sar(1) — Linux manual page

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SAR(1)                     Linux User's Manual                    SAR(1)

NAME         top

       sar - Collect, report, or save system activity information.

SYNOPSIS         top

       sar [ -A ] [ -B ] [ -b ] [ -C ] [ -D ] [ -d ] [ -F [ MOUNT ] ] [
       -H ] [ -h ] [ -p ] [ -r [ ALL ] ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -u [ ALL ] ] [
       -V ] [ -v ] [ -W ] [ -w ] [ -y ] [ -z ] [ --dec={ 0 | 1 | 2 } ] [
       --dev=dev_list ] [ --fs=fs_list ] [ --help ] [ --human ] [
       --iface=iface_list ] [ --pretty ] [ --sadc ] [ -I { int_list |
       SUM | ALL } ] [ -P { cpu_list | ALL } ] [ -m { keyword[,...] |
       ALL } ] [ -n { keyword[,...] | ALL } ] [ -q [ keyword[,...] | ALL
       ] ] [ -j { SID | ID | LABEL | PATH | UUID | ... } ] [ -f [
       filename ] | -o [ filename ] | -[0-9]+ ] [ -i interval ] [ -s [
       hh:mm[:ss] ] ] [ -e [ hh:mm[:ss] ] ] [ interval [ count ] ]

DESCRIPTION         top

       The sar command writes to standard output the contents of
       selected cumulative activity counters in the operating system.
       The accounting system, based on the values in the count and
       interval parameters, writes information the specified number of
       times spaced at the specified intervals in seconds.  If the
       interval parameter is set to zero, the sar command displays the
       average statistics for the time since the system was started. If
       the interval parameter is specified without the count parameter,
       then reports are generated continuously.  The collected data can
       also be saved in the file specified by the -o filename flag, in
       addition to being displayed onto the screen. If filename is
       omitted, sar uses the standard system activity daily data file
       (see below).  By default all the data available from the kernel
       are saved in the data file.

       The sar command extracts and writes to standard output records
       previously saved in a file. This file can be either the one
       specified by the -f flag or, by default, the standard system
       activity daily data file.  It is also possible to enter -1, -2
       etc. as an argument to sar to display data of that days ago. For
       example, -1 will point at the standard system activity file of
       yesterday.

       Standard system activity daily data files are named saDD or
       saYYYYMMDD, where YYYY stands for the current year, MM for the
       current month and DD for the current day. They are the default
       files used by sar only when no filename has been explicitly
       specified.  When used to write data to files (with its option
       -o), sar will use saYYYYMMDD if option -D has also been
       specified, else it will use saDD.  When used to display the
       records previously saved in a file, sar will look for the most
       recent of saDD and saYYYYMMDD, and use it.

       Standard system activity daily data files are located in the
       /var/log/sa directory by default. Yet it is possible to specify
       an alternate location for them: If a directory (instead of a
       plain file) is used with options -f or -o then it will be
       considered as the directory containing the data files.

       Without the -P flag, the sar command reports system-wide (global
       among all processors) statistics, which are calculated as
       averages for values expressed as percentages, and as sums
       otherwise. If the -P flag is given, the sar command reports
       activity which relates to the specified processor or processors.
       If -P ALL is given, the sar command reports statistics for each
       individual processor and global statistics among all processors.
       Offline processors are not displayed.

       You can select information about specific system activities using
       flags. Not specifying any flags selects only CPU activity.
       Specifying the -A flag selects all possible activities.

       The default version of the sar command (CPU utilization report)
       might be one of the first facilities the user runs to begin
       system activity investigation, because it monitors major system
       resources. If CPU utilization is near 100 percent (user + nice +
       system), the workload sampled is CPU-bound.

       If multiple samples and multiple reports are desired, it is
       convenient to specify an output file for the sar command. Run the
       sar command as a background process. The syntax for this is:

       sar -o datafile interval count >/dev/null 2>&1 &

       All data are captured in binary form and saved to a file
       (datafile).  The data can then be selectively displayed with the
       sar command using the -f option. Set the interval and count
       parameters to select count records at interval second intervals.
       If the count parameter is not set, all the records saved in the
       file will be selected.  Collection of data in this manner is
       useful to characterize system usage over a period of time and
       determine peak usage hours.

       Note: The sar command only reports on local activities.

OPTIONS         top

       -A     This is equivalent to specifying -bBdFHSvwWy -I SUM -m ALL
              -n ALL -q ALL -r ALL -u ALL.  This option also implies
              specifying -I ALL -P ALL unless these options are
              explicitly set on the command line.

