep, suspend-then-hibernate, default, rescue,
           emergency, and exit.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress printing of the results of various commands and also
           the hints about truncated log lines. This does not suppress
           output of commands for which the printed output is the only
           result (like show). Errors are always printed.

       --no-block
           Do not synchronously wait for the requested operation to
           finish. If this is not specified, the job will be verified,
           enqueued and systemctl will wait until the unit's start-up is
           completed. By passing this argument, it is only verified and
           enqueued. This option may not be combined with --wait.

       --wait
           Synchronously wait for started units to terminate again. This
           option may not be combined with --no-block. Note that this
           will wait forever if any given unit never terminates (by
           itself or by getting stopped explicitly); particularly
           services which use "RemainAfterExit=yes".

           When used with is-system-running, wait until the boot process
           is completed before returning.

       --user
           Talk to the service manager of the calling user, rather than
           the service manager of the system.

       --system
           Talk to the service manager of the system. This is the
           implied default.

       --failed
           List units in failed state. This is equivalent to
           --state=failed.

       --no-wall
           Do not send wall message before halt, power-off and reboot.

       --global
           When used with enable and disable, operate on the global user
           configuration directory, thus enabling or disabling a unit
           file globally for all future logins of all users.

       --no-reload
           When used with enable and disable, do not implicitly reload
           daemon configuration after executing the changes.

       --no-ask-password
           When used with start and related commands, disables asking
           for passwords. Background services may require input of a
           password or passphrase string, for example to unlock system
           hard disks or cryptographic certificates. Unless this option
           is specified and the command is invoked from a terminal,
           systemctl will query the user on the terminal for the
           necessary secrets. Use this option to switch this behavior
           off. In this case, the password must be supplied by some
           other means (for example graphical password agents) or the
           service might fail. This also disables querying the user for
           authentication for privileged operations.

       --kill-who=
           When used with kill, choose which processes to send a signal
           to. Must be one of main, control or all to select whether to
           kill only the main process, the control process or all
           processes of the unit. The main process of the unit is the
           one that defines the life-time of it. A control process of a
           unit is one that is invoked by the manager to induce state
           changes of it. For example, all processes started due to the
           ExecStartPre=, ExecStop= or ExecReload= settings of service
           units are control processes. Note that there is only one
           control process per unit at a time, as only one state change
           is executed at a time. For services of type Type=forking, the
           initial process started by the manager for ExecStart= is a
           control process, while the process ultimately forked off by
           that one is then considered the main process of the unit (if
           it can be determined). This is different for service units of
           other types, where the process forked off by the manager for
           ExecStart= is always the main process itself. A service unit
           consists of zero or one main process, zero or one control
           process plus any number of additional processes. Not all unit
           types manage processes of these types however. For example,
           for mount units, control processes are defined (which are the
           invocations of /usr/bin/mount and /usr/bin/umount), but no
           main process is defined. If omitted, defaults to all.

       -s, --signal=
           When used with kill, choose which signal to send to selected
           processes. Must be one of the well-known signal specifiers
           such as SIGTERM, SIGINT or SIGSTOP. If omitted, defaults to
           SIGTERM.

           The special value "help" will list the known values and the
           program will exit immediately, and the special value "list"
           will list known values along with the numerical signal
           numbers and the program will exit immediately.

       --what=
           Select what type of per-unit resources to remove when the
           clean command is invoked, see below. Takes one of
           configuration, state, cache, logs, runtime to select the type
           of resource. This option may be specified more than once, in
           which case all specified resource types are removed. Also
           accepts the special value all as a shortcut for specifying
           all five resource types. If this option is not specified
           defaults to the combination of cache and runtime, i.e. the
           two kinds of resources that are generally considered to be
           redundant and can be reconstructed on next invocation.

       -f, --force
           When used with enable, overwrite any existing conflicting
           symlinks.

           When used with edit, create all of the specified units which
           do not already exist.

