pmrep is a customizable performance metrics reporting tool. Any
available performance metric, live or archived, system and/or
application, can be selected for reporting using one of the output
alternatives listed below together with applicable formatting
pmrep collects the selected metric values through the facilities of
the Performance Co-Pilot (PCP), see PCPIntro(1). The metrics to be
reported are specified on the command line, in a configuration file,
or both. Metrics can be automatically converted and scaled using the
PCP facilities, either by default or by per-metric scaling
specifications. In addition to the existing metrics, derived metrics
can be defined using the arithmetic expressions described in
Unless directed to another host by the -h option, pmrep will contact
the Performance Metrics Collector Daemon (PMCD, see pmcd(1)) on the
The -a option causes pmrep to use the specified set of archive logs
rather than connecting to a PMCD. The -a and -h options are mutually
The -L option causes pmrep to use a local context to collect metrics
from DSO PMDAs (Performance Metrics Domain Agents, ``plugins'') on
the local host without PMCD. Only some metrics are available in this
mode. The -a, -h, and -L options are mutually exclusive.
The metrics of interest are named in the metricspec argument(s). If
a metricspec specifies a non-leaf node in the Performance Metrics
Name Space (PMNS), then pmrep will recursively descend the PMNS and
report on all leaf nodes (i.e., metrics) for that metricspec. (Use
for example pminfo(1) to list all the leaf nodes and their
A metricspec has three different forms. First, on the command line
it can start with a colon (``:'') to indicate a metricset to be read
from a pmrep configuration file (see pmrep.conf(5)) which can then
consist of any number of metricspecs. Second, a metricspec starting
with non-colon specifies a PMNS node as described above, optionally
followed by metric formatting definitions. This so-called compactform of a metricspec is defined as follows:
A valid PMNS node (metric) is mandatory. It can be followed by a
text label used by supporting output targets (currently: stdout, see
below). The optional instances definition restricts csv and stdout
reporting to the specified instances (so non-matching instances will
be filtered). An optional unit/scale is applicable for dimension-
compatible, non-string metrics. (See below for supported unit/scale
specifications.) By default, cumulative counter metrics are
converted to rates, an optional type can be set to raw to disable
this rate conversion. For supporting output targets (currently:
stdout) a numeric width can be used to set the width of the output
column for this metric. Too-wide numeric values for output will not
be printed (apart from trailing decimals, numeric values will never
be silently truncated). Too-wide strings will be truncated. Then, a
metric-specific precision can be provided for numeric non-integer
output values. Lastly, a metric-specific limit can be set for
filtering numeric values per limit.
As a special case with metrics that are counters with time units
(nanoseconds to hours), the unit/scale can be used to change the
default reporting (for example, milliseconds / second) to normalize
to the range zero to one by setting this to sec (see also -y and -Y).
The following metricspec requests the metric kernel.all.sysfork to be
reported under the text label forks, converting to the default rate
count/s in an 8 wide column. Although the definitions in this
compact form are optional, they must always be provided in the order
The third form of a metricspec, verbose form, is described and valid
only in pmrep.conf(5).
Derived metrics are specified like PMNS leaf node metrics.
Options via environment values (see pmGetOptions(3)) override the
corresponding built-in default values (if any). Configuration file
options override the corresponding environment variables (if any).
Command line options override the corresponding configuration file
options (if any).
The available command line options are:
-0 precision, --precision-force=precision
Like -P but this option will override per-metric specifications.
Print a new dynamically adjusted header every time changes in
availability of metric and instance values occur. By default a
static header that never changes is printed once. See also -4,
-7, and -E.
Perform overall ranking of instances in archive. By default
ranking (see -J) and reporting happens on each interval. With
this option all instances and values are ranked before a summary
is reported. See pmlogsummary(1) for further archive summary
reporting alternatives, including averages and peak times for
Like -2 but print metric instances in pmrep metricspec format,
to allow easily selecting the instances for further
-4 action, --names-change=action
Specify which action to take on receiving a metric names change
event during sampling. These events occur when a PMDA discovers
new metrics sometime after starting up, and informs running
client tools like pmrep. Valid values for action are update
(refresh metrics being sampled), ignore (do nothing - the
default behaviour) and abort (exit the program if such an event
happens). update implies --dynamic-header.
Silently ignore any metric name that cannot be resolved. At
least one metric must be found for the tool to start.
Specify a sort reference metric to sort output by values with
-X. By default sorting order is descending, prepending the
metric name with the minus sign (``-'') will change the order to
be ascending. See also -J and -N.
With -X print a fixed header once (unless using -E) including
all metrics being reported. Unlike with the default (static)
header, only instances with values available are reported.
Unlike with the dynamic header, the header is not updated even
if values for some metrics later become (un)available. See also
-1 and -E.