       -B     Report paging statistics.  The following values are
              displayed:

              pgpgin/s
                     Total number of kilobytes the system paged in from
                     disk per second.

              pgpgout/s
                     Total number of kilobytes the system paged out to
                     disk per second.

              fault/s
                     Number of page faults (major + minor) made by the
                     system per second.  This is not a count of page
                     faults that generate I/O, because some page faults
                     can be resolved without I/O.

              majflt/s
                     Number of major faults the system has made per
                     second, those which have required loading a memory
                     page from disk.

              pgfree/s
                     Number of pages placed on the free list by the
                     system per second.

              pgscank/s
                     Number of pages scanned by the kswapd daemon per
                     second.

              pgscand/s
                     Number of pages scanned directly per second.

              pgsteal/s
                     Number of pages the system has reclaimed from cache
                     (pagecache and swapcache) per second to satisfy its
                     memory demands.

              %vmeff Calculated as pgsteal / pgscan, this is a metric of
                     the efficiency of page reclaim. If it is near 100%
                     then almost every page coming off the tail of the
                     inactive list is being reaped. If it gets too low
                     (e.g. less than 30%) then the virtual memory is
                     having some difficulty.  This field is displayed as
                     zero if no pages have been scanned during the
                     interval of time.

       -b     Report I/O and transfer rate statistics. The following
              values are displayed:

              tps    Total number of transfers per second that were
                     issued to physical devices.  A transfer is an I/O
                     request to a physical device. Multiple logical
                     requests can be combined into a single I/O request
                     to the device.  A transfer is of indeterminate
                     size.

              rtps   Total number of read requests per second issued to
                     physical devices.

              wtps   Total number of write requests per second issued to
                     physical devices.

              dtps   Total number of discard requests per second issued
                     to physical devices.

              bread/s
                     Total amount of data read from the devices in
                     blocks per second.  Blocks are equivalent to
                     sectors and therefore have a size of 512 bytes.

              bwrtn/s
                     Total amount of data written to devices in blocks
                     per second.

              bdscd/s
                     Total amount of data discarded for devices in
                     blocks per second.

       -C     When reading data from a file, tell sar to display
              comments that have been inserted by sadc.

       -D     Use saYYYYMMDD instead of saDD as the standard system
              activity daily data file name. This option works only when
              used in conjunction with option -o to save data to file.

       -d     Report activity for each block device.  When data are
              displayed, the device name is displayed as it (should)
              appear in /dev.  sar uses data in /sys to determine the
              device name based on its major and minor numbers.  If this
              name resolution fails, sar will use name mapping
              controlled by /etc/sysconfig/sysstat.ioconf file.
              Persistent device names can also be printed if option -j
              is used (see below). Statistics for all devices are
              displayed unless a restricted list is specified using
              option --dev= (see corresponding option entry).  Note that
              disk activity depends on sadc's options -S DISK and -S
              XDISK to be collected. The following values are displayed:

              tps    Total number of transfers per second that were
                     issued to physical devices.  A transfer is an I/O
                     request to a physical device. Multiple logical
                     requests can be combined into a single I/O request
                     to the device.  A transfer is of indeterminate
                     size.

              rkB/s  Number of kilobytes read from the device per
                     second.

              wkB/s  Number of kilobytes written to the device per
                     second.

              dkB/s  Number of kilobytes discarded for the device per
                     second.

              areq-sz
                     The average size (in kilobytes) of the I/O requests
                     that were issued to the device.
                     Note: In previous versions, this field was known as
                     avgrq-sz and was expressed in sectors.

              aqu-sz The average queue length of the requests that were
                     issued to the device.
                     Note: In previous versions, this field was known as
                     avgqu-sz.

              await  The average time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests
                     issued to the device to be served. This includes
                     the time spent by the requests in queue and the
                     time spent servicing them.

              %util  Percentage of elapsed time during which I/O
                     requests were issued to the device (bandwidth
                     utilization for the device). Device saturation
                     occurs when this value is close to 100% for devices
                     serving requests serially. But for devices serving
                     requests in parallel, such as RAID arrays and
                     modern SSDs, this number does not reflect their
                     performance limits.

       --dec={ 0 | 1 | 2 }
              Specify the number of decimal places to use (0 to 2,
              default value is 2).