           When used with halt, poweroff, reboot or kexec, execute the
           selected operation without shutting down all units. However,
           all processes will be killed forcibly and all file systems
           are unmounted or remounted read-only. This is hence a drastic
           but relatively safe option to request an immediate reboot. If
           --force is specified twice for these operations (with the
           exception of kexec), they will be executed immediately,
           without terminating any processes or unmounting any file
           systems. Warning: specifying --force twice with any of these
           operations might result in data loss. Note that when --force
           is specified twice the selected operation is executed by
           systemctl itself, and the system manager is not contacted.
           This means the command should succeed even when the system
           manager has crashed.

       --message=
           When used with halt, poweroff or reboot, set a short message
           explaining the reason for the operation. The message will be
           logged together with the default shutdown message.

       --now
           When used with enable, the units will also be started. When
           used with disable or mask, the units will also be stopped.
           The start or stop operation is only carried out when the
           respective enable or disable operation has been successful.

       --root=
           When used with enable/disable/is-enabled (and related
           commands), use the specified root path when looking for unit
           files. If this option is present, systemctl will operate on
           the file system directly, instead of communicating with the
           systemd daemon to carry out changes.

       --runtime
           When used with enable, disable, edit, (and related commands),
           make changes only temporarily, so that they are lost on the
           next reboot. This will have the effect that changes are not
           made in subdirectories of /etc/ but in /run/, with identical
           immediate effects, however, since the latter is lost on
           reboot, the changes are lost too.

           Similarly, when used with set-property, make changes only
           temporarily, so that they are lost on the next reboot.

       --preset-mode=
           Takes one of "full" (the default), "enable-only",
           "disable-only". When used with the preset or preset-all
           commands, controls whether units shall be disabled and
           enabled according to the preset rules, or only enabled, or
           only disabled.

       -n, --lines=
           When used with status, controls the number of journal lines
           to show, counting from the most recent ones. Takes a positive
           integer argument, or 0 to disable journal output. Defaults to
           10.

       -o, --output=
           When used with status, controls the formatting of the journal
           entries that are shown. For the available choices, see
           journalctl(1). Defaults to "short".

       --firmware-setup
           When used with the reboot command, indicate to the system's
           firmware to reboot into the firmware setup interface. Note
           that this functionality is not available on all systems.

       --boot-loader-menu=
           When used with the reboot command, indicate to the system's
           boot loader to show the boot loader menu on the following
           boot. Takes a time value as parameter — indicating the menu
           timeout. Pass zero in order to disable the menu timeout. Note
           that not all boot loaders support this functionality.

       --boot-loader-entry=
           When used with the reboot command, indicate to the system's
           boot loader to boot into a specific boot loader entry on the
           following boot. Takes a boot loader entry identifier as
           argument, or "help" in order to list available entries. Note
           that not all boot loaders support this functionality.

       --reboot-argument=
           This switch is used with reboot. The value is architecture
           and firmware specific. As an example, "recovery" might be
           used to trigger system recovery, and "fota" might be used to
           trigger a “firmware over the air” update.

       --plain
           When used with list-dependencies, list-units or
           list-machines, the output is printed as a list instead of a
           tree, and the bullet circles are omitted.

       --timestamp=
           Change the format of printed timestamps. The following values
           may be used:

           pretty (this is the default)
               "Day YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS TZ"

           us, µs
               "Day YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.UUUUUU TZ"

           utc
               "Day YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS UTC"

           us+utc, µs+utc
               "Day YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.UUUUUU UTC"

       --mkdir
           When used with bind, creates the destination file or
           directory before applying the bind mount. Note that even
           though the name of this option suggests that it is suitable
           only for directories, this option also creates the
           destination file node to mount over if the object to mount is
           not a directory, but a regular file, device node, socket or
           FIFO.