-8 limit, --limit-filter=limit
Limit results to instances with values above/below limit. A
positive integer will include instances with values at or above
the limit in reporting. A negative integer will include
instances with values at or below the limit in reporting. A
value of zero performs no limit filtering. This option will not
override possible per-metric specifications. See also -J and
-9 limit, --limit-filter-force=limit
Like -8 but this option will override per-metric specifications.
-a archive, --archive=archive
Performance metric values are retrieved from the set of
Performance Co-Pilot (PCP) archive log files identified by the
archive argument, which is a comma-separated list of names, each
of which may be the base name of an archive or the name of a
directory containing one or more archives. See also -u.
-A align, --align=align
Force the initial sample to be aligned on the boundary of a
natural time unit align. Refer to PCPIntro(1) for a complete
description of the syntax for align.
Read metric source archives from the PCP archive folio created
by tools like pmchart(1) or, less often, manually with mkaf(1).
-b scale, --space-scale=scaleUnit/scale for space (byte) metrics, possible values include
bytes, Kbytes, KB, Mbytes, MB, and so forth. This option will
not override possible per-metric specifications. See also
-B scale, --space-scale-force=scale
Like -b but this option will override per-metric specifications.
-c config, --config=config
Specify the config file to use. The default is the first found
of: ./pmrep.conf, $HOME/.pmrep.conf, $HOME/pcp/pmrep.conf, and
$PCP_SYSCONF_DIR/pmrep/pmrep.conf. See pmrep.conf(5).
Fetch performance metrics from the specified container, either
local or remote (see -h).
Exit before reporting any values, but after parsing the
configuration and metrics and printing possible headers.
When replaying from an archive, this option requests that the
prevailing real-time delay be applied between samples (see -t)
to effect a pause, rather than the default behaviour of
replaying at full speed.
Daemonize on startup.
-e derived, --derived=derived
Specify derived performance metrics. If derived starts with a
slash (``/'') or with a dot (``.'') it will be interpreted as a
derived metrics configuration file, otherwise it will be
interpreted as comma- or semicolon-separated derived metric
expressions. For details see pmLoadDerivedConfig(3) and
-E lines, --repeat-header=lines
Repeat the header every lines of output. See also -1 and -7.
-f format, --timestamp-format=format
Use the format string for formatting the timestamp. The format
will be used with Python's datetime.strftime method which is
mostly the same as that described in strftime(3). An empty
format string (i.e., "") will remove the timestamps from the
output. Defaults to %H:%M:%S when using the stdout output
target. Defaults to %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S when using the csv output
-F outfile, --output-file=outfile
Specify the output file outfile. See -o.
Output the column number and complete metric information, one-
per-line, before printing the metric values.
Do not include global metrics in reporting (see pmrep.conf(5)).
-h host, --host=host
Fetch performance metrics from pmcd(1) on host, rather than from
the default localhost.
Do not print any headers.
-i instances, --instances=instances
Report only the listed instances from current instances (if
present, see also -j). By default all current instances are
reported, except when writing an archive (see -o) when all
instances, present and future, are reported. This is a global
option that is used for all metrics unless a metric-specific
instance definition is provided as part of a metricspec. By
default single-valued ``flat'' metrics without multiple
instances are still reported as usual, use -v to change this.
The list may consist of one or more comma-separated instances.
The instance name may be quoted with single (') or double (")
quotes for those cases where the instance name contains commas
or whitespace. Note that on the command line when specifying
more than one instance, all the names must be quoted.
Multiple -i options are allowed as an alternative way of
specifying more than one instance of interest. Regular
expressions can also be used.
As an example, the following would report the same instances:
$ pmrep -i "'1 minute','5 minute'" kernel.all.load$ pmrep -i '"1 minute","5 minute"' kernel.all.load$ pmrep -i "'1 minute'" -i "'5 minute'" kernel.all.load$ pmrep kernel.all.load,,"'1 minute','5 minute'"$ pmrep kernel.all.load,,'"1 minute","5 minute"'
However, this would report only the 1-minute instance:
$ pmrep -i '"1 minute","5 minute"' kernel.all.load,,"1 minute"
But this would report all instances (due to per-metric
$ pmrep -i '"1 minute","5 minute"' 'kernel.all.load,,.*'-I, --ignore-incompat
Ignore incompatible metrics. By default incompatible metrics
(that is, their type is unsupported or they cannot be scaled as
requested) will cause pmrep to terminate with an error message.
With this option all incompatible metrics are silently omitted
from reporting. This may be especially useful when requesting
non-leaf nodes of the PMNS tree for reporting.
When writing a PCP archive, include PCP metric help texts in the
Perform instance live filtering. This allows capturing all
filtered instances even if processes are restarted at some point
(unlike without live filtering). Performing live filtering over
a huge amount of instances will add some internal overhead so a
bit of user caution is advised. See also -1 and -n.
