systemd-analyze(1) — Linux manual page


SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)             systemd-analyze            SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

NAME         top

       systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager

SYNOPSIS         top

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [>file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] exit-status [STATUS...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] condition CONDITION...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPEC...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timestamp TIMESTAMP...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config NAME|PATH...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILE...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT...

DESCRIPTION         top

       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
       statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
       system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit
       files. It is also used to access special functions useful for
       advanced system manager debugging.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

   systemd-analyze time
       This command prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has
       been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before
       normal system userspace has been reached, and the time normal system
       userspace took to initialize. Note that these measurements simply
       measure the time passed up to the point where all system services
       have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished
       initialization or the disk is idle.

       Example 1. Show how long the boot took

           # in a container
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 296ms (userspace)
  reached after 275ms in userspace

           # on a real machine
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 2.584s (kernel) + 19.176s (initrd) + 47.847s (userspace) = 1min 9.608s
  reached after 47.820s in userspace

   systemd-analyze blame
       This command prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time
       they took to initialize. This information may be used to optimize
       boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as the
       initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits
       for the initialization of another service to complete. Also note:
       systemd-analyze blame doesn't display results for services with
       Type=simple, because systemd considers such services to be started
       immediately, hence no measurement of the initialization delays can be
       done. Also note that this command only shows the time units took for
       starting up, it does not show how long unit jobs spent in the
       execution queue. In particular it shows the time units spent in
       "activating" state, which is not defined for units such as device
       units that transition directly from "inactive" to "active". This
       command hence gives an impression of the performance of program code,
       but cannot accurately reflect latency introduced by waiting for
       hardware and similar events.

       Example 2. Show which units took the most time during boot

           $ systemd-analyze blame
                    32.875s pmlogger.service
                    20.905s systemd-networkd-wait-online.service
                    13.299s dev-vda1.device
                       23ms sysroot.mount
                       11ms initrd-udevadm-cleanup-db.service
                        3ms sys-kernel-config.mount

   systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]
       This command prints a tree of the time-critical chain of units (for
       each of the specified UNITs or for the default target otherwise). The
       time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@"
       character. The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+"
       character. Note that the output might be misleading as the
       initialization of services might depend on socket activation and
       because of the parallel execution of units. Also, similar to the
       blame command, this only takes into account the time units spent in
       "activating" state, and hence does not cover units that never went
       through an "activating" state (such as device units that transition
       directly from "inactive" to "active"). Moreover it does not show
       information on jobs (and in particular not jobs that timed out).

       Example 3. systemd-analyze critical-chain

           $ systemd-analyze critical-chain
           └─pmie.service @35.968s +548ms
             └─pmcd.service @33.715s +2.247s
               └─ @33.712s
                 └─systemd-networkd-wait-online.service @12.804s +20.905s
                   └─systemd-networkd.service @11.109s +1.690s
                     └─systemd-udevd.service @9.201s +1.904s
                       └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service @7.306s +1.776s
                         └─kmod-static-nodes.service @6.976s +177ms

   systemd-analyze dump
       This command outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
       serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to
       change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.

       Example 4. Show the internal state of user manager

           $ systemd-analyze --user dump
           Timestamp userspace: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           -> Unit proc-timer_list.mount:
                   Description: /proc/timer_list
           -> Unit
                   Description: Main user target

   systemd-analyze plot
       This command prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services
       have been started at what time, highlighting the time they spent on

       Example 5. Plot a bootchart

           $ systemd-analyze plot >bootup.svg
           $ eog bootup.svg&

   systemd-analyze dot [pattern...]
       This command generates textual dependency graph description in dot
       format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a
       command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg >systemd.svg to
       generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is
       passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
       dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
       *.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in
       the graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or
       destination node.

       Example 6. Plot all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg >avahi.svg
           $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 7. Plot the dependencies between all known target units

           $ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' \
                 | dot -Tsvg >targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg

   systemd-analyze unit-paths
       This command outputs a list of all directories from which unit files,
       .d overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be loaded. Combine
       with --user to retrieve the list for the user manager instance, and
       --global for the global configuration of user manager instances.

       Example 8. Show all paths for generated units

           $ systemd-analyze unit-paths | grep '^/run'

       Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into
       systemd-analyze itself, and does not communicate with the running
       manager. Use

           systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value

       to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty
       directories omitted.

   systemd-analyze exit-status [STATUS...]
       This command prints a list of exit statuses along with their "class",
       i.e. the source of the definition (one of "glibc", "systemd", "LSB",
       or "BSD"), see the Process Exit Codes section in systemd.exec(5). If
       no additional arguments are specified, all known statuses are are
       shown. Otherwise, only the definitions for the specified codes are

       Example 9. Show some example exit status names

           $ systemd-analyze exit-status 0 1 {63..65}
           NAME    STATUS CLASS
           SUCCESS 0      glibc
           FAILURE 1      glibc
           -       63     -
           USAGE   64     BSD
           DATAERR 65     BSD

   systemd-analyze condition CONDITION...
       This command will evaluate Condition*=...  and Assert*=...
       assignments, and print their values, and the resulting value of the
       combined condition set. See systemd.unit(5) for a list of available
       conditions and asserts.

