stap(1) — Linux manual page


STAP(1)                    General Commands Manual                   STAP(1)

NAME         top

       stap - systemtap script translator/driver

SYNOPSIS         top

       stap [ OPTIONS ] - [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] -e SCRIPT [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] -l PROBE [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] -L PROBE [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] --dump-probe-types
       stap [ OPTIONS ] --dump-probe-aliases
       stap [ OPTIONS ] --dump-functions

DESCRIPTION         top

       The stap program is the front-end to the Systemtap tool.  It accepts
       probing instructions written in a simple domain-specific language,
       translates those instructions into C code, compiles this C code, and
       loads the resulting module into a running Linux kernel or a DynInst
       user-space mutator, to perform the requested system trace/probe
       functions.  You can supply the script in a named file (FILENAME),
       from standard input (use - instead of FILENAME), or from the command
       line (using -e SCRIPT).  The program runs until it is interrupted by
       the user, or if the script voluntarily invokes the exit() function,
       or by sufficient number of soft errors.

       The language, which is described the SCRIPT LANGUAGE section below,
       is strictly typed, expressive, declaration free, procedural,
       prototyping-friendly, and inspired by awk and C.  It allows source
       code points or events in the system to be associated with handlers,
       which are subroutines that are executed synchronously.  It is
       somewhat similar conceptually to "breakpoint command lists" in the
       gdb debugger.


       systemtap comes with a variety of educational, documentation and
       reference resources.  They come online and/or packaged for offline
       use.  Some systemtap diagnostic warning/error messages specially
       suggest reading a man page by including a string like
       [man error::pass5].  For online documentation, see the project web

       │man pages                 │                                                      │
       │stap (this page)          │ language syntax, concepts, operation, options        │
       │error::*                  │ further explanation of error conditions              │
       │warning::*                │ further explanation of warning conditions            │
       │stapprobes                │ probe points and their $context variables            │
       │stapref                   │ quick reference to language syntax                   │
       │stappaths                 │ list of directories, including books & references    │
       │stap-prep                 │ program to install auxiliary dependencies like ker‐  │
       │                          │ nel debuginfo                                        │
       │tapset::*                 │ generated list of tapsets                            │
       │probe::*                  │ generated list of tapset probe aliases               │
       │function::*               │ generated list of tapset functions                   │
       │macro::*                  │ generated list of tapset macros                      │
       │stapvars                  │ some of the tapset global variables                  │
       │staprun, stapdyn, stapbpf │ programs for executing compiled systemtap scripts    │
       │systemtap                 │ initscript, boot-time probing                        │
       │stap-server               │ compilation server                                   │
       │stapex                    │ a few very basic script examples                     │
       │books                     │                                                      │
       │Beginner's Guide          │ tutorial book, language essentials, examples         │
       │Tutorial                  │ shorter tutorial, exercises                          │
       │Language Reference        │ detailed language manual, covers statistics/analysis │
       │Tapset Reference          │ the tapset man pages, reformatted into a book        │
       │references                │                                                      │
       │example scripts           │ over a hundred directly usable sysadmin tools, toys, │
       │                          │ hacks to learn from                                  │

OPTIONS         top

       The systemtap translator supports the following options.  Any other
       option prints a list of supported options.  Options may be given on
       the command line, as usual.  If the file $SYSTEMTAP_DIR/rc exist,
       options are also loaded from there and interpreted first.
       ($SYSTEMTAP_DIR defaults to $HOME/.systemtap if unset.)

       In some cases, the default value of an option depends on particular
       system configuration and thus can't be mentioned here directly.  In
       some of those cases running "stap --help" might display the default.

       -      Use standard input instead of a given FILENAME as probe
              language input, unless -e SCRIPT is given.

       -h --help
              Show help message.

       -V --version
              Show version message.

       -p NUM Stop after pass NUM.  The passes are numbered 1-5: parse,
              elaborate, translate, compile, run.  See the PROCESSING
              section for details.

       -v     Increase verbosity for all passes.  Produce a larger volume of
              informative (?) output each time option repeated.

       --vp ABCDE
              Increase verbosity on a per-pass basis.  For example,
              "--vp 002" adds 2 units of verbosity to pass 3 only.  The
              combination "-v --vp 00004" adds 1 unit of verbosity for all
              passes, and 4 more for pass 5.

       -k     Keep the temporary directory after all processing.  This may
              be useful in order to examine the generated C code, or to
              reuse the compiled kernel object.

       -g     Guru mode.  Enable parsing of unsafe expert-level constructs
              like embedded C.

       -P     Prologue-searching mode.  This is equivalent to
              --prologue-searching=always.  Activate heuristics to work
              around incorrect debugging information for function parameter
              $context variables.

       -u     Unoptimized mode.  Disable unused code elision and many other
              optimizations during elaboration / translation.

       -w     Suppressed warnings mode.  Disables all warning messages.

       -W     Treat all warnings as errors.

       -b     Use bulk mode (percpu files) for kernel-to-user data transfer.
              Use the stap-merge program to multiplex them back together

       -i --interactive
              Interactive mode. Enable an interface to build the systemtap
              script incrementally and interactively.

       -t     Collect timing information on the number of times probe
              executes and average amount of time spent in each probe-point.
              Also shows the derivation for each probe-point.

       -s NUM Use NUM megabyte buffers for kernel-to-user data transfer.  On
              a multiprocessor in bulk mode, this is a per-processor amount.

       -I DIR Add the given directory to the tapset search directory.  See
              the description of pass 2 for details.

       -D NAME=VALUE
              Add the given C preprocessor directive to the module Makefile.
              These can be used to override limit parameters described

       -B NAME=VALUE
              In kernel-runtime mode, add the given make directive to the
              kernel module build's make invocation.  These can be used to
              add or override kconfig options.  For example, use

              -B CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=y

              to add debugging information.

       -B FLAG
              In dyninst-runtime mode, add the given parameter to the com‐
              piler CFLAGS used for building the dyninst shared library.
              For example, use

              -B -g

              to add debugging information.

       -a ARCH
              Use a cross-compilation mode for the given target architec‐
              ture.  This requires access to the cross-compiler and the ker‐
              nel build tree, and goes along with the

              -B CROSS_COMPILE=arch-tool-prefix-
              -r /build/tree


       --modinfo NAME=VALUE
              Add the name/value pair as a MODULE_INFO macro call to the
              generated module.  This may be useful to inform or override
              various module-related checks in the kernel.

       -G NAME=VALUE
              Sets the value of global variable NAME to VALUE when staprun
              is invoked.  This applies to scalar variables declared global
              in the script/tapset.

       -R DIR Look for the systemtap runtime sources in the given directory.
              Your DIR default can be seen using "stap --help".

       -r /DIR
              Build for kernel in given build tree. Can also be set with the
              SYSTEMTAP_RELEASE environment variable.

       -r RELEASE
              Build for kernel in build tree /lib/modules/RELEASE/build.
              Can also be set with the SYSTEMTAP_RELEASE environment vari‐

       -m MODULE
              Use the given name for the generated kernel object module, in‐
              stead of a unique randomized name.  The generated kernel ob‐
              ject module is copied to the current directory.

       -d MODULE
              Add symbol/unwind information for the given module into the
              kernel object module.  This may enable symbolic tracebacks
              from those modules/programs, even if they do not have an ex‐
              plicit probe placed into them.

       --ldd  Add symbol/unwind information for all user-space shared li‐
              braries suspected by ldd to be necessary for user-space bina‐
              ries being probed or listed with the -d option.  Caution: this
              can make the probe modules considerably larger.  Note that
              this option does not deal with kernel-space modules: see in‐
              stead --all-modules below.

              Equivalent to specifying "-dkernel" and a "-d" for each kernel
              module that is currently loaded.  Caution: this can make the
              probe modules considerably larger.

       -o FILE
              Send standard output to named file. In bulk mode, percpu files
              will start with FILE_ (FILE_cpu with -F) followed by the cpu
              number.  This supports strftime(3) formats for FILE.

       -c CMD Start the probes, run CMD, and exit when CMD finishes.  This
              also has the effect of setting target() to the pid of the com‐
              mand ran.

       -x PID Sets target() to PID. This allows scripts to be written that
              filter on a specific process. Scripts run independent of the
              PID's lifespan.

       -e SCRIPT
              Run the given SCRIPT specified on the command line.

       -E SCRIPT
              Run the given SCRIPT specified. This SCRIPT is run in addition
              to the main script specified, through -e, or as a script file.
              This option can be repeated to run multiple scripts, and can
              be used in listing mode (-l/-L).

       -l PROBE
              Instead of running a probe script, just list all available
              probe points matching the given single probe point.  The pat‐
              tern may include wildcards and aliases, but not comma-separat‐
              ed multiple probe points.  The process result code will indi‐
              cate failure if there are no matches.

              % stap -e 'probe syscall.* { }'
              % stap -l 'syscall.*'

       -L PROBE
              Similar to "-l", but list matching probe points plus their
              available context variables.  When -v is set with -L, the out‐
              put includes duplicate probe points which are distinguished by
              their PC address.

              % stap -L 'process("/lib64/libpython*.so.*").mark("*")'
              process("/usr/lib64/").mark("function__entry") $arg1:long $arg2:long $arg3:long
              process("/usr/lib64/").mark("function__return") $arg1:long $arg2:long $arg3:long
              process("/usr/lib64/").mark("function__entry") $arg1:long $arg2:long $arg3:long
              process("/usr/lib64/").mark("function__return") $arg1:long $arg2:long $arg3:long
              process("/usr/lib64/").mark("gc__done") $arg1:long
              process("/usr/lib64/").mark("gc__start") $arg1:long
              process("/usr/lib64/").mark("line") $arg1:long $arg2:long $arg3:long

       -F     Without -o option, load module and start probes, then detach
              from the module leaving the probes running.  With -o option,
              run staprun in background as a daemon and show its pid.