-J rank, --rank=rank
Limit results to highest/lowest ranked instances of set-valued
metrics. A positive integer will include highest valued
instances in reporting. A negative integer will include lowest
valued instances in reporting. A value of zero performs no
ranking. Ranking does not imply sorting, see -6. See also -2
Write extended CSV output, similar to sadf(1).
-K spec, --spec-local=spec
When fetching metrics from a local context (see -L), the -K
option may be used to control the DSO PMDAs that should be made
accessible. The spec argument conforms to the syntax described
in pmSpecLocalPMDA(3). More than one -K option may be used.
-l delimiter, --delimiter=delimiter
Specify the delimiter that separates each column of csv or
stdout output. The default for stdout is two spaces (`` '')
and comma (``,'') for csv. In case of CSV output or stdout
output with non-whitespace delimiter, any instances of the
delimiter in string values will be replaced by the underscore
Use a local context to collect metrics from DSO PMDAs on the
local host without PMCD. See also -K.
-m include labels in the report.
Perform ranking before live filtering. By default instance live
filtering (when requested, see -j) happens before instance
ranking (when requested, see -J). With this option the logic is
inverted and ranking happens before live filtering.
-N predicate, --predicate=predicate
Specify a comma-separated list of predicate filter reference
metrics. By default ranking (see -J) happens for each metric
individually. With predicates, ranking is done only for the
specified predicate metrics. When reporting, rest of the
metrics sharing the same instance domain (see PCPIntro(1)) as
the predicate will include only the highest/lowest ranking
instances of the corresponding predicate. Ranking does not
imply sorting, see -6.
So for example, using proc.memory.rss (resident memory size of
process) as the predicate metric together with
proc.io.total_bytes and mem.util.used as metrics to be reported,
only the processes using most/least (as per -J) memory will be
included when reporting total bytes written by processes. Since
mem.util.used is a single-valued metric (thus not sharing the
same instance domain as the process-related metrics), it will be
reported as usual.
-o output, --output=output
Use output target for reporting. The default target is stdout.
The available target alternatives are:
Record metrics into a PCP archive which can later be replayed
with PCP tools, including pmrep itself. See LOGARCHIVE(5) and
PCPIntro(1) for details about PCP archive files. Requires -F.
Print metrics in CSV format (subject to formatting options).
Print metrics to stdout (format subject to formatting
-O origin, --origin=origin
When reporting archived metrics, start reporting at origin
within the time window (see -S and -T). Refer to PCPIntro(1)
for a complete description of the syntax for origin.
Print timestamps. By default no timestamps are printed.
-P precision, --precision=precision
Use precision for numeric non-integer output values. If the
value is too wide for its column width, precision is reduced one
by one until the value fits, or not printed at all if it does
not. The default is to use 3 decimal places (when applicable).
This option will not override possible per-metric
-q scale, --count-scale=scaleUnit/scale for count metrics, possible values include count x10^-1, count, count x 10, count x 10^2, and so forth from 10^-8
to 10^7. (These values are currently space-sensitive.) This
option will not override possible per-metric specifications.
See also pmParseUnitsStr(3).
-Q scale, --count-scale-force=scale
Like -q but this option will override per-metric specifications.
Output raw metric values, do not convert cumulative counters to
rates. When writing archives, raw values are always used. This
option will override possible per-metric specifications.
Like -r but this option will not override per-metric
-s samples, --samples=samples
The samples argument defines the number of samples to be
retrieved and reported. If samples is 0 or -s is not specified,
pmrep will sample and report continuously (in real time mode) or
until the end of the set of PCP archives (in archive mode). See
-S starttime, --start=starttime
When reporting archived metrics, the report will be restricted
to those records logged at or after starttime. Refer to
PCPIntro(1) for a complete description of the syntax for
-t interval, --interval=interval
Set the reporting interval to something other than the default 1
second. The interval argument follows the syntax described in
PCPIntro(1), and in the simplest form may be an unsigned integer
(the implied units in this case are seconds). See also the -T
and -u options.
-T endtime, --finish=endtime
When reporting archived metrics, the report will be restricted
to those records logged before or at endtime. Refer to
PCPIntro(1) for a complete description of the syntax for
When used to define the runtime before pmrep will exit, if no
samples is given (see -s) then the number of reported samples
depends on interval (see -t). If samples is given then interval
will be adjusted to allow reporting of samples during runtime.
In case all of -T, -s, and -t are given, endtime determines the
actual time pmrep will run.