       --dev=dev_list
              Specify the block devices for which statistics are to be
              displayed by sar.  dev_list is a list of comma-separated
              device names.

       -e [ hh:mm[:ss] ]
              Set the ending time of the report. The default ending time
              is 18:00:00. Hours must be given in 24-hour format.  This
              option can be used when data are read from or written to a
              file (options -f or -o).

       -F [ MOUNT ]
              Display statistics for currently mounted filesystems.
              Pseudo-filesystems are ignored. At the end of the report,
              sar will display a summary of all those filesystems. Use
              of the MOUNT parameter keyword indicates that mountpoint
              will be reported instead of filesystem device. Statistics
              for all filesystems are displayed unless a restricted list
              is specified using option --fs= (see corresponding option
              entry).  Note that filesystems statistics depend on sadc's
              option -S XDISK to be collected.

              The following values are displayed:

              MBfsfree
                     Total amount of free space in megabytes (including
                     space available only to privileged user).

              MBfsused
                     Total amount of space used in megabytes.

              %fsused
                     Percentage of filesystem space used, as seen by a
                     privileged user.

              %ufsused
                     Percentage of filesystem space used, as seen by an
                     unprivileged user.

              Ifree  Total number of free file nodes in filesystem.

              Iused  Total number of file nodes used in filesystem.

              %Iused Percentage of file nodes used in filesystem.

       -f [ filename ]
              Extract records from filename (created by the -o filename
              flag). The default value of the filename parameter is the
              current standard system activity daily data file. If
              filename is a directory instead of a plain file then it is
              considered as the directory where the standard system
              activity daily data files are located. Option -f is
              exclusive of option -o.

       --fs=fs_list
              Specify the filesystems for which statistics are to be
              displayed by sar.  fs_list is a list of comma-separated
              filesystem names or mountpoints.

       -H     Report hugepages utilization statistics.  The following
              values are displayed:

              kbhugfree
                     Amount of hugepages memory in kilobytes that is not
                     yet allocated.

              kbhugused
                     Amount of hugepages memory in kilobytes that has
                     been allocated.

              %hugused
                     Percentage of total hugepages memory that has been
                     allocated.

              kbhugrsvd
                     Amount of reserved hugepages memory in kilobytes.

              kbhugsurp
                     Amount of surplus hugepages memory in kilobytes.

       -h     This option is equivalent to specifying --pretty --human.

       --help Display a short help message then exit.

       --human
              Print sizes in human readable format (e.g. 1.0k, 1.2M,
              etc.)  The units displayed with this option supersede any
              other default units (e.g.  kilobytes, sectors...)
              associated with the metrics.

       -I { int_list | SUM | ALL }
              Report statistics for interrupts.  int_list is a list of
              comma-separated values or range of values (e.g.,
              0-16,35,400-). The SUM keyword indicates that the total
              number of interrupts received per second is to be
              displayed. The ALL keyword indicates that statistics from
              all interrupts, including potential APIC interrupt
              sources, are to be reported.  Note that interrupt
              statistics depend on sadc's option -S INT to be collected.

       -i interval
              Select data records at seconds as close as possible to the
              number specified by the interval parameter.

       --iface=iface_list
              Specify the network interfaces for which statistics are to
              be displayed by sar.  iface_list is a list of comma-
              separated interface names.

       -j { SID | ID | LABEL | PATH | UUID | ... }
              Display persistent device names. Use this option in
              conjunction with option -d. Keywords ID, LABEL, etc.
              specify the type of the persistent name. These keywords
              are not limited, only prerequisite is that directory with
              required persistent names is present in /dev/disk.
              Keyword SID tries to get a stable identifier to use as the
              device name. A stable identifier won't change across
              reboots for the same physical device. If it exists, this
              identifier is normally the WWN (World Wide Name) of the
              device, as read from the /dev/disk/by-id directory.

       -m { keyword[,...] | ALL }
              Report power management statistics.  Note that these
              statistics depend on sadc's option -S POWER to be
              collected.

              Possible keywords are CPU, FAN, FREQ, IN, TEMP and USB.

              With the CPU keyword, statistics about CPU are reported.
              The following value is displayed:

              MHz    Instantaneous CPU clock frequency in MHz.

              With the FAN keyword, statistics about fans speed are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              rpm    Fan speed expressed in revolutions per minute.

              drpm   This field is calculated as the difference between
                     current fan speed (rpm) and its low limit
                     (fan_min).

              DEVICE Sensor device name.