       Example 10. Evaluate conditions that check kernel versions

           $ systemd-analyze condition 'ConditionKernelVersion = ! <4.0' \
                   'ConditionKernelVersion = >=5.1' \
                   'ConditionACPower=|false' \
                   'ConditionArchitecture=|!arm' \
           test.service: AssertPathExists=/etc/os-release succeeded.
           Asserts succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionArchitecture=|!arm succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionACPower=|false failed.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=>=5.1 succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=!<4.0 succeeded.
           Conditions succeeded.

   systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...]
       This command will list system calls contained in the specified system
       call set SET, or all known sets if no sets are specified. Argument
       SET must include the "@" prefix.

   systemd-analyze calendar EXPRESSION...
       This command will parse and normalize repetitive calendar time
       events, and will calculate when they elapse next. This takes the same
       input as the OnCalendar= setting in systemd.timer(5), following the
       syntax described in systemd.time(7). By default, only the next time
       the calendar expression will elapse is shown; use --iterations= to
       show the specified number of next times the expression elapses. Each
       time the expression elapses forms a timestamp, see the timestamp verb

       Example 11. Show leap days in the near future

           $ systemd-analyze calendar --iterations=5 '*-2-29 0:0:0'
             Original form: *-2-29 0:0:0
           Normalized form: *-02-29 00:00:00
               Next elapse: Sat 2020-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 11 months 15 days left
                  Iter. #2: Thu 2024-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 4 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #3: Tue 2028-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 8 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #4: Sun 2032-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 12 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #5: Fri 2036-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 16 years 11 months left

   systemd-analyze timestamp TIMESTAMP...
       This command parses a timestamp (i.e. a single point in time) and
       outputs the normalized form and the difference between this timestamp
       and now. The timestamp should adhere to the syntax documented in
       systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIMESTAMPS".

       Example 12. Show parsing of timestamps

           $ systemd-analyze timestamp yesterday now tomorrow
             Original form: yesterday
           Normalized form: Mon 2019-05-20 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Sun 2019-05-19 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15583032000
                  From now: 1 day 9h ago

             Original form: now
           Normalized form: Tue 2019-05-21 09:48:39 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 07:48:39 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @1558424919.659757
                  From now: 43us ago

             Original form: tomorrow
           Normalized form: Wed 2019-05-22 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15584760000
                  From now: 14h left

   systemd-analyze timespan EXPRESSION...
       This command parses a time span (i.e. a difference between two
       timestamps) and outputs the normalized form and the equivalent value
       in microseconds. The time span should adhere to the syntax documented
       in systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIME SPANS". Values without
       units are parsed as seconds.

       Example 13. Show parsing of timespans

           $ systemd-analyze timespan 1s 300s '1year 0.000001s'
           Original: 1s
                 μs: 1000000
              Human: 1s

           Original: 300s
                 μs: 300000000
              Human: 5min

           Original: 1year 0.000001s
                 μs: 31557600000001
              Human: 1y 1us

   systemd-analyze cat-config NAME|PATH...
       This command is similar to systemctl cat, but operates on config
       files. It will copy the contents of a config file and any drop-ins to
       standard output, using the usual systemd set of directories and rules
       for precedence. Each argument must be either an absolute path
       including the prefix (such as /etc/systemd/logind.conf or
       /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf), or a name relative to the prefix (such
       as systemd/logind.conf).

       Example 14. Showing logind configuration

           $ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf

           # /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf.d/20-test.conf
           ... some override from another package

           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf.d/50-override.conf
           ... some administrator override

   systemd-analyze verify FILE...
       This command will load unit files and print warnings if any errors
       are detected. Files specified on the command line will be loaded, but
       also any other units referenced by them. The full unit search path is
       formed by combining the directories for all command line arguments,
       and the usual unit load paths. The variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is
       supported, and may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set
       of unit load paths; see systemd.unit(5). All units files present in
       the directories containing the command line arguments will be used in
       preference to the other paths.

       The following errors are currently detected:

       ·   unknown sections and directives,

       ·   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       ·   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the

       ·   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in
           the system or not executable.