       -S size[,N]
              Sets the maximum size of output file and the maximum number of
              output files.  If the size of output file will exceed size ,
              systemtap switches output file to the next file. And if the
              number of output files exceed N , systemtap removes the oldest
              output file. You can omit the second argument.

       -T TIMEOUT
              Exit the script after TIMEOUT seconds.

              Ignore unresolvable or run-time-inaccessible context variables
              and substitute with 0, without errors.

              Prologue-searching mode. Activate heuristics to work around
              incorrect debugging information  for  function  parameter
              $context variables. WHEN can be either "never", "always", or
              "auto" (i.e. enabled by heuristic). If WHEN is missing, then
              "always" is assumed. If the option is missing, then "auto" is

              Wrap all probe handlers into something like this

              try { ... } catch { next }

              block, which causes any runtime errors to be quietly sup‐
              pressed.  Suppressed errors do not count against MAXERRORS
              limits.  In this mode, the MAXSKIPPED limits are also sup‐
              pressed, so that many errors and skipped probes may be accumu‐
              lated during a script's runtime.  Any overall counts will
              still be reported at shutdown.

       --compatible VERSION
              Suppress recent script language or tapset changes which are
              incompatible with given older version of systemtap.  This may
              be useful if a much older systemtap script fails to run.  See
              the DEPRECATION section for more details.

              This option is used to check if the active script has any con‐
              structs that may be systemtap version specific.  See the DEP‐
              RECATION section for more details.

              This option prunes stale entries from the cache directory.
              This is normally done automatically after successful runs, but
              this option will trigger the cleanup manually and then exit.
              See the CACHING section for more details about cache limits.

       --color[=WHEN], --colour[=WHEN]
              This option controls coloring of error messages. WHEN can be
              either "never", "always", or "auto" (i.e. enable only if at a
              terminal). If WHEN is missing, then "always" is assumed. If
              the option is missing, then "auto" is assumed.

              Colors can be modified using the SYSTEMTAP_COLORS environment
              variable. The format must be of the form
              key1=val1:key2=val2:key3=val3 ...etc.  Valid keys are "error",
              "warning", "source", "caret", and "token".  Values constitute
              Select Graphic Rendition (SGR) parameter(s). Consult the docu‐
              mentation of your terminal for the SGRs it supports. As an ex‐
              ample, the default colors would be expressed as
              error=01;31:warning=00;33:source=00;34:caret=01:token=01.  If
              SYSTEMTAP_COLORS is absent, the default colors will be used.
              If it is empty or invalid, coloring is turned off.

              This option disables all use of the cache directory.  No files
              will be either read from or written to the cache.

              This option treats files in the cache directory as invalid.
              No files will be read from the cache, but resulting files from
              this run will still be written to the cache.  This is meant as
              a troubleshooting aid when stap's cached behavior seems to be
              misbehaving.  If it helped, there is a probably a bug in sys‐
              temtap that the developers would like you to report.

       --privilege[=stapusr | =stapsys | =stapdev]
              This option instructs stap to examine the script looking for
              constructs which are not allowed for the specified privilege
              level (see UNPRIVILEGED USERS).  Compilation fails if any such
              constructs are used.  If stapusr or stapsys are specified when
              using a compile server (see --use-server), the server will ex‐
              amine the script and, if compilation succeeds, the server will
              cryptographically sign the resulting kernel module, certifying
              that is it safe for use by users at the specified privilege

              If --privilege has not been specified, -pN has not been speci‐
              fied with N < 5, and the invoking user is not root, and is not
              a member of the group stapdev, then stap will automatically
              add the appropriate --privilege option to the options already

              This option is equivalent to --privilege=stapusr.

       --use-server[=HOSTNAME[:PORT] | =IP_ADDRESS[:PORT] | =CERT_SERIAL]
              Specify compile-server(s) to be used for compilation and/or in
              conjunction with --list-servers and --trust-servers (see be‐
              low) for listing. If no argument is supplied, then the default
              in unprivileged mode (see --privilege) is to select compatible
              servers which are trusted as SSL peers and as module signers
              and currently online. Otherwise the default is to select com‐
              patible servers which are trusted as SSL peers and currently
              online.  --use-server may be specified more than once, in
              which case a list of servers is accumulated in the order spec‐
              ified. Servers may be specified by host name, ip address, or
              by certificate serial number (obtained using --list-servers).
              The latter is most commonly used when adding or revoking trust
              in a server (see --trust-servers below). If a server is speci‐
              fied by host name or ip address, then an optional port number
              may be specified. This is useful for accessing servers which
              are not on the local network or to specify a particular serv‐

              IP addresses may be IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.

              If a particular IPv6 address is link local and exists on more
              than one interface, the intended interface may be specified by
              appending the address with a percent sign (%) followed by the
              intended interface name. For example,

              In order to specify a port number with an IPv6 address, it is
              necessary to enclose the IPv6 address in square brackets ([])
              in order to separate the port number from the rest of the ad‐
              dress. For example, "[fe80::5eff:35ff:fe07:55ca]:5000" or

              If --use-server has not been specified, -pN has not been spec‐
              ified with N < 5, and the invoking user not root, is not a
              member of the group stapdev, but is a member of the group sta‐
              pusr, then stap will automatically add --use-server to the op‐
              tions already specified.

              Instructs stap to retry compilation of a script using a com‐
              pile server if compilation on the local host fails in a manner
              which suggests that it might succeed using a server.  If this
              option is not specified, the default is no.  If no argument is
              provided, then the default is yes. Compilation will be retried
              for certain types of errors (e.g. insufficient data or re‐
              sources) which may not occur during re-compilation by a com‐
              pile server. Compile servers will be selected automatically
              for the re-compilation attempt as if --use-server was speci‐
              fied with no arguments.

              Display the status of the requested SERVERS, where SERVERS is
              a comma-separated list of server attributes. The list of at‐
              tributes is combined to filter the list of servers displayed.
              Supported attributes are:

              all    specifies all known servers (trusted SSL peers, trusted
                     module signers, online servers).

                     specifies servers specified using --use-server.

              online filters the output by retaining information about
                     servers which are currently online.

                     filters the output by retaining information about
                     servers which are trusted as SSL peers.

              signer filters the output by retaining information about
                     servers which are trusted as module signers (see

                     filters the output by retaining information about
                     servers which are compatible with the current kernel
                     release and architecture.

              If no argument is provided, then the default is specified.  If
              no servers were specified using --use-server, then the default
              servers for --use-server are listed.

              Note that --list-servers uses the avahi-daemon service to de‐
              tect online servers. If this service is not available, then
              --list-servers will fail to detect any online servers. In or‐
              der for --list-servers to detect servers listening on IPv6 ad‐
              dresses, the avahi-daemon configuration file /etc/avahi/avahi-
              daemon.conf must contain an active "use-ipv6=yes" line. The
              service must be restarted after adding this line in order for
              IPv6 to be enabled.

              Grant or revoke trust in compile-servers, specified using
              --use-server as specified by TRUST_SPEC, where TRUST_SPEC is a
              comma-separated list specifying the trust which is to be
              granted or revoked. Supported elements are:

              ssl    trust the specified servers as SSL peers.

              signer trust the specified servers as module signers (see
                     --privilege).  Only root can specify signer.

                     grant trust as an ssl peer for all users on the local
                     host. The default is to grant trust as an ssl peer for
                     the current user only. Trust as a module signer is al‐
                     ways granted for all users. Only root can specify

              revoke revoke the specified trust. The default is to grant it.

                     do not prompt the user for confirmation before carrying
                     out the requested action. The default is to prompt the
                     user for confirmation.

              If no argument is provided, then the default is ssl.  If no
              servers were specified using --use-server, then no trust will
              be granted or revoked.

              Unless no-prompt has been specified, the user will be prompted
              to confirm the trust to be granted or revoked before the oper‐
              ation is performed.

              Dumps a list of supported probe types and exits. If --privi‐
              lege=stapusr is also specified, the list will be limited to
              probe types available to unprivileged users.

              Dumps a list of all probe aliases found in library files and

              Dumps a list of all the public functions found in library
              files and exits. Also includes their parameters and types. A
              function of type 'unknown' indicates a function that does not
              return a value. Note that not all function/parameter types may
              be resolved (these are also shown by 'unknown'). This features
              is very memory-intensive and thus may not work properly with
              --use-server if the target server imposes an rlimit on process
              memory (i.e. through the ~stap-server/.systemtap/rc configura‐
              tion file, see stap-server(8)).

       --remote URL
              Set the execution target to the given host.  This option may
              be repeated to target multiple execution targets.  Passes 1-4
              are completed locally as normal to build the script, and then
              pass 5 will copy the module to the target and run it.  Accept‐
              able URL forms include:

              [USER@]HOSTNAME, ssh://[USER@]HOSTNAME
                     This mode uses ssh, optionally using a username not
                     matching your own. If a custom ssh_config file is in
                     use, add SendEnv LANG to retain internationalization

              libvirt://DOMAIN, libvirt://DOMAIN/LIBVIRT_URI
                     This mode uses stapvirt to execute the script on a do‐
                     main managed by libvirt. Optionally, LIBVIRT_URI may be
                     specified to connect to a specific driver and/or a re‐
                     mote host. For example, to connect to the local privi‐
                     leged QEMU driver, use:

                     --remote libvirt://MyDomain/qemu:///system

                     See the page at <> for sup‐
                     ported URIs. Also see stapvirt(1) for more information
                     on how to prepare the domain for stap probing.

                     This mode connects to a UNIX socket. This can be used
                     with a QEMU virtio-serial port for executing scripts
                     inside a running virtual machine.

                     Special loopback mode to run on the local host.