              With the FREQ keyword, statistics about CPU clock
              frequency are reported.  The following value is displayed:

              wghMHz Weighted average CPU clock frequency in MHz.  Note
                     that the cpufreq-stats driver must be compiled in
                     the kernel for this option to work.

              With the IN keyword, statistics about voltage inputs are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              inV    Voltage input expressed in Volts.

              %in    Relative input value. A value of 100% means that
                     voltage input has reached its high limit (in_max)
                     whereas a value of 0% means that it has reached its
                     low limit (in_min).

              DEVICE Sensor device name.

              With the TEMP keyword, statistics about devices
              temperature are reported.  The following values are
              displayed:

              degC   Device temperature expressed in degrees Celsius.

              %temp  Relative device temperature. A value of 100% means
                     that temperature has reached its high limit
                     (temp_max).

              DEVICE Sensor device name.

              With the USB keyword, the sar command takes a snapshot of
              all the USB devices currently plugged into the system. At
              the end of the report, sar will display a summary of all
              those USB devices.  The following values are displayed:

              BUS    Root hub number of the USB device.

              idvendor
                     Vendor ID number (assigned by USB organization).

              idprod Product ID number (assigned by Manufacturer).

              maxpower
                     Maximum power consumption of the device (expressed
                     in mA).

              manufact
                     Manufacturer name.

              product
                     Product name.

              The ALL keyword is equivalent to specifying all the
              keywords above and therefore all the power management
              statistics are reported.

       -n { keyword[,...] | ALL }
              Report network statistics.

              Possible keywords are DEV, EDEV, FC, ICMP, EICMP, ICMP6,
              EICMP6, IP, EIP, IP6, EIP6, NFS, NFSD, SOCK, SOCK6, SOFT,
              TCP, ETCP, UDP and UDP6.

              With the DEV keyword, statistics from the network devices
              are reported.  Statistics for all network interfaces are
              displayed unless a restricted list is specified using
              option --iface= (see corresponding option entry).  The
              following values are displayed:

              IFACE  Name of the network interface for which statistics
                     are reported.

              rxpck/s
                     Total number of packets received per second.

              txpck/s
                     Total number of packets transmitted per second.

              rxkB/s Total number of kilobytes received per second.

              txkB/s Total number of kilobytes transmitted per second.

              rxcmp/s
                     Number of compressed packets received per second
                     (for cslip etc.).

              txcmp/s
                     Number of compressed packets transmitted per
                     second.

              rxmcst/s
                     Number of multicast packets received per second.

              %ifutil
                     Utilization percentage of the network interface.
                     For half-duplex interfaces, utilization is
                     calculated using the sum of rxkB/s and txkB/s as a
                     percentage of the interface speed. For full-duplex,
                     this is the greater of rxkB/S or txkB/s.

              With the EDEV keyword, statistics on failures (errors)
              from the network devices are reported.  Statistics for all
              network interfaces are displayed unless a restricted list
              is specified using option --iface= (see corresponding
              option entry).  The following values are displayed:

              IFACE  Name of the network interface for which statistics
                     are reported.

              rxerr/s
                     Total number of bad packets received per second.

              txerr/s
                     Total number of errors that happened per second
                     while transmitting packets.

              coll/s Number of collisions that happened per second while
                     transmitting packets.

              rxdrop/s
                     Number of received packets dropped per second
                     because of a lack of space in linux buffers.

              txdrop/s
                     Number of transmitted packets dropped per second
                     because of a lack of space in linux buffers.

              txcarr/s
                     Number of carrier-errors that happened per second
                     while transmitting packets.

              rxfram/s
                     Number of frame alignment errors that happened per
                     second on received packets.

              rxfifo/s
                     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per
                     second on received packets.

              txfifo/s
                     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per
                     second on transmitted packets.

              With the FC keyword, statistics about fibre channel
              traffic are reported.  Note that fibre channel statistics
              depend on sadc's option -S DISK to be collected.  The
              following values are displayed:

              FCHOST Name of the fibre channel host bus adapter (HBA)
                     interface for which statistics are reported.

              fch_rxf/s
                     The total number of frames received per second.

              fch_txf/s
                     The total number of frames transmitted per second.

              fch_rxw/s
                     The total number of transmission words received per
                     second.

              fch_txw/s
                     The total number of transmission words transmitted
                     per second.