When reporting archived metrics, by default values are reported
according to the selected sample interval (-t option), not
according to the actual record interval in an archive. To this
effect PCP interpolates the values to be reported based on the
records in the archive. With the -u option uninterpolated
reporting is enabled, every recorded value for the selected
metrics is reported and the requested sample interval (-t) is
So for example, if a PCP archive contains recorded values for
every 10 seconds and the requested sample interval is 1 hour, by
default pmrep will use an interpolation scheme to compute the
values of the requested metrics from the values recorded in the
proximity of these requested metrics and values for every 1 hour
are reported. With -u every record every 10 seconds are
reported as such (the reported values are still subject to rate
conversion, use -r or -R to disable).
Omit unit information from headers.
Omit single-valued ``flat'' metrics from reporting, only
consider set-valued metrics (i.e., metrics with multiple values)
for reporting. See -i and -I.
Display version number and exit.
-w width, --width=width
Set the stdout output column width. Strings will be truncated
to this width. The default width is the shortest that can fit
the metric text label, the forced minimum is 3. This option
will not override possible per-metric specifications.
-W width, --width-force=width
Like -w but this option will override per-metric specifications.
Print extended header.
-X label, --colxrow=label
Swap columns and rows in stdout output, reporting one instance
per line, using label as the text label for instance column (set
to an empty string "" to enable swapping without a specific text
label). This is convenient to allow easily using grep(1) to
filter results or to more closely mimic other utilities. See
also -i and -6.
-y scale, --time-scale=scaleUnit/scale for time metrics, possible values include nanosec,
ns, microsec, us, millisec, ms, and so forth up to hour, hr.
This option will not override possible per-metric
specifications. See also pmParseUnitsStr(3).
-Y scale, --time-scale-force=scale
Like -y but this option will override per-metric specifications.
Use the local timezone of the host that is the source of the
performance metrics, as identified by either the -h or the -a
options. The default is to use the timezone of the local host.
-Z timezone, --timezone=timezone
Use timezone for the date and time. Timezone is in the format
of the environment variable TZ as described in environ(7). Note
that when including a timezone string in output, ISO 8601 -style
UTC offsets are used (so something like -Z EST+5 will become
Display usage message and exit.
The following examples use the standard PCP facilities for collecting
the metric values, no external utilities are needed. The referenced
colon-starting metricsets are part of the system pmrep.conf file.
Display network interface metrics on the local host:
$ pmrep network.interface.total.bytes
Display all outgoing network metrics for the wlan0 interface:
$ pmrep -i wlan0 -v network.interface.out
Display timestamped vmstat(8) like information using megabytes
instead of kilobytes and also include the number of inodes used (tab
completes available metrics and after a colon metricsets with bash
$ pmrep -p -B MB :vmstat vfs.inodes.count
Display per-device disk reads and writes from the host server1 using
two seconds interval and sadf(1) like CSV output format:
$ pmrep -h server1 -t 2s -o csv -k disk.dev.read disk.dev.write
Display processes using at least 100MB of memory using dynamic
$ pmrep -b MB --limit-filter 100 --dynamic-header proc.memory.rss
Display the predefined set of metrics from the default pmrep.conf(5)
containing information about I/O issued by current firefox
$ pmrep -i '.*firefox.*' :proc-io
Display the three most CPU-using processes:
$ pmrep -1gUJ 3 proc.hog.cpu
Display sar -w and sar -W like information at the same time from the
PCP archive ./20150921.09.13 showing values recorded between 3 - 5
$ pmrep -a ./20150921.09.13 -S @15:00 -T @17:00 :sar-w :sar-W
Record most relevant CPU, memory, and I/O related information about
every Java process on the system, present and future, to an archive
./a on one minute interval at every full minute in a background
$ pmrep --daemonize -A 1m -t 1m -i '.*java.*' -j -o archive -F ./a \:proc-info :proc-cpu :proc-mem :proc-io
Record all 389 Directory Server, XFS file system, and CPU/memory/disk
metrics every five seconds for five minutes to a PCP archive ./a:
$ pmrep -t 5s -T 5m -o archive -F ./a ds389 xfs kernel.all.cpu mem disk
Record process memory and I/O information for those processes which
are the three most memory-consuming processes:
$ pmrep -o archive -F ./a -J 3 -N proc.memory.rss proc.memory proc.io
Environment variables with the prefix PCP_ are used to parameterize
the file and directory names used by PCP. On each installation, the
file /etc/pcp.conf contains the local values for these variables.
The $PCP_CONF variable may be used to specify an alternative
configuration file, as described in pcp.conf(5).
For environment variables affecting PCP tools, see pmGetOptions(3).
This page is part of the PCP (Performance Co-Pilot) project.
Information about the project can be found at ⟨http://www.pcp.io/⟩.
If you have a bug report for this manual page, send it to
email@example.com. This page was obtained from the project's upstream
Git repository ⟨https://github.com/performancecopilot/pcp.git⟩ on
2020-08-13. (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
was found in the repository was 2020-08-11.) If you discover any
rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
(which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
Performance Co-Pilot PCP PMREP(1)