              Prefix each line of remote output with "N: ", where N is the
              index of the remote execution target from which the given line

              Enable, disable or set a timeout for the automatic debuginfo
              downloading feature offered by abrt as specified by OPTION,
              where OPTION is one of the following:

              yes    enable automatic downloading of debuginfo with no time‐
                     out. This is the same as not providing an OPTION value
                     to --download-debuginfo

              no     explicitly disable automatic downloading of debuginfo.
                     This is the same as not using the option at all.

              ask    show abrt output, and ask before continuing download.
                     No timeout will be set.

                     specify a timeout as a positive number to stop the
                     download if it is taking longer than <timeout> seconds.

              Specify the maximum size of the process's virtual memory (ad‐
              dress space), in bytes.

              Specify the CPU time limit, in seconds.

              Specify the maximum number of processes that can be created.

              Specify the maximum size of the process stack, in bytes.

              Specify the maximum size of files that the process may create,
              in bytes.

              Specify sysroot directory where target files (executables, li‐
              braries, etc.)  are located.  With -r RELEASE, the sysroot
              will be searched for the appropriate kernel build directory.
              With -r /DIR, however, the sysroot will not be used to find
              the kernel build.

              Provide an alternate value for an environment variable where
              the value on a remote system differs.  Path variables (e.g.
              PATH, LD_LIBRARY_PATH) are assumed to be relative to the di‐
              rectory provided by --sysroot, if provided.

              Disable -DSTP_OVERLOAD related options as well as -DMAXACTION
              and -DMAXTRYLOCK.  This option requires guru mode.

              Set the pass-5 runtime mode.  Valid options are kernel (de‐
              fault), dyninst and bpf.  See ALTERNATE RUNTIMES below for
              more information.

              Shorthand for --runtime=dyninst.

       --bpf  Shorthand for --runtime=bpf.

              On machines that require SystemTap to build its own uprobes
              module (kernels prior to version 3.5), this option instructs
              SystemTap to also save a copy of the module in the current di‐
              rectory (creating a new "uprobes" directory first).

              Allow for a set of target namespaces to be set based on the
              namespaces the given PID is in. This is for namespace-aware
              tapset functions. If the target namespaces was not set, the
              target defaults to the stap process' namespaces.

              Enables an interface to display status information about the
              module(uptime, module name, invoker uid, memory sizes, global
              variables, list of probes with their statistics). An optional
              argument INTERVAL can be supplied to set the refresh rate in
              seconds of the status window. The module can also be con‐
              trolled by a list of commands using the following keys:

              c      Resets all global variables to their initial values or
                     zeroes them if they did not have an initial value.

              s      Rotates the attribute used to sort the list of probes.

              t      Brings up a prompt to allow toggling(on/off) of probes
                     by index. Probe points are still affected by their con‐

              r      Resumes the script by toggling on all probes.

              p      Pauses the script by toggling off all probes.

              x      Hides/shows the status window. This allows for more
                     output to be seen.

                     The navigation keys can be used to scroll up and down
                     the windows.

              Tab    Toggle scrolling between status and output windows.

              This option is used to run example scripts without having to
              enter the entire path to the script. Example scripts can be
              found in the directory specified in the stappaths(7) manual

              This option is used to disable the automatic logging of unused
              global variables at the end of a stap session.

ARGUMENTS         top

       Any additional arguments on the command line are passed to the script
       parser for substitution.  See below.


       The systemtap script language resembles awk and C.  There are two
       main outermost constructs: probes and functions.  Within these,
       statements and expressions use C-like operator syntax and precedence.

       Whitespace is ignored.  Three forms of comments are supported:
              # ... shell style, to the end of line, except for $# and @#
              // ... C++ style, to the end of line
              /* ... C style ... */
       Literals are either strings enclosed in double-quotes (passing
       through the usual C escape codes with backslashes, and with adjacent
       string literals glued together, also as in C), or integers (in
       decimal, hexadecimal, or octal, using the same notation as in C).
       All strings are limited in length to some reasonable value (a few
       hundred bytes).  Integers are 64-bit signed quantities, although the
       parser also accepts (and wraps around) values above positive 2**63.

       In addition, script arguments given at the end of the command line
       may be inserted.  Use $1 ... $<NN> for insertion unquoted, @1 ...
       @<NN> for insertion as a string literal.  The number of arguments may
       be accessed through $# (as an unquoted number) or through @# (as a
       quoted number).  These may be used at any place a token may begin,
       including within the preprocessing stage.  Reference to an argument
       number beyond what was actually given is an error.

       A simple conditional preprocessing stage is run as a part of parsing.
       The general form is similar to the cond ? exp1 : exp2 ternary

              %( CONDITION %? TRUE-TOKENS %)
              %( CONDITION %? TRUE-TOKENS %: FALSE-TOKENS %)

       The CONDITION is either an expression whose format is determined by
       its first keyword, or a string literals comparison or a numeric lit‐
       erals comparison.  It can be also composed of many alternatives and
       conjunctions of CONDITIONs (meant as in previous sentence) using ||
       and && respectively.  However, parentheses are not supported yet, so
       remembering that conjunction takes precedence over alternative is im‐

       If the first part is the identifier kernel_vr or kernel_v to refer to
       the kernel version number, with ("2.6.13-1.322FC3smp") or without
       ("2.6.13") the release code suffix, then the second part is one of
       the six standard numeric comparison operators <, <=, ==, !=, >, and
       >=, and the third part is a string literal that contains an RPM-style
       version-release value.  The condition is deemed satisfied if the ver‐
       sion of the target kernel (as optionally overridden by the -r option)
       compares to the given version string.  The comparison is performed by
       the glibc function strverscmp.  As a special case, if the operator is
       for simple equality (==), or inequality (!=), and the third part con‐
       tains any wildcard characters (* or ? or [), then the expression is
       treated as a wildcard (mis)match as evaluated by fnmatch.

       If, on the other hand, the first part is the identifier arch to refer
       to the processor architecture (as named by the kernel build system
       ARCH/SUBARCH), then the second part is one of the two string compari‐
       son operators == or !=, and the third part is a string literal for
       matching it.  This comparison is a wildcard (mis)match.

       Similarly, if the first part is an identifier like CONFIG_something
       to refer to a kernel configuration option, then the second part is ==
       or !=, and the third part is a string literal for matching the value
       (commonly "y" or "m").  Nonexistent or unset kernel configuration op‐
       tions are represented by the empty string.  This comparison is also a
       wildcard (mis)match.

       If the first part is the identifier systemtap_v, the test refers to
       the systemtap compatibility version, which may be overridden for old
       scripts with the --compatible flag.  The comparison operator is as is
       for kernel_v and the right operand is a version string.  See also the
       DEPRECATION section below.

       If the first part is the identifier systemtap_privilege, the test
       refers to the privilege level that the systemtap script is compiled
       with. Here the second part is == or !=, and the third part is a
       string literal, either "stapusr" or "stapsys" or "stapdev".

       If the first part is the identifier guru_mode, the test refers to if
       the systemtap script is compiled with guru_mode. Here the second part
       is == or !=, and the third part is a number, either 1 or 0.

       If the first part is the identifier runtime, the test refers to the
       systemtap runtime mode. See ALTERNATE RUNTIMES below for more infor‐
       mation on runtimes.  The second part is one of the two string compar‐
       ison operators == or !=, and the third part is a string literal for
       matching it.  This comparison is a wildcard (mis)match.

       Otherwise, the CONDITION is expected to be a comparison between two
       string literals or two numeric literals.  In this case, the arguments
       are the only variables usable.

       The TRUE-TOKENS and FALSE-TOKENS are zero or more general parser to‐
       kens (possibly including nested preprocessor conditionals), and are
       passed into the input stream if the condition is true or false.  For
       example, the following code induces a parse error unless the target
       kernel version is newer than 2.6.5:

              %( kernel_v <= "2.6.5" %? **ERROR** %) # invalid token sequence

       The following code might adapt to hypothetical kernel version drift:

              probe kernel.function (
                %( kernel_v <= "2.6.12" %? "__mm_do_fault" %:
                   %( kernel_vr == "2.6.13*smp" %? "do_page_fault" %:
                      UNSUPPORTED %) %)
              ) { /* ... */ }

              %( arch == "ia64" %?
                 probe syscall.vliw = kernel.function("vliw_widget") {}

       The preprocessor also supports a simple macro facility, run as a sep‐
       arate pass before conditional preprocessing.

       Macros are defined using the following construct:

              @define NAME %( BODY %)
              @define NAME(PARAM_1, PARAM_2, ...) %( BODY %)

       Macros, and parameters inside a macro body, are both invoked by pre‐
       fixing the macro name with an @ symbol:

              @define foo %( x %)
              @define add(a,b) %( ((@a)+(@b)) %)

                 @foo = @add(2,2)

       Macro expansion is currently performed in a separate pass before con‐
       ditional compilation. Therefore, both TRUE- and FALSE-tokens in con‐
       ditional expressions will be macroexpanded regardless of how the con‐
       dition is evaluated. This can sometimes lead to errors:

              // The following results in a conflict:
              %( CONFIG_UTRACE == "y" %?
                  @define foo %( process.syscall %)
                  @define foo %( **ERROR** %)

              // The following works properly as expected:
              @define foo %(
                %( CONFIG_UTRACE == "y" %? process.syscall %: **ERROR** %)

       The first example is incorrect because both @defines are evaluated in
       a pass prior to the conditional being evaluated.

       Normally, a macro definition is local to the file it occurs in. Thus,
       defining a macro in a tapset does not make it available to the user
       of the tapset. Publically available library macros can be defined by
       including .stpm files on the tapset search path. These files may only
       contain @define constructs, which become visible across all tapsets
       and user scripts. Optionally, within the .stpm files, a public macro
       definition can be surrounded by a preprocessor conditional as de‐
       scribed above.

       Tapsets or guru-mode user scripts can access header file constant to‐
       kens, typically macros, using built-in @const() operator.  The re‐
       spective header file inclusion is possible either via the tapset li‐
       brary, or using a top-level guru mode embedded-C construct.  This re‐
       sults in appropriate embedded C pragma comments setting.