              With the ICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4 network
              traffic are reported.  Note that ICMPv4 statistics depend
              on sadc's option -S SNMP to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              imsg/s The total number of ICMP messages which the entity
                     received per second [icmpInMsgs].  Note that this
                     counter includes all those counted by ierr/s.

              omsg/s The total number of ICMP messages which this entity
                     attempted to send per second [icmpOutMsgs].  Note
                     that this counter includes all those counted by
                     oerr/s.

              iech/s The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received
                     per second [icmpInEchos].

              iechr/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received per
                     second [icmpInEchoReps].

              oech/s The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages sent per
                     second [icmpOutEchos].

              oechr/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent per
                     second [icmpOutEchoReps].

              itm/s  The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages
                     received per second [icmpInTimestamps].

              itmr/s The number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages
                     received per second [icmpInTimestampReps].

              otm/s  The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages
                     sent per second [icmpOutTimestamps].

              otmr/s The number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages sent
                     per second [icmpOutTimestampReps].

              iadrmk/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages
                     received per second [icmpInAddrMasks].

              iadrmkr/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages
                     received per second [icmpInAddrMaskReps].

              oadrmk/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages
                     sent per second [icmpOutAddrMasks].

              oadrmkr/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages sent
                     per second [icmpOutAddrMaskReps].

              With the EICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4 error
              messages are reported.  Note that ICMPv4 statistics depend
              on sadc's option -S SNMP to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              ierr/s The number of ICMP messages per second which the
                     entity received but determined as having ICMP-
                     specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad length,
                     etc.) [icmpInErrors].

              oerr/s The number of ICMP messages per second which this
                     entity did not send due to problems discovered
                     within ICMP such as a lack of buffers
                     [icmpOutErrors].

              idstunr/s
                     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages
                     received per second [icmpInDestUnreachs].

              odstunr/s
                     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages
                     sent per second [icmpOutDestUnreachs].

              itmex/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received
                     per second [icmpInTimeExcds].

              otmex/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent per
                     second [icmpOutTimeExcds].

              iparmpb/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages
                     received per second [icmpInParmProbs].

              oparmpb/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent
                     per second [icmpOutParmProbs].

              isrcq/s
                     The number of ICMP Source Quench messages received
                     per second [icmpInSrcQuenchs].

              osrcq/s
                     The number of ICMP Source Quench messages sent per
                     second [icmpOutSrcQuenchs].

              iredir/s
                     The number of ICMP Redirect messages received per
                     second [icmpInRedirects].

              oredir/s
                     The number of ICMP Redirect messages sent per
                     second [icmpOutRedirects].

              With the ICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 network
              traffic are reported.  Note that ICMPv6 statistics depend
              on sadc's option -S IPV6 to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              imsg6/s
                     The total number of ICMP messages received by the
                     interface per second which includes all those
                     counted by ierr6/s [ipv6IfIcmpInMsgs].

              omsg6/s
                     The total number of ICMP messages which this
                     interface attempted to send per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpOutMsgs].

              iech6/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received
                     by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInEchos].

              iechr6/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInEchoReplies].

              oechr6/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent by the
                     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutEchoReplies].

              igmbq6/s
                     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Query
                     messages received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembQueries].

              igmbr6/s
                     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response
                     messages received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembResponses].

              ogmbr6/s
                     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response
                     messages sent per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMembResponses].

              igmbrd6/s
                     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction
                     messages received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembReductions].

              ogmbrd6/s
                     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction
                     messages sent per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMembReductions].

              irtsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Router Solicit messages received
                     by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterSolicits].

              ortsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Router Solicitation messages
                     sent by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpOutRouterSolicits].

              irtad6/s
                     The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages
                     received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterAdvertisements].

              inbsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages
                     received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighborSolicits].

              onbsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicitation messages
                     sent by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpOutNeighborSolicits].

              inbad6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement messages
                     received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighborAdvertisements].

              onbad6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement messages
                     sent by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpOutNeighborAdvertisements].

              With the EICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 error
              messages are reported.  Note that ICMPv6 statistics depend
              on sadc's option -S IPV6 to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              ierr6/s
                     The number of ICMP messages per second which the
                     interface received but determined as having ICMP-
                     specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad length,
                     etc.)  [ipv6IfIcmpInErrors]

              idtunr6/s
                     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages
                     received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInDestUnreachs].

              odtunr6/s
                     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages
                     sent by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpOutDestUnreachs].

              itmex6/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received
                     by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInTimeExcds].

              otmex6/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutTimeExcds].

              iprmpb6/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages
                     received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInParmProblems].

              oprmpb6/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent
                     by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpOutParmProblems].

              iredir6/s
                     The number of Redirect messages received by the
                     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRedirects].

              oredir6/s
                     The number of Redirect messages sent by the
                     interface by second [ipv6IfIcmpOutRedirects].

              ipck2b6/s
                     The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages received
                     by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInPktTooBigs].

              opck2b6/s
                     The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages sent by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutPktTooBigs].