       --marked
           Only allowed with reload-or-restart. Enqueues restart jobs
           for all units that have the "needs-restart" mark, and reload
           jobs for units that have the "needs-reload" mark. When a unit
           marked for reload does not support reload, restart will be
           queued. Those properties can be set using set-property Marks.

           Unless --no-block is used, systemctl will wait for the queued
           jobs to finish.

       --read-only
           When used with bind, creates a read-only bind mount.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a
           username and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The
           hostname may optionally be suffixed by a port ssh is
           listening on, separated by ":", and then a container name,
           separated by "/", which connects directly to a specific
           container on the specified host. This will use SSH to talk to
           the remote machine manager instance. Container names may be
           enumerated with machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses in
           brackets.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container
           name to connect to, optionally prefixed by a user name to
           connect as and a separating "@" character. If the special
           string ".host" is used in place of the container name, a
           connection to the local system is made (which is useful to
           connect to a specific user's user bus: "--user
           --machine=lennart@.host"). If the "@" syntax is not used, the
           connection is made as root user. If the "@" syntax is used
           either the left hand side or the right hand side may be
           omitted (but not both) in which case the local user name and
           ".host" are implied.

       --no-pager
           Do not pipe output into a pager.

       --legend=BOOL
           Enable or disable printing of the legend, i.e. column headers
           and the footer with hints. The legend is printed by default,
           unless disabled with --quiet or similar.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

       --version
           Print a short version string and exit.

EXIT STATUS         top

       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

       systemctl uses the return codes defined by LSB, as defined in LSB
       3.0.0[1].

       Table 3. LSB return codes
       ┌──────┬────────────────────┬────────────────────┐
       │Value Description in LSB Use in systemd     │
       ├──────┼────────────────────┼────────────────────┤
       │0     │ "program is        │ unit is active     │
       │      │ running or service │                    │
       │      │ is OK"             │                    │
       ├──────┼────────────────────┼────────────────────┤
       │1     │ "program is dead   │ unit not failed    │
       │      │ and /var/run pid   │ (used by           │
       │      │ file exists"       │ is-failed)         │
       ├──────┼────────────────────┼────────────────────┤
       │2     │ "program is dead   │ unused             │
       │      │ and /var/lock lock │                    │
       │      │ file exists"       │                    │
       ├──────┼────────────────────┼────────────────────┤
       │3     │ "program is not    │ unit is not active │
       │      │ running"           │                    │
       ├──────┼────────────────────┼────────────────────┤
       │4     │ "program or        │ no such unit       │
       │      │ service status is  │                    │
       │      │ unknown"           │                    │
       └──────┴────────────────────┴────────────────────┘

       The mapping of LSB service states to systemd unit states is
       imperfect, so it is better to not rely on those return values but
       to look for specific unit states and substates instead.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       $SYSTEMD_EDITOR
           Editor to use when editing units; overrides $EDITOR and
           $VISUAL. If neither $SYSTEMD_EDITOR nor $EDITOR nor $VISUAL
           are present or if it is set to an empty string or if their
           execution failed, systemctl will try to execute well known
           editors in this order: editor(1), nano(1), vim(1), vi(1).

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_LEVEL
           The maximum log level of emitted messages (messages with a
           higher log level, i.e. less important ones, will be
           suppressed). Either one of (in order of decreasing
           importance) emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice, info,
           debug, or an integer in the range 0...7. See syslog(3) for
           more information.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_COLOR
           A boolean. If true, messages written to the tty will be
           colored according to priority.

           This setting is only useful when messages are written
           directly to the terminal, because journalctl(1) and other
           tools that display logs will color messages based on the log
           level on their own.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_TIME
           A boolean. If true, console log messages will be prefixed
           with a timestamp.

           This setting is only useful when messages are written
           directly to the terminal or a file, because journalctl(1) and
           other tools that display logs will attach timestamps based on
           the entry metadata on their own.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_LOCATION
           A boolean. If true, messages will be prefixed with a filename
           and line number in the source code where the message
           originates.