       Identifiers for variables and functions are an alphanumeric sequence,
       and may include _ and $ characters.  They may not start with a plain
       digit, as in C.  Each variable is by default local to the probe or
       function statement block within which it is mentioned, and therefore
       its scope and lifetime is limited to a particular probe or function

       Scalar variables are implicitly typed as either string or integer.
       Associative arrays also have a string or integer value, and a tuple
       of strings and/or integers serving as a key.  Here are a few basic

              var1 = 5
              var2 = "bar"
              array1 [pid()] = "name"     # single numeric key
              array2 ["foo",4,i++] += 5   # vector of string/num/num keys
              if (["hello",5,4] in array2) println ("yes")  # membership test

       The translator performs type inference on all identifiers, including
       array indexes and function parameters.  Inconsistent type-related use
       of identifiers signals an error.

       Variables may be declared global, so that they are shared amongst all
       probes and functions and live as long as the entire systemtap ses‐
       sion.  There is one namespace for all global variables, regardless of
       which script file they are found within.  Concurrent access to global
       variables is automatically protected with locks, see the SAFETY AND
       SECURITY section for more details.  A global declaration may be writ‐
       ten at the outermost level anywhere, not within a block of code.
       Global variables which are written but never read will be displayed
       automatically at session shutdown.  The translator will infer for
       each its value type, and if it is used as an array, its key types.
       Optionally, scalar globals may be initialized with a string or number
       literal.  The following declaration marks variables as global.

              global var1, var2, var3=4

       Global variables can also be set as module options. One can do this
       by either using the -G option, or the module must first be compiled
       using stap -p4.  Global variables can then be set on the command line
       when calling staprun on the module generated by stap -p4. See
       staprun(8) for more information.

       The scope of a global variable may be limited to a tapset or user
       script file using private keyword. The global keyword is optional
       when defining a private global variable. Following declaration marks
       var1 and var2 private globals.

              private global var1=2
              private var2

       Arrays are limited in size by the MAXMAPENTRIES variable -- see the
       SAFETY AND SECURITY section for details.  Optionally, global arrays
       may be declared with a maximum size in brackets, overriding MAXMAPEN‐
       TRIES for that array only.  Note that this doesn't indicate the type
       of keys for the array, just the size.

              global tiny_array[10], normal_array, big_array[50000]

       Arrays may be configured for wrapping using the '%' suffix.  This
       causes older elements to be overwritten if more elements are inserted
       than the array can hold. This works for both associative and statis‐
       tics typed arrays.

              global wrapped_array1%[10], wrapped_array2%

       Many types of probe points provide context variables, which are run-
       time values, safely extracted from the kernel or userspace program
       being probed.  These are prefixed with the $ character.  The CONTEXT
       VARIABLES section in stapprobes(3stap) lists what is available for
       each type of probe point.  These context variables become normal
       string or numeric scalars once they are stored in normal script vari‐
       ables.  See the TYPECASTING section below on how to to turn them back
       into typed pointers for further processing as context variables.
       There is some automation to help!

       Statements enable procedural control flow.  They may occur within
       functions and probe handlers.  The total number of statements execut‐
       ed in response to any single probe event is limited to some number
       defined by the MAXACTION macro in the translated C code, and is in
       the neighbourhood of 1000.

       EXP    Execute the string- or integer-valued expression and throw
              away the value.

       { STMT1 STMT2 ... }
              Execute each statement in sequence in this block.  Note that
              separators or terminators are generally not necessary between

       ;      Null statement, do nothing.  It is useful as an optional sepa‐
              rator between statements to improve syntax-error detection and
              to handle certain grammar ambiguities.

       if (EXP) STMT1 [ else STMT2 ]
              Compare integer-valued EXP to zero.  Execute the first (non-
              zero) or second STMT (zero).

       while (EXP) STMT
              While integer-valued EXP evaluates to non-zero, execute STMT.

       for (EXP1; EXP2; EXP3) STMT
              Execute EXP1 as initialization.  While EXP2 is non-zero, exe‐
              cute STMT, then the iteration expression EXP3.

       foreach (VAR in ARRAY [ limit EXP ]) STMT
              Loop over each element of the named global array, assigning
              current key to VAR.  The array may not be modified within the
              statement.  By adding a single + or - operator after the VAR
              or the ARRAY identifier, the iteration will proceed in a sort‐
              ed order, by ascending or descending index or value.  If the
              array contains statistics aggregates, adding the desired @op‐
              erator between the ARRAY identifier and the + or - will speci‐
              fy the sorting aggregate function.  See the STATISTICS section
              below for the ones available.  Default is @count.  Using the
              optional limit keyword limits the number of loop iterations to
              EXP times.  EXP is evaluated once at the beginning of the

       foreach ([VAR1, VAR2, ...] in ARRAY [ limit EXP ]) STMT
              Same as above, used when the array is indexed with a tuple of
              keys.  A sorting suffix may be used on at most one VAR or AR‐
              RAY identifier.

       foreach ([VAR1, VAR2, ...] in ARRAY [INDEX1, INDEX2, ...] [ limit EXP
       ]) STMT
              Same as above, where iterations are limited to elements in the
              array where the keys match the index values specified. The
              symbol * can be used to specify an index and will be treated
              as a wildcard.

       foreach (VAR0 = VAR in ARRAY [ limit EXP ]) STMT
              This variant of foreach saves current value into VAR0 on each
              iteration, so it is the same as ARRAY[VAR].  This also works
              with a tuple of keys.  Sorting suffixes on VAR0 have the same
              effect as on ARRAY.

       foreach (VAR0 = VAR in ARRAY [INDEX1, INDEX2, ...] [ limit EXP ])
              Same as above, where iterations are limited to elements in the
              array where the keys match the index values specified. The
              symbol * can be used to specify an index and will be treated
              as a wildcard.

       break, continue
              Exit or iterate the innermost nesting loop (while or for or
              foreach) statement.

       return EXP
              Return EXP value from enclosing function.  If the function's
              value is not taken anywhere, then a return statement is not
              needed, and the function will have a special "unknown" type
              with no return value.

       next   Return now from enclosing probe handler.  This is especially
              useful in probe aliases that apply event filtering predicates.
              When used in functions, the execution will be immediately
              transferred to the next overloaded function.

       try { STMT1 } catch { STMT2 }
              Run the statements in the first block.  Upon any run-time er‐
              rors, abort STMT1 and start executing STMT2.  Any errors in
              STMT2 will propagate to outer try/catch blocks, if any.

       try { STMT1 } catch(VAR) { STMT2 }
              Same as above, plus assign the error message to the string
              scalar variable VAR.

       delete ARRAY[INDEX1, INDEX2, ...]
              Remove from ARRAY the element specified by the index tuple.
              If the index tuple contains a * in place of an index, the * is
              treated as a wildcard and all elements with keys that match
              the index tuple will be removed from ARRAY.  The value will no
              longer be available, and subsequent iterations will not report
              the element.  It is not an error to delete an element that
              does not exist.

       delete ARRAY
              Remove all elements from ARRAY.

       delete SCALAR
              Removes the value of SCALAR.  Integers and strings are cleared
              to 0 and "" respectively, while statistics are reset to the
              initial empty state.

       Systemtap supports a number of operators that have the same general
       syntax, semantics, and precedence as in C and awk.  Arithmetic is
       performed as per typical C rules for signed integers.  Division by
       zero or overflow is detected and results in an error.

       binary numeric operators
              * / % + - >> << & ^ | && ||

       binary string operators
              .  (string concatenation)

       numeric assignment operators
              = *= /= %= += -= >>= <<= &= ^= |=

       string assignment operators
              = .=

       unary numeric operators
              + - ! ~ ++ --

       binary numeric, string comparison or regex matching operators
              < > <= >= == != =~ !~

       ternary operator
              cond ? exp1 : exp2

       grouping operator
              ( exp )

       function call
              fn ([ arg1, arg2, ... ])

       array membership check
              exp in array
              [exp1, exp2, ... ] in array
              [*, *, ... ] in array

       The scripting language supports regular expression matching.  The ba‐
       sic syntax is as follows:

              exp =~ regex
              exp !~ regex

       (The first operand must be an expression evaluating to a string; the
       second operand must be a string literal containing a syntactically
       valid regular expression.)

       The regular expression syntax supports most of the features of POSIX
       Extended Regular Expressions, except for subexpression reuse ("\1")

       After a successful match, the contents of the matched string and sub‐
       expressions can be extracted using the matched() and ngroups() tapset
       functions as follows:

              if ("an example string" =~ "str(ing)") {
                matched(0) // -> returns "string", the matched substring
                matched(1) // -> returns "ing", the 1st matched subexpression
                ngroups()  // -> returns 2, the number of matched groups

       The main construct in the scripting language identifies probes.
       Probes associate abstract events with a statement block ("probe han‐
       dler") that is to be executed when any of those events occur.  The
       general syntax is as follows:

              probe PROBEPOINT [, PROBEPOINT] { [STMT ...] }
              probe PROBEPOINT [, PROBEPOINT] if (CONDITION) { [STMT ...] }

       Events are specified in a special syntax called "probe points".
       There are several varieties of probe points defined by the transla‐
       tor, and tapset scripts may define further ones using aliases.  Probe
       points may be wildcarded, grouped, or listed in preference sequences,
       or declared optional.  More details on probe point syntax and seman‐
       tics are listed on the stapprobes(3stap) manual page.