              With the IP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network traffic
              are reported.  Note that IPv4 statistics depend on sadc's
              option -S SNMP to be collected.  The following values are
              displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              irec/s The total number of input datagrams received from
                     interfaces per second, including those received in
                     error [ipInReceives].

              fwddgm/s
                     The number of input datagrams per second, for which
                     this entity was not their final IP destination, as
                     a result of which an attempt was made to find a
                     route to forward them to that final destination
                     [ipForwDatagrams].

              idel/s The total number of input datagrams successfully
                     delivered per second to IP user-protocols
                     (including ICMP) [ipInDelivers].

              orq/s  The total number of IP datagrams which local IP
                     user-protocols (including ICMP) supplied per second
                     to IP in requests for transmission [ipOutRequests].
                     Note that this counter does not include any
                     datagrams counted in fwddgm/s.

              asmrq/s
                     The number of IP fragments received per second
                     which needed to be reassembled at this entity
                     [ipReasmReqds].

              asmok/s
                     The number of IP datagrams successfully re-
                     assembled per second [ipReasmOKs].

              fragok/s
                     The number of IP datagrams that have been
                     successfully fragmented at this entity per second
                     [ipFragOKs].

              fragcrt/s
                     The number of IP datagram fragments that have been
                     generated per second as a result of fragmentation
                     at this entity [ipFragCreates].

              With the EIP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network errors
              are reported.  Note that IPv4 statistics depend on sadc's
              option -S SNMP to be collected.  The following values are
              displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              ihdrerr/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second
                     due to errors in their IP headers, including bad
                     checksums, version number mismatch, other format
                     errors, time-to-live exceeded, errors discovered in
                     processing their IP options, etc. [ipInHdrErrors]

              iadrerr/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second
                     because the IP address in their IP header's
                     destination field was not a valid address to be
                     received at this entity. This count includes
                     invalid addresses (e.g., 0.0.0.0) and addresses of
                     unsupported Classes (e.g., Class E). For entities
                     which are not IP routers and therefore do not
                     forward datagrams, this counter includes datagrams
                     discarded because the destination address was not a
                     local address [ipInAddrErrors].

              iukwnpr/s
                     The number of locally-addressed datagrams received
                     successfully but discarded per second because of an
                     unknown or unsupported protocol
                     [ipInUnknownProtos].

              idisc/s
                     The number of input IP datagrams per second for
                     which no problems were encountered to prevent their
                     continued processing, but which were discarded
                     (e.g., for lack of buffer space) [ipInDiscards].
                     Note that this counter does not include any
                     datagrams discarded while awaiting re-assembly.

              odisc/s
                     The number of output IP datagrams per second for
                     which no problem was encountered to prevent their
                     transmission to their destination, but which were
                     discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space)
                     [ipOutDiscards].  Note that this counter would
                     include datagrams counted in fwddgm/s if any such
                     packets met this (discretionary) discard criterion.

              onort/s
                     The number of IP datagrams discarded per second
                     because no route could be found to transmit them to
                     their destination [ipOutNoRoutes].  Note that this
                     counter includes any packets counted in fwddgm/s
                     which meet this 'no-route' criterion.  Note that
                     this includes any datagrams which a host cannot
                     route because all of its default routers are down.

              asmf/s The number of failures detected per second by the
                     IP re-assembly algorithm (for whatever reason:
                     timed out, errors, etc) [ipReasmFails].  Note that
                     this is not necessarily a count of discarded IP
                     fragments since some algorithms can lose track of
                     the number of fragments by combining them as they
                     are received.

              fragf/s
                     The number of IP datagrams that have been discarded
                     per second because they needed to be fragmented at
                     this entity but could not be, e.g., because their
                     Don't Fragment flag was set [ipFragFails].