           Note that the log location is often attached as metadata to
           journal entries anyway. Including it directly in the message
           text can nevertheless be convenient when debugging programs.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_TARGET
           The destination for log messages. One of console (log to the
           attached tty), console-prefixed (log to the attached tty but
           with prefixes encoding the log level and "facility", see
           syslog(3), kmsg (log to the kernel circular log buffer),
           journal (log to the journal), journal-or-kmsg (log to the
           journal if available, and to kmsg otherwise), auto (determine
           the appropriate log target automatically, the default), null
           (disable log output).

       $SYSTEMD_PAGER
           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER.
           If neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of
           well-known pager implementations are tried in turn, including
           less(1) and more(1), until one is found. If no pager
           implementation is discovered no pager is invoked. Setting
           this environment variable to an empty string or the value
           "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.

       $SYSTEMD_LESS
           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           Users might want to change two options in particular:

           K
               This option instructs the pager to exit immediately when
               Ctrl+C is pressed. To allow less to handle Ctrl+C itself
               to switch back to the pager command prompt, unset this
               option.

               If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and
               the pager that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored
               by the executable, and needs to be handled by the pager.

           X
               This option instructs the pager to not send termcap
               initialization and deinitialization strings to the
               terminal. It is set by default to allow command output to
               remain visible in the terminal even after the pager
               exits. Nevertheless, this prevents some pager
               functionality from working, in particular paged output
               cannot be scrolled with the mouse.

           See less(1) for more discussion.

       $SYSTEMD_LESSCHARSET
           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if
           the invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

       $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE
           Takes a boolean argument. When true, the "secure" mode of the
           pager is enabled; if false, disabled. If $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE
           is not set at all, secure mode is enabled if the effective
           UID is not the same as the owner of the login session, see
           geteuid(2) and sd_pid_get_owner_uid(3). In secure mode,
           LESSSECURE=1 will be set when invoking the pager, and the
           pager shall disable commands that open or create new files or
           start new subprocesses. When $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE is not set
           at all, pagers which are not known to implement secure mode
           will not be used. (Currently only less(1) implements secure
           mode.)

           Note: when commands are invoked with elevated privileges, for
           example under sudo(8) or pkexec(1), care must be taken to
           ensure that unintended interactive features are not enabled.
           "Secure" mode for the pager may be enabled automatically as
           describe above. Setting SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE=0 or not removing
           it from the inherited environment allows the user to invoke
           arbitrary commands. Note that if the $SYSTEMD_PAGER or $PAGER
           variables are to be honoured, $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE must be
           set too. It might be reasonable to completely disable the
           pager using --no-pager instead.

       $SYSTEMD_COLORS
           Takes a boolean argument. When true, systemd and related
           utilities will use colors in their output, otherwise the
           output will be monochrome. Additionally, the variable can
           take one of the following special values: "16", "256" to
           restrict the use of colors to the base 16 or 256 ANSI colors,
           respectively. This can be specified to override the automatic
           decision based on $TERM and what the console is connected to.

       $SYSTEMD_URLIFY
           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether clickable links
           should be generated in the output for terminal emulators
           supporting this. This can be specified to override the
           decision that systemd makes based on $TERM and other
           conditions.

SEE ALSO         top

       systemd(1), journalctl(1), loginctl(1), machinectl(1),
       systemd.unit(5), systemd.resource-control(5), systemd.special(7),
       wall(1), systemd.preset(5), systemd.generator(7), glob(7)

NOTES         top

        1. LSB 3.0.0
           http://refspecs.linuxbase.org/LSB_3.0.0/LSB-PDA/LSB-PDA/iniscrptact.html

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service
       manager) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd⟩.  If you have
       a bug report for this manual page, see
       ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/#bugreports⟩.
       This page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/systemd/systemd.git⟩ on 2021-08-27.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2021-08-27.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
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systemd 249                                                 SYSTEMCTL(1)

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