       The probe handler is interpreted relative to the context of each
       event.  For events associated with kernel code, this context may in‐
       clude variables defined in the source code at that spot.  These "con‐
       text variables" are presented to the script as variables whose names
       are prefixed with "$".  They may be accessed only if the kernel's
       compiler preserved them despite optimization.  This is the same con‐
       straint that a debugger user faces when working with optimized code.
       In addition, the objects must exist in paged-in memory at the moment
       of the systemtap probe handler's execution, because systemtap must
       not cause (suppresses) any additional paging.  Some probe types have
       very little context.  See the stapprobes(3stap) man pages to see the
       kinds of context variables available at each kind of probe point.  As
       of systemtap version 4.3, functions called from the handlers of some
       probe point types may also refer to context variables.  These are
       treated as if a clone of that function was inlined into the calling
       probe handler and $variables evaluated in its context.

       Probes may be decorated with an arming condition, consisting of a
       simple boolean expression on read-only global script variables.
       While disarmed (inactive, condition evaluates to false), some probe
       types reduce or eliminate their run-time overheads.  When an arming
       condition evaluates to true, probes will be soon re-armed, and their
       probe handlers will start getting called as the events fire.  (Some
       events may be lost during the arming interval.  If this is unaccept‐
       able, do not use arming conditions for those probes.)  Example of the

              probe if (enabled) {

       New probe points may be defined using "aliases".  Probe point aliases
       look similar to probe definitions, but instead of activating a probe
       at the given point, it just defines a new probe point name as an
       alias to an existing one. There are two types of alias, i.e. the pro‐
       logue style and the epilogue style which are identified by "=" and
       "+=" respectively.

       For prologue style alias, the statement block that follows an alias
       definition is implicitly added as a prologue to any probe that refers
       to the alias. While for the epilogue style alias, the statement block
       that follows an alias definition is implicitly added as an epilogue
       to any probe that refers to the alias.  For example:

              probe = kernel.function("sys_read") {
                fildes = $fd
                if (execname() == "init") next  # skip rest of probe

       defines a new probe point, which expands to
       kernel.function("sys_read"), with the given statement as a prologue,
       which is useful to predefine some variables for the alias user and/or
       to skip probe processing entirely based on some conditions.  And

              probe += kernel.function("sys_read") {
                if (tracethis) println ($fd)

       defines a new probe point with the given statement as an epilogue,
       which is useful to take actions based upon variables set or left over
       by the the alias user.  Please note that in each case, the statements
       in the alias handler block are treated ordinarily, so that variables
       assigned there constitute mere initialization, not a macro substitu‐

       Aliases can also be defined to include both a prologue and an epi‐

              probe = kernel.function("sys_read") {
                fildes = $fd
                if (execname() == "init") next
                if (tracethis) println ($fd)

       An alias is used just like a built-in probe type.

              probe {
                printf("reading fd=%d\n", fildes)
                if (fildes > 10) tracethis = 1

       Probes with an alias can make use of the @probewrite predicate. This
       check is used to detect whether a script variable or target variable
       has been written to in the probe handler body.

              expands to 1 iff var has been written to in the probe handler
              body, otherwise it expands to 0.

       In the following example, @probewrite(var) expands to 1 because var
       has been written to in the probe handler body and consequently, the
       conditional statement will run.

              probe foo = begin { var = 0 }, { if (@probewrite(var)) println(var) }

              probe foo {
                var = 1

       Systemtap scripts may define subroutines to factor out common work.
       Functions take any number of scalar (integer or string) arguments,
       and must return a single scalar (integer or string).  An example
       function declaration looks like this:

              function thisfn (arg1, arg2) {
                 return arg1 + arg2

       Note the general absence of type declarations, which are instead in‐
       ferred by the translator.  However, if desired, a function definition
       may include explicit type declarations for its return value and/or
       its arguments.  This is especially helpful for embedded-C functions.
       In the following example, the type inference engine need only infer
       type type of arg2 (a string).

              function thatfn:string (arg1:long, arg2) {
                 return sprint(arg1) . arg2

       Functions may call others or themselves recursively, up to a fixed
       nesting limit.  This limit is defined by the MAXNESTING macro in the
       translated C code and is in the neighbourhood of 10.

       Functions may be marked private using the private keyword to limit
       their scope to the tapset or user script file they are defined in. An
       example definition of a private function follows:

              private function three:long () { return 3 }

       Functions terminating without reaching an explicit return statement
       will return an implicit 0 or "", determined by type inference.

       Functions may be overloaded during both runtime and compile time.

       Runtime overloading allows the executed function to be selected while
       the module is running based on runtime conditions and is achieved us‐
       ing the "next" statement in script functions and STAP_NEXT macro for
       embedded-C functions. For example,

              function f() { if (condition) next; print("first function") }
              function f() %{ STAP_NEXT; print("second function") %}
              function f() { print("third function") }

       During a functioncall f(), the execution will transfer to the third
       function if condition evaluates to true and print "third function".
       Note that the second function is unconditionally nexted.

       Parameter overloading allows the function to be executed to be se‐
       lected at compile time based on the number of arguments provided to
       the functioncall. For example,

              function g() { print("first function") }
              function g(x) { print("second function") }
              g() -> "first function"
              g(1) -> "second function"

       Note that runtime overloading does not occur in the above example, as
       exactly one function will be resolved for the functioncall. The use
       of a next statement inside a function while no more overloads remain
       will trigger a runtime exception Runtime overloading will only occur
       if the functions have the same arity, functions with the same name
       but different number of parameters are completely unrelated.

       Execution order is determined by a priority value which may be speci‐
       fied.  If no explicit priority is specified, user script functions
       are given a higher priority than library functions. User script func‐
       tions and library functions are assigned a default priority value of
       0 and 1 respectively.  Functions with the same priority are executed
       in declaration order. For example,

              function f():3 { if (condition) next; print("first function") }
              function f():1 { if (condition) next; print("second function") }
              function f():2 { print("third function") }

       Since the second function has highest priority, it is executed first.
       The first function is never executed as there no "next" statements in
       the third function to transfer execution.

       There are a set of function names that are specially treated by the
       translator.  They format values for printing to the standard system‐
       tap output stream in a more convenient way (note that data generated
       in the kernel module need to get transferred to user-space in order
       to get printed).

         The sprint* variants return the formatted string instead of print‐
       ing it.

       print, sprint
              Print one or more values of any type, concatenated directly

       println, sprintln
              Print values like print and sprint, but also append a newline.

       printd, sprintd
              Take a string delimiter and two or more values of any type,
              and print the values with the delimiter interposed.  The de‐
              limiter must be a literal string constant.

       printdln, sprintdln
              Print values with a delimiter like printd and sprintd, but al‐
              so append a newline.

       printf, sprintf
              Take a formatting string and a number of values of correspond‐
              ing types, and print them all.  The format must be a literal
              string constant.

       The printf formatting directives similar to those of C, except that
       they are fully type-checked by the translator:

              %b     Writes a binary blob of the value given, instead of
                     ASCII text.  The width specifier determines the number
                     of bytes to write; valid specifiers are %b %1b %2b %4b
                     %8b.  Default (%b) is 8 bytes.

              %c     Character.

              %d,%i  Signed decimal.

              %m     Safely reads kernel (without #) or user (with #) memory
                     at the given address, outputs its content.  The option‐
                     al precision specifier (not field width) determines the
                     number of bytes to read - default is 1 byte.  %10.4m
                     prints 4 bytes of the memory in a 10-character-wide
                     field.  Note, on some architectures user memory can
                     still be read without #.

              %M     Same as %m, but outputs in hexadecimal.  The minimal
                     size of output is double the optional precision speci‐
                     fier - default is 1 byte (2 hex chars).  %10.4M prints
                     4 bytes of the memory as 8 hexadecimal characters in a
                     10-character-wide field.   %.*M hex-dumps a given num‐
                     ber of bytes from a given buffer.

              %o     Unsigned octal.

              %p     Unsigned pointer address.

              %s     String.

              %u     Unsigned decimal.

              %x     Unsigned hex value, in all lower-case.

              %X     Unsigned hex value, in all upper-case.

              %%     Writes a %.

       The # flag selects the alternate forms.  For octal, this prefixes a
       0.  For hex, this prefixes 0x or 0X, depending on case.  For charac‐
       ters, this escapes non-printing values with either C-like escapes or
       raw octal.  In the case of %#m/%#M, this safely accesses user space
       memory rather than kernel space memory.


              a = "alice", b = "bob", p = 0x1234abcd, i = 123, j = -1, id[a] = 1234, id[b] = 4567
                                        Prints: hello
                                        Prints: bob\n
              println(a . " is " . sprint(16))
                                        Prints: alice is 16
              foreach (name in id)  printdln("|", strlen(name), name, id[name])
                                        Prints: 5|alice|1234\n3|bob|4567
              printf("%c is %s; %x or %X or %p; %d or %u\n",97,a,p,p,p,j,j)
                                        Prints: a is alice; 1234abcd or 1234ABCD or 0x1234abcd; -1 or 18446744073709551615\n
              printf("2 bytes of kernel buffer at address %p: %2m", p, p)
                                        Prints: 2 byte of kernel buffer at address 0x1234abcd: <binary data>
              printf("%4b", p)
                                        Prints (these values as binary data): 0x1234abcd
              printf("%#o %#x %#X\n", 1, 2, 3)
                                        Prints: 01 0x2 0X3
              printf("%#c %#c %#c\n", 0, 9, 42)
                                        Prints: \000 \t *

       It is often desirable to collect statistics in a way that avoids the
       penalties of repeatedly exclusive locking the global variables those
       numbers are being put into.  Systemtap provides a solution using a
       special operator to accumulate values, and several pseudo-functions
       to extract the statistical aggregates.

       The aggregation operator is <<<, and resembles an assignment, or a
       C++ output-streaming operation.  The left operand specifies a scalar
       or array-index lvalue, which must be declared global.  The right op‐
       erand is a numeric expression.  The meaning is intuitive: add the
       given number to the pile of numbers to compute statistics of.  (The
       specific list of statistics to gather is given separately, by the ex‐
       traction functions.)

              foo <<< 1
              stats[pid()] <<< memsize

       The extraction functions are also special.  For each appearance of a
       distinct extraction function operating on a given identifier, the
       translator arranges to compute a set of statistics that satisfy it.
       The statistics system is thereby "on-demand".  Each execution of an
       extraction function causes the aggregation to be computed for that
       moment across all processors.