              With the IP6 keyword, statistics about IPv6 network
              traffic are reported.  Note that IPv6 statistics depend on
              sadc's option -S IPV6 to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              irec6/s
                     The total number of input datagrams received from
                     interfaces per second, including those received in
                     error [ipv6IfStatsInReceives].

              fwddgm6/s
                     The number of output datagrams per second which
                     this entity received and forwarded to their final
                     destinations [ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams].

              idel6/s
                     The total number of datagrams successfully
                     delivered per second to IPv6 user-protocols
                     (including ICMP) [ipv6IfStatsInDelivers].

              orq6/s The total number of IPv6 datagrams which local IPv6
                     user-protocols (including ICMP) supplied per second
                     to IPv6 in requests for transmission
                     [ipv6IfStatsOutRequests].  Note that this counter
                     does not include any datagrams counted in
                     fwddgm6/s.

              asmrq6/s
                     The number of IPv6 fragments received per second
                     which needed to be reassembled at this interface
                     [ipv6IfStatsReasmReqds].

              asmok6/s
                     The number of IPv6 datagrams successfully
                     reassembled per second [ipv6IfStatsReasmOKs].

              imcpck6/s
                     The number of multicast packets received per second
                     by the interface [ipv6IfStatsInMcastPkts].

              omcpck6/s
                     The number of multicast packets transmitted per
                     second by the interface [ipv6IfStatsOutMcastPkts].

              fragok6/s
                     The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been
                     successfully fragmented at this output interface
                     per second [ipv6IfStatsOutFragOKs].

              fragcr6/s
                     The number of output datagram fragments that have
                     been generated per second as a result of
                     fragmentation at this output interface
                     [ipv6IfStatsOutFragCreates].

              With the EIP6 keyword, statistics about IPv6 network
              errors are reported.  Note that IPv6 statistics depend on
              sadc's option -S IPV6 to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              ihdrer6/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second
                     due to errors in their IPv6 headers, including
                     version number mismatch, other format errors, hop
                     count exceeded, errors discovered in processing
                     their IPv6 options, etc. [ipv6IfStatsInHdrErrors]

              iadrer6/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second
                     because the IPv6 address in their IPv6 header's
                     destination field was not a valid address to be
                     received at this entity. This count includes
                     invalid addresses (e.g., ::0) and unsupported
                     addresses (e.g., addresses with unallocated
                     prefixes). For entities which are not IPv6 routers
                     and therefore do not forward datagrams, this
                     counter includes datagrams discarded because the
                     destination address was not a local address
                     [ipv6IfStatsInAddrErrors].

              iukwnp6/s
                     The number of locally-addressed datagrams received
                     successfully but discarded per second because of an
                     unknown or unsupported protocol
                     [ipv6IfStatsInUnknownProtos].

              i2big6/s
                     The number of input datagrams that could not be
                     forwarded per second because their size exceeded
                     the link MTU of outgoing interface
                     [ipv6IfStatsInTooBigErrors].

              idisc6/s
                     The number of input IPv6 datagrams per second for
                     which no problems were encountered to prevent their
                     continued processing, but which were discarded
                     (e.g., for lack of buffer space)
                     [ipv6IfStatsInDiscards]. Note that this counter
                     does not include any datagrams discarded while
                     awaiting re-assembly.

              odisc6/s
                     The number of output IPv6 datagrams per second for
                     which no problem was encountered to prevent their
                     transmission to their destination, but which were
                     discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space)
                     [ipv6IfStatsOutDiscards]. Note that this counter
                     would include datagrams counted in fwddgm6/s if any
                     such packets met this (discretionary) discard
                     criterion.

              inort6/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second
                     because no route could be found to transmit them to
                     their destination [ipv6IfStatsInNoRoutes].

              onort6/s
                     The number of locally generated IP datagrams
                     discarded per second because no route could be
                     found to transmit them to their destination
                     [unknown formal SNMP name].

              asmf6/s
                     The number of failures detected per second by the
                     IPv6 re-assembly algorithm (for whatever reason:
                     timed out, errors, etc.) [ipv6IfStatsReasmFails].
                     Note that this is not necessarily a count of
                     discarded IPv6 fragments since some algorithms can
                     lose track of the number of fragments by combining
                     them as they are received.

              fragf6/s
                     The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been
                     discarded per second because they needed to be
                     fragmented at this output interface but could not
                     be [ipv6IfStatsOutFragFails].

              itrpck6/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second
                     because datagram frame didn't carry enough data
                     [ipv6IfStatsInTruncatedPkts].