       Example 15. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 16. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

   systemd-analyze security [UNIT...]
       This command analyzes the security and sandboxing settings of one or
       more specified service units. If at least one unit name is specified
       the security settings of the specified service units are inspected
       and a detailed analysis is shown. If no unit name is specified, all
       currently loaded, long-running service units are inspected and a
       terse table with results shown. The command checks for various
       security-related service settings, assigning each a numeric "exposure
       level" value, depending on how important a setting is. It then
       calculates an overall exposure level for the whole unit, which is an
       estimation in the range 0.0...10.0 indicating how exposed a service
       is security-wise. High exposure levels indicate very little applied
       sandboxing. Low exposure levels indicate tight sandboxing and
       strongest security restrictions. Note that this only analyzes the
       per-service security features systemd itself implements. This means
       that any additional security mechanisms applied by the service code
       itself are not accounted for. The exposure level determined this way
       should not be misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means that
       there is no effective sandboxing applied by the service code itself,
       nor that the service is actually vulnerable to remote or local
       attacks. High exposure levels do indicate however that most likely
       the service might benefit from additional settings applied to them.

       Please note that many of the security and sandboxing settings
       individually can be circumvented — unless combined with others. For
       example, if a service retains the privilege to establish or undo
       mount points many of the sandboxing options can be undone by the
       service code itself. Due to that is essential that each service uses
       the most comprehensive and strict sandboxing and security settings
       possible. The tool will take into account some of these combinations
       and relationships between the settings, but not all. Also note that
       the security and sandboxing settings analyzed here only apply to the
       operations executed by the service code itself. If a service has
       access to an IPC system (such as D-Bus) it might request operations
       from other services that are not subject to the same restrictions.
       Any comprehensive security and sandboxing analysis is hence
       incomplete if the IPC access policy is not validated too.

       Example 17. Analyze systemd-logind.service

           $ systemd-analyze security --no-pager systemd-logind.service
             NAME                DESCRIPTION                              EXPOSURE
           ✗ PrivateNetwork=     Service has access to the host's network      0.5
           ✗ User=/DynamicUser=  Service runs as root user                     0.4
           ✗ DeviceAllow=        Service has no device ACL                     0.2
           ✓ IPAddressDeny=      Service blocks all IP address ranges
           → Overall exposure level for systemd-logind.service: 4.1 OK 🙂

OPTIONS         top

       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Operates on the system-wide configuration for user systemd

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above),
           selects which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If
           --order is passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before=
           are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies of type
           Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If
           neither is passed, this shows dependencies of all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
           selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph.
           Both options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will
           be matched against the left-hand and the right-hand,
           respectively, nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit
           name must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of
           the relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be
           shown. When patterns are also specified as positional arguments,
           they must match at least one side of the relation. In other
           words, patterns specified with those two options will trim the
           list of edges matched by the positional arguments, if any are
           given, and fully determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
           above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than
           the latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is
           seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

           Do not invoke man(1) to verify the existence of man pages listed
           in Documentation=.

           Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7). Some generators
           require root privileges. Under a normal user, running with
           generators enabled will generally result in some warnings.

           With cat-files, show config files underneath the specified root
           path PATH.

           When used with the calendar command, show the specified number of
           iterations the specified calendar expression will elapse next.
           Defaults to 1.

           When used with the calendar command, show next iterations
           relative to the specified point in time. If not specified
           defaults to the current time.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
           and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may
           optionally be suffixed by a port ssh is listening on, separated
           by ":", and then a container name, separated by "/", which
           connects directly to a specific container on the specified host.
           This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance.
           Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST. Put
           IPv6 addresses in brackets.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name
           to connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.

EXIT STATUS         top

       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

ENVIRONMENT         top

           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If
           neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known
           pager implementations are tried in turn, including less(1) and
           more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is
           discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable
           to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing

           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           Users might want to change two options in particular:

               This option instructs the pager to exit immediately when
               Ctrl+C is pressed. To allow less to handle Ctrl+C itself to
               switch back to the pager command prompt, unset this option.

               If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the
               pager that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the
               executable, and needs to be handled by the pager.

               This option instructs the pager to not send termcap
               initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal.
               It is set by default to allow command output to remain
               visible in the terminal even after the pager exits.
               Nevertheless, this prevents some pager functionality from
               working, in particular paged output cannot be scrolled with
               the mouse.

           See less(1) for more discussion.

           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the
           invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether colorized output
           should be generated. This can be specified to override the
           decision that systemd makes based on $TERM and what the console
           is connected to.

           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether clickable links
           should be generated in the output for terminal emulators
           supporting this. This can be specified to override the decision
           that systemd makes based on $TERM and other conditions.

SEE ALSO         top

       systemd(1), systemctl(1)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service manager)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug
       report for this manual page, see
       ⟨⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2020-08-13.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2020-08-11.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to

systemd 246                                               SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

Pages that refer to this page: systemd-nspawn(1)systemd.exec(5)systemd.unit(5)30-systemd-environment-d-generator(7)sd-boot(7)systemd-boot(7)systemd.directives(7)systemd.index(7)systemd.time(7)