       Here is the set of extractor functions.  The first argument of each
       is the same style of lvalue used on the left hand side of the accumu‐
       late operation.  The @count(v), @sum(v), @min(v), @max(v), @avg(v),
       @variance(v[, b]) extractor functions compute the number/total/mini‐
       mum/maximum/average/variance of all accumulated values.  The result‐
       ing values are all simple integers.  Arrays containing aggregates may
       be sorted and iterated.  See the foreach construct above.

       Variance uses Welford's online algorithm.  The calculations are based
       on integer arithmetic, and so may suffer from low precision and over‐
       flow.  To improve this, @variance(v[, b]) accepts an optional parame‐
       ter b, the bit-shift, ranging from 0 (default) to 62, for internal
       scaling.  Only one value of bit-shift may be used with given global
       variable.  A larger bitshift value increases precision, but increases
       the likelihood of overflow.

              $ stap -e \
              > 'global x probe oneshot { for(i=1;i<=5;i++) x<<<i println(@variance(x)) }'
              $ stap -e \
              > 'global x probe oneshot { for(i=1;i<=5;i++) x<<<i println(@variance(x,1)) }'
              $ python3 -c 'import statistics; print(statistics.variance([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]))'

       Overflow (from internal multiplication of large numbers) may occur
       and may cause a negative variance result.  Consider normalizing your
       input data.  Adding or subtracting a fixed value from all variance
       inputs preserves the original variance.  Dividing the variance inputs
       by a fixed value shrinks the original variance by that value squared.

       Histograms are also available, but are more complicated because they
       have a vector rather than scalar value.  @hist_lin‐
       ear(v,start,stop,interval) represents a linear histogram from "start"
       to "stop" (inclusive) by increments of "interval".  The interval must
       be positive. Similarly, @hist_log(v) represents a base-2 logarithmic
       histogram. Printing a histogram with the print family of functions
       renders a histogram object as a tabular "ASCII art" bar chart.

              probe timer.profile {
                x[1] <<< pid()
                x[2] <<< uid()
                y <<< tid()
              global x // an array containing aggregates
              global y // a scalar
              probe end {
                foreach ([i] in x @count+) {
                   printf ("x[%d]: avg %d = sum %d / count %d\n",
                           i, @avg(x[i]), @sum(x[i]), @count(x[i]))
                   println (@hist_log(x[i]))
                println ("y:")
                println (@hist_log(y))

       The counts of each histogram bucket may be individually accessed via
       the [index] operator.  Each bucket is addressed from 1 through N (for
       each natural bucket).  In addition bucket #0 counts all the samples
       beneath the start value, and bucket #N+1 counts all the samples above
       the stop value.  Histogram buckets (including the two out-of-range
       buckets) may also be iterated with foreach.

              global x
              probe oneshot {
                x <<< -100
                x <<< 1
                x <<< 2
                x <<< 3
                x <<< 100
                foreach (bucket in @hist_linear(x,1,3,1))
                  // expecting   1 out-of-range-low bucket
                  //             3 payload buckets
                  //             1 out-of-range-high bucket
                  printf("bucket %d count %d\n",
                         bucket, @hist_linear(x,1,3,1)[bucket])

       Once a pointer (see the CONTEXT VARIABLES section of
       stapprobes(3stap)) has been saved into a script integer variable, the
       translator attempts to keep the type information necessary to access
       members from that pointer.

       The translator attempts to track DWARF typing associated with script
       variables assigned from addresses of context $variables, @cast or
       @var operators.  Depending on the complexity of the script code, this
       association may pass to related variables, so that -> and [] opera‐
       tors may be used on them, just as on the original context variable.
       For example:

              foo = $param->foo; printf("x:%d y:%d\n", foo->x, foo->y)
              printf("my value is %d\n", ($type == 42 ? $foo : $bar)->value)
              printf("my parent pid is %d\n", task_parent(task_current())->tgid)

       However, if this association heuristic doesn't work for a script, us‐
       ing the @cast() operator tells the translator how to interpret the
       number as a typed pointer.

              @cast(p, "type_name"[, "module"])->member

       This will interpret p as a pointer to a struct/union named type_name
       and dereference the member value.  Further ->subfield expressions may
       be appended to dereference more levels. Note that for direct derefer‐
       encing of a pointer {kernel,user}_{char,int,...}($p) should be used.
       (Refer to stapfuncs(5) for more details.)   NOTE: the same derefer‐
       encing operator -> is used to refer to both direct containment or
       pointer indirection.  Systemtap automatically determines which.  The
       optional module tells the translator where to look for information
       about that type.  Multiple modules may be specified as a list with :
       separators.  If the module is not specified, it will default either
       to the probe module for dwarf probes, or to "kernel" for functions
       and all other probes types.

       The translator can create its own module with type information from a
       header surrounded by angle brackets, in case normal debuginfo is not
       available.  For kernel headers, prefix it with "kernel" to use the
       appropriate build system.  All other headers are built with default
       GCC parameters into a user module.  Multiple headers may be specified
       in sequence to resolve a codependency.

              @cast(tv, "timeval", "<sys/time.h>")->tv_sec
              @cast(task, "task_struct", "kernel<linux/sched.h>")->tgid
              @cast(task, "task_struct",

       Values acquired by @cast may be pretty-printed by the $ and $$ suffix
       operators, the same way as described in the CONTEXT VARIABLES section
       of the stapprobes(3stap) manual page.

       When in guru mode, the translator will also allow scripts to assign
       new values to members of typecasted pointers.

       Typecasting is also useful in the case of void* members whose type
       may be determinable at runtime.

              probe foo {
                if ($var->type == 1) {
                  value = @cast($var->data, "type1")->bar
                } else {
                  value = @cast($var->data, "type2")->baz

       When in guru mode, the translator accepts embedded C code in the top
       level of the script.  Such code is enclosed between %{ and %} mark‐
       ers, and is transcribed verbatim, without analysis, in some sequence,
       into the top level of the generated C code.  At the outermost level,
       this may be useful to add #include instructions, and any auxiliary
       definitions for use by other embedded code.

       Another place where embedded code is permitted is as a function body.
       In this case, the script language body is replaced entirely by a
       piece of C code enclosed again between %{ and %} markers.  This C
       code may do anything reasonable and safe.  There are a number of un‐
       documented but complex safety constraints on atomicity, concurrency,
       resource consumption, and run time limits, so this is an advanced

       The memory locations set aside for input and output values are made
       available to it using macros STAP_ARG_* and STAP_RETVALUE.  Errors
       may be signalled with STAP_ERROR. Output may be written with
       STAP_PRINTF. The function may return early with STAP_RETURN.  Here
       are some examples:

              function integer_ops (val) %{
                STAP_PRINTF("%d\n", STAP_ARG_val);
                STAP_RETVALUE = STAP_ARG_val + 1;
                if (STAP_RETVALUE == 4)
                    STAP_ERROR("wrong guess: %d", (int) STAP_RETVALUE);
                if (STAP_RETVALUE == 3)
                STAP_RETVALUE ++;
              function string_ops (val) %{
                strlcpy (STAP_RETVALUE, STAP_ARG_val, MAXSTRINGLEN);
                strlcat (STAP_RETVALUE, "one", MAXSTRINGLEN);
                if (strcmp (STAP_RETVALUE, "three-two-one"))
                    STAP_RETURN("parameter should be three-two-");
              function no_ops () %{
                  STAP_RETURN(); /* function inferred with no return value */

       The function argument and return value types have to be inferred by
       the translator from the call sites in order for this to work. The us‐
       er should examine C code generated for ordinary script-language func‐
       tions in order to write compatible embedded-C ones.

       The last place where embedded code is permitted is as an expression
       rvalue.  In this case, the C code enclosed between %{ and %} markers
       is interpreted as an ordinary expression value.  It is assumed to be
       a normal 64-bit signed number, unless the marker /* string */ is in‐
       cluded, in which case it's treated as a string.

              function add_one (val) {
                return val + %{ 1 %}
              function add_string_two (val) {
                return val . %{ /* string */ "two" %}

       The embedded-C code may contain markers to assert optimization and
       safety properties.

       /* pure */
              means that the C code has no side effects and may be elided
              entirely if its value is not used by script code.

       /* stable */
              means that the C code always has the same value (in any given
              probe handler invocation), so repeated calls may be automati‐
              cally replaced by memoized values.  Such functions must take
              no parameters, and also be pure.

       /* unprivileged */
              means that the C code is so safe that even unprivileged users
              are permitted to use it.

       /* myproc-unprivileged */
              means that the C code is so safe that even unprivileged users
              are permitted to use it, provided that the target of the cur‐
              rent probe is within the user's own process.

       /* guru */
              means that the C code is so unsafe that a systemtap user must
              specify -g (guru mode) to use this.  (Tapsets are permitted
              and presumed to call them safely.)

       /* unmangled */
              in an embedded-C function, means that the legacy (pre-1.8) ar‐
              gument access syntax should be made available inside the func‐
              tion. Hence, in addition to STAP_ARG_foo and STAP_RETVALUE one
              can use THIS->foo and THIS->__retvalue respectively inside the
              function. This is useful for quickly migrating code written
              for SystemTap version 1.7 and earlier.

       /* unmodified-fnargs */
              in an embedded-C function, means that the function arguments
              are not modified inside the function body.

       /* string */
              in embedded-C expressions only, means that the expression has
              const char * type and should be treated as a string value, in‐
              stead of the default long numeric.