              With the NFS keyword, statistics about NFS client activity
              are reported.  The following values are displayed:

              call/s Number of RPC requests made per second.

              retrans/s
                     Number of RPC requests per second, those which
                     needed to be retransmitted (for example because of
                     a server timeout).

              read/s Number of 'read' RPC calls made per second.

              write/s
                     Number of 'write' RPC calls made per second.

              access/s
                     Number of 'access' RPC calls made per second.

              getatt/s
                     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls made per second.

              With the NFSD keyword, statistics about NFS server
              activity are reported.  The following values are
              displayed:

              scall/s
                     Number of RPC requests received per second.

              badcall/s
                     Number of bad RPC requests received per second,
                     those whose processing generated an error.

              packet/s
                     Number of network packets received per second.

              udp/s  Number of UDP packets received per second.

              tcp/s  Number of TCP packets received per second.

              hit/s  Number of reply cache hits per second.

              miss/s Number of reply cache misses per second.

              sread/s
                     Number of 'read' RPC calls received per second.

              swrite/s
                     Number of 'write' RPC calls received per second.

              saccess/s
                     Number of 'access' RPC calls received per second.

              sgetatt/s
                     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls received per second.

              With the SOCK keyword, statistics on sockets in use are
              reported (IPv4).  The following values are displayed:

              totsck Total number of sockets used by the system.

              tcpsck Number of TCP sockets currently in use.

              udpsck Number of UDP sockets currently in use.

              rawsck Number of RAW sockets currently in use.

              ip-frag
                     Number of IP fragments currently in queue.

              tcp-tw Number of TCP sockets in TIME_WAIT state.

              With the SOCK6 keyword, statistics on sockets in use are
              reported (IPv6).  Note that IPv6 statistics depend on
              sadc's option -S IPV6 to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed:

              tcp6sck
                     Number of TCPv6 sockets currently in use.

              udp6sck
                     Number of UDPv6 sockets currently in use.

              raw6sck
                     Number of RAWv6 sockets currently in use.

              ip6-frag
                     Number of IPv6 fragments currently in use.

              With the SOFT keyword, statistics about software-based
              network processing are reported.  The following values are
              displayed:

              total/s
                     The total number of network frames processed per
                     second.

              dropd/s
                     The total number of network frames dropped per
                     second because there was no room on the processing
                     queue.

              squeezd/s
                     The number of times the softirq handler function
                     terminated per second because its budget was
                     consumed or the time limit was reached, but more
                     work could have been done.

              rx_rps/s
                     The number of times the CPU has been woken up per
                     second to process packets via an inter-processor
                     interrupt.

              flw_lim/s
                     The number of times the flow limit has been reached
                     per second.  Flow limiting is an optional RPS
                     feature that can be used to limit the number of
                     packets queued to the backlog for each flow to a
                     certain amount.  This can help ensure that smaller
                     flows are processed even though much larger flows
                     are pushing packets in.

              With the TCP keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network
              traffic are reported.  Note that TCPv4 statistics depend
              on sadc's option -S SNMP to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              active/s
                     The number of times TCP connections have made a
                     direct transition to the SYN-SENT state from the
                     CLOSED state per second [tcpActiveOpens].

              passive/s
                     The number of times TCP connections have made a
                     direct transition to the SYN-RCVD state from the
                     LISTEN state per second [tcpPassiveOpens].

              iseg/s The total number of segments received per second,
                     including those received in error [tcpInSegs].
                     This count includes segments received on currently
                     established connections.

              oseg/s The total number of segments sent per second,
                     including those on current connections but
                     excluding those containing only retransmitted
                     octets [tcpOutSegs].

              With the ETCP keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network
              errors are reported.  Note that TCPv4 statistics depend on
              sadc's option -S SNMP to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              atmptf/s
                     The number of times per second TCP connections have
                     made a direct transition to the CLOSED state from
                     either the SYN-SENT state or the SYN-RCVD state,
                     plus the number of times per second TCP connections
                     have made a direct transition to the LISTEN state
                     from the SYN-RCVD state [tcpAttemptFails].

              estres/s
                     The number of times per second TCP connections have
                     made a direct transition to the CLOSED state from
                     either the ESTABLISHED state or the CLOSE-WAIT
                     state [tcpEstabResets].

              retrans/s
                     The total number of segments retransmitted per
                     second - that is, the number of TCP segments
                     transmitted containing one or more previously
                     transmitted octets [tcpRetransSegs].

              isegerr/s
                     The total number of segments received in error
                     (e.g., bad TCP checksums) per second [tcpInErrs].