       Script level global variables may be accessed in embedded-C functions
       and blocks. To read or write the global variable var , the /* prag‐
       ma:read:var */ or /* pragma:write:var */ marker must be first placed
       in the embedded-C function or block. This provides the macros
       STAP_GLOBAL_GET_* and STAP_GLOBAL_SET_* macros to allow reading and
       writing, respectively. For example:

              global var
              global var2[100]
              function increment() %{
                  /* pragma:read:var */ /* pragma:write:var */
                  /* pragma:read:var2 */ /* pragma:write:var2 */
                  STAP_GLOBAL_SET_var(STAP_GLOBAL_GET_var()+1); //var++
                  STAP_GLOBAL_SET_var2(1, 1, STAP_GLOBAL_GET_var2(1, 1)+1); //var2[1,1]++

       Variables may be read and set in both embedded-C functions and ex‐
       pressions.  Strings returned from embedded-C code are decayed to
       pointers. Variables must also be assigned at script level to allow
       for type inference. Map assignment does not return the value written,
       so chaining does not work.

       A set of builtin probe point aliases are provided by the scripts in‐
       stalled in the directory specified in the stappaths(7) manual page.
       The functions are described in the stapprobes(3stap) manual page.

       Integers can be dereferenced from pointers saved as a script integer
       variables using the @kderef() or @uderef() operators.  @kderef() is
       used for kernel space addresses and @uderef() is used for user space

              @kderef(SIZE, addr)
              @uderef(SIZE, addr)

       This will interpert addr as a kernel/user address and read SIZE bytes
       starting at that address.  SIZE should be either 1, 2, 4 or 8 bytes.

       The value stored within a register can be accessed using the @kregis‐
       ter() or @uregister() operators.  @kregister() is used for kernel
       space registers and @uregister() is used for user space registers.
       The register of interest is specified using its DWARF number.


PROCESSING         top

       The translator begins pass 1 by parsing the given input script, and
       all scripts (files named *.stp) found in a tapset directory.  The
       directories listed with -I are processed in sequence, each processed
       in "guru mode".  For each directory, a number of subdirectories are
       also searched.  These subdirectories are derived from the selected
       kernel version (the -R option), in order to allow more kernel-
       version-specific scripts to override less specific ones.  For
       example, for a kernel version 2.6.12-23.FC3 the following patterns
       would be searched, in sequence: 2.6.12-23.FC3/*.stp, 2.6.12/*.stp,
       2.6/*.stp, and finally *.stp.  Stopping the translator after pass 1
       causes it to print the parse trees.

       In pass 2, the translator analyzes the input script to resolve
       symbols and types.  References to variables, functions, and probe
       aliases that are unresolved internally are satisfied by searching
       through the parsed tapset script files.  If any tapset script file is
       selected because it defines an unresolved symbol, then the entirety
       of that file is added to the translator's resolution queue.  This
       process iterates until all symbols are resolved and a subset of
       tapset script files is selected.

       Next, all probe point descriptions are validated against the wide
       variety supported by the translator.  Probe points that refer to code
       locations ("synchronous probe points") require the appropriate kernel
       debugging information to be installed.  In the associated probe
       handlers, target-side variables (whose names begin with "$") are
       found and have their run-time locations decoded.

       Next, all probes and functions are analyzed for optimization
       opportunities, in order to remove variables, expressions, and
       functions that have no useful value and no side-effect.  Embedded-C
       functions are assumed to have side-effects unless they include the
       magic string /* pure */.  Since this optimization can hide latent
       code errors such as type mismatches or invalid $context variables, it
       sometimes may be useful to disable the optimizations with the -u

       Finally, all variable, function, parameter, array, and index types
       are inferred from context (literals and operators).  Stopping the
       translator after pass 2 causes it to list all the probes, functions,
       and variables, along with all inferred types.  Any inconsistent or
       unresolved types cause an error.

       In pass 3, the translator writes C code that represents the actions
       of all selected script files, and creates a Makefile to build that
       into a kernel object.  These files are placed into a temporary
       directory.  Stopping the translator at this point causes it to print
       the contents of the C file.

       In pass 4, the translator invokes the Linux kernel build system to
       create the actual kernel object file.  This involves running make in
       the temporary directory, and requires a kernel module build system
       (headers, config and Makefiles) to be installed in the usual spot
       /lib/modules/VERSION/build.  Stopping the translator after pass 4 is
       the last chance before running the kernel object.  This may be useful
       if you want to archive the file.

       In pass 5, the translator invokes the systemtap auxiliary program
       staprun program for the given kernel object.  This program arranges
       to load the module then communicates with it, copying trace data from
       the kernel into temporary files, until the user sends an interrupt
       signal.  Any run-time error encountered by the probe handlers, such
       as running out of memory, division by zero, exceeding nesting or
       runtime limits, results in a soft error indication.  Soft errors in
       excess of MAXERRORS block of all subsequent probes (except error-
       handling probes), and terminate the session.  Finally, staprun
       unloads the module, and cleans up.

       One should avoid killing the stap process forcibly, for example with
       SIGKILL, because the stapio process (a child process of the stap
       process) and the loaded module may be left running on the system.  If
       this happens, send SIGTERM or SIGINT to any remaining stapio
       processes, then use rmmod to unload the systemtap module.

EXAMPLES         top

       See the stapex(3stap) manual page for a brief collection of samples,
       or a large set of installed samples under the systemtap
       documentation/testsuite directories.  See stappaths(7stap) for the
       likely location of these on the system.

CACHING         top

       The systemtap translator caches the pass 3 output (the generated C
       code) and the pass 4 output (the compiled kernel module) if pass 4
       completes successfully.  This cached output is reused if the same
       script is translated again assuming the same conditions exist (same
       kernel version, same systemtap version, etc.).  Cached files are
       stored in the $SYSTEMTAP_DIR/cache directory. The cache can be
       limited by having the file cache_mb_limit placed in the cache
       directory (shown above) containing only an ASCII integer representing
       how many MiB the cache should not exceed. In the absence of this
       file, a default will be created with the limit set to 256MiB.  This
       is a 'soft' limit in that the cache will be cleaned after a new entry
       is added if the cache clean interval is exceeded, so the total cache
       size may temporarily exceed this limit. This interval can be
       specified by having the file cache_clean_interval_s placed in the
       cache directory (shown above) containing only an ASCII integer
       representing the interval in seconds. In the absence of this file, a
       default will be created with the interval set to 300 s.


       Systemtap may be used as a powerful administrative tool.  It can
       expose kernel internal data structures and potentially private user
       information.  (In dyninst runtime mode, this is not the case, see the
       ALTERNATE RUNTIMES section below.)

       The translator asserts many safety constraints during compilation and
       more during run-time.  It aims to ensure that no handler routine can
       run for very long, allocate boundless memory, perform unsafe
       operations, or in unintentionally interfere with the system.  Uses of
       script global variables are automatically read/write locked as
       appropriate, to protect against manipulation by concurrent probe
       handlers.  Locks are taken so as to run the global-variable
       manipulation portion of probe handlers atomically (locks are taken
       all-or-none).  Deadlocks are detected with timeouts.  Use the -t flag
       to receive reports of excessive lock contention.  Experimenting with
       scripts is therefore generally safe.  The guru-mode -g option allows
       administrators to bypass most safety measures, which permits invasive
       or state-changing operations, embedded-C code, and increases the risk
       of upset.  By default, overload prevention is turned on for all
       modules.  If you would like to disable overload processing, use the
       --suppress-time-limits option.

       Errors that are caught at run time normally result in a clean script
       shutdown and a pass-5 error message.  The --suppress-handler-errors
       option lets scripts tolerate soft errors without shutting down.

       For the normal linux-kernel-module runtime, to run the kernel objects
       systemtap builds, a user must be one of the following:

       •   the root user;

       •   a member of the stapdev and stapusr groups;

       •   a member of the stapsys and stapusr groups; or

       •   a member of the stapusr group.

       The root user or a user who is a member of both the stapdev and
       stapusr groups can build and run any systemtap script.

       A user who is a member of both the stapsys and stapusr groups can
       only use pre-built modules under the following conditions:

       •   The module has been signed by a trusted signer. Trusted signers
           are normally systemtap compile-servers which sign modules when
           the --privilege option is specified by the client. See the
           stap-server(8) manual page for more information.

       •   The module was built using the --privilege=stapsys or the
           --privilege=stapusr options.

       Members of only the stapusr group can only use pre-built modules
       under the following conditions:

       •   The module is located in the /lib/modules/VERSION/systemtap
           directory.  This directory must be owned by root and not be world


       •   The module has been signed by a trusted signer. Trusted signers
           are normally systemtap compile-servers which sign modules when
           the --privilege option is specified by the client. See the
           stap-server(8) manual page for more information.

       •   The module was built using the --privilege=stapusr option.

       The kernel modules generated by stap program are run by the staprun
       program.  The latter is a part of the Systemtap package, dedicated to
       module loading and unloading (but only in the white zone), and
       kernel-to-user data transfer.  Since staprun does not perform any
       additional security checks on the kernel objects it is given, it
       would be unwise for a system administrator to add untrusted users to
       the stapdev or stapusr groups.

       If the current system has SecureBoot turned on in the UEFI firmware,
       all kernel modules must be signed.  (Some kernels may allow disabling
       SecureBoot long after booting with a key sequence such as SysRq-X,
       making it unnecessary to sign modules.)  The systemtap compile server
       can sign modules with a MOK (Machine Owner Key) that it has in common
       with a client system. See the following wiki page for more details:


       Some kernels do not let systemtap guess whether module module signing
       is in effect.  On such machines, set the SYSTEMTAP_SIGN environment
       variable to any value while running stap.

       Many resource use limits are set by macros in the generated C code.
       These may be overridden with -D flags.  A selection of these is as

              Maximum number of nested function calls.  Default determined
              by script analysis, with a bonus 10 slots added for recursive

              Maximum length of strings, default 128.

              Maximum number of iterations to wait for locks on global vari‐
              ables before declaring possible deadlock and skipping the
              probe, default 1000.

              Maximum number of statements to execute during any single
              probe hit (with interrupts disabled), default 1000.  Note that
              for straight-through probe handlers lacking loops or recur‐
              sion, due to optimization, this parameter may be interpreted
              too conservatively.

              Maximum number of statements to execute during any single
              probe hit which is executed with interrupts enabled (such as
              begin/end probes), default (MAXACTION * 10).

              Maximum number of stack frames that will be be processed by
              the stap runtime unwinder as produced by the backtrace func‐
              tions in the [u]context-unwind.stp tapsets, default 20.

              Maximum number of rows in any single global array, default
              2048.  Individual arrays may be declared with a larger or
              smaller limit instead:

              global big[10000],little[5]

              or denoted with % to make them wrap-around (replace old en‐
              tries) automatically, as in

              global big%

              or both.

              The number of powers-of-two to add or subtract from the natu‐
              ral size of the hash table backing each global associative ar‐
              ray.  Default is 0.  Try small positive numbers to get extra
              performance at the cost of more memory consumption, because
              that should reduce hash table collisions.  Try small negative
              numbers for the opposite tradeoff.

              Maximum number of soft errors before an exit is triggered, de‐
              fault 0, which means that the first error will exit the
              script.  Note that with the --suppress-handler-errors option,
              this limit is not enforced.

              Maximum number of skipped probes before an exit is triggered,
              default 100.  Running systemtap with -t (timing) mode gives
              more details about skipped probes.  With the default -DINTER‐
              RUPTIBLE=1 setting, probes skipped due to reentrancy are not
              accumulated against this limit.  Note that with the --sup‐
              press-handler-errors option, this limit is not enforced.

              Minimum number of free kernel stack bytes required in order to
              run a probe handler, default 1024.  This number should be
              large enough for the probe handler's own needs, plus a safety

              Maximum number of concurrently armed user-space probes (up‐
              robes), default somewhat larger than the number of user-space
              probe points named in the script.  This pool needs to be po‐
              tentially large because individual uprobe objects (about 64
              bytes each) are allocated for each process for each matching
              script-level probe.

              Maximum amount of memory (in kilobytes) that the systemtap
              module should use, default unlimited.  The memory size in‐
              cludes the size of the module itself, plus any additional al‐
              locations.  This only tracks direct allocations by the system‐
              tap runtime.  This does not track indirect allocations (as
              done by kprobes/uprobes/etc. internals).

              Maximum number of machine cycles spent in probes on any cpu
              per given interval, before an overload condition is declared
              and the script shut down.  The defaults are 500 million and 1
              billion, so as to limit stap script cpu consumption at around

              Size of procfs probe read buffers (in bytes).  Defaults to
              MAXSTRINGLEN.  This value can be overridden on a per-procfs
              file basis using the procfs read probe .maxsize(MAXSIZE) pa‐

       With scripts that contain probes on any interrupt path, it is possi‐
       ble that those interrupts may occur in the middle of another probe
       handler.  The probe in the interrupt handler would be skipped in this
       case to avoid reentrance.  To work around this issue, execute stap
       with the option -DINTERRUPTIBLE=0 to mask interrupts throughout the
       probe handler.  This does add some extra overhead to the probes, but
       it may prevent reentrance for common problem cases.  However, probes
       in NMI handlers and in the callpath of the stap runtime may still be
       skipped due to reentrance.

       In case something goes wrong with stap or staprun after a probe has
       already started running, one may safely kill both user processes, and
       remove the active probe kernel module with rmmod.  Any pending trace
       messages may be lost.


       Systemtap exposes kernel internal data structures and potentially
       private user information. Because of this, use of systemtap's full
       capabilities are restricted to root and to users who are members of
       the groups stapdev and stapusr.

       However, a restricted set of systemtap's features can be made
       available to trusted, unprivileged users. These users are members of
       the group stapusr only, or members of the groups stapusr and stapsys.
       These users can load systemtap modules which have been compiled and
       certified by a trusted systemtap compile-server. See the descriptions
       of the options --privilege and --use-server. See README.unprivileged
       in the systemtap source code for information about setting up a
       trusted compile server.

       The restrictions enforced when --privilege=stapsys is specified are
       designed to prevent unprivileged users from:

              •   harming the system maliciously.

       The restrictions enforced when --privilege=stapusr is specified are
       designed to prevent unprivileged users from:

              •   harming the system maliciously.

              •   gaining access to information which would not normally be
                  available to an unprivileged user.

              •   disrupting the performance of processes owned by other
                  users of the system.  Some overhead to the system in
                  general is unavoidable since the unprivileged  user's
                  probes will be triggered at the appropriate times. What we
                  would like to avoid is targeted interruption of another
                  user's processes which would not normally be possible by
                  an unprivileged user.

       A member of the groups stapusr and stapsys may use all probe points.

       A member of only the group stapusr may use only the following probes:

              •   begin, begin(n)

              •   end, end(n)

              •   error(n)

              •   never

              •   process.*, where the target process is owned by the user.

              •   timer.{jiffies,s,sec,ms,msec,us,usec,ns,nsec}(n)*

              •   timer.hz(n)

       The following scripting language features are unavailable to all
       unprivileged users:

              •   any feature enabled by the Guru Mode (-g) option.

              •   embedded C code.

       The following runtime restrictions are placed upon all unprivileged

              •   Only the default runtime code (see -R) may be used.

       Additional restrictions are placed on members of only the group

              •   Probing of processes owned by other users is not

              •   Access of kernel memory (read and write) is not permitted.

       Some command line options provide access to features which must not
       be available to all unprivileged users:

              •   -g may not be specified.

              •   The following options may not be used by the compile-
                  server client:

                      -a, -B, -D, -I, -r, -R

       The following environment variables must not be set for all unprivi‐
       leged users:


       In general, tapset functions are only available for members of the
       group stapusr when they do not gather information that an ordinary
       program running with that user's privileges would be denied access

       There are two categories of unprivileged tapset functions. The first
       category consists of utility functions that are unconditionally
       available to all users; these include such things as:

              cpu:long ()
              exit ()
              str_replace:string (prnt_str:string, srch_str:string, rplc_str:string)

       The second category consists of so-called myproc-unprivileged func‐
       tions that can only gather information within their own processes.
       Scripts that wish to use these functions must test the result of the
       tapset function is_myproc and only call these functions if the result
       is 1. The script will exit immediately if any of these functions are
       called by an unprivileged user within a probe within a process which
       is not owned by that user. Examples of myproc-unprivileged functions

              print_usyms (stk:string)
              user_int:long (addr:long)
              usymname:string (addr:long)

       A compile error is triggered when any function not in either of the
       above categories is used by members of only the group stapusr.

       No other built-in tapset functions may be used by members of only the
       group stapusr.


       As described above, systemtap's default runtime mode involves
       building and loading kernel modules, with various security tradeoffs
       presented.  Systemtap now includes two new prototype backends:
       --runtime=dyninst and --runtime=bpf.

       --runtime=dyninst uses Dyninst to instrument a user's own processes
       at runtime. This backend does not use kernel modules, and does not
       require root privileges, but is restricted with respect to the kinds
       of probes and other constructs that a script may use. dyninst runtime
       operates in target-attach mode, so it does requirea -c COMMAND or -x
       PID process.  For example:

              stap --runtime=dyninst -c 'stap -V' \
                   -e 'probe process.function("main")
                       { println("hi from dyninst!") }'

       It may be necessary to disable a conflicting selinux check with

              # setsebool allow_execstack 1

       --runtime=bpf compiles the user script into extended Berkeley Packet
       Filter (eBPF) programs instead of a kernel module. eBPF programs are
       verified by the kernel for safety and are executed by an in-kernel
       virtual machine.  This runtime is in an early stage of development
       and currently lacks support for a number of features available in the
       default runtime. Please see the stapbpf(8) man page for more informa‐

EXIT STATUS         top

       The systemtap translator generally returns with a success code of 0
       if the requested script was processed and executed successfully
       through the requested pass.  Otherwise, errors may be printed to
       stderr and a failure code is returned.  Use -v or -vp N to increase
       (global or per-pass) verbosity to identify the source of the trouble.

       In listings mode (-l and -L), error messages are normally suppressed.
       A success code of 0 is returned if at least one matching probe was

       A script executing in pass 5 that is interrupted with ^C / SIGINT is
       considered to be successful.

DEPRECATION         top

       Over time, some features of the script language and the tapset
       library may undergo incompatible changes, so that a script written
       against an old version of systemtap may no longer run.  In these
       cases, it may help to run systemtap with the --compatible VERSION
       flag, specifying the last known working version.  Running systemtap
       with the --check-version flag will output a warning if any possible
       incompatible elements have been parsed.  Deprecation historical
       details may be found in the NEWS file.

       The purpose of deprecation facility is to improve the experience of
       scripts written for newer versions of systemtap (by adding better
       alternatives and removing conflicting or messy older alternatives),
       while at the same time permitting scripts written for older versions
       of systemtap to continue running.  Deprecation is thus intended a
       service to users (and an inconvenience to systemtap's developers),
       rather than the other way around.

       Please note that underscore-prefixed identifiers in the tapset
       sometimes undergo such changes that are difficult to preserve
       compatibility for, even with the deprecation mechanisms.  Avoid
       relying on these in your scripts; instead propose them for promotion
       to non-underscored status.

FILES         top

       Important files and their corresponding paths can be located in the
              stappaths (7) manual page.

SEE ALSO         top


BUGS         top

       Use the Bugzilla link of the project web page or our mailing list. , <>.


COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the systemtap (a tracing and live-system
       analysis tool) project.  Information about the project can be found
       at ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, send it to  This page was
       obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨git://⟩ on 2020-11-01.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2020-10-31.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or im‐
       provements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of
       the original manual page), send a mail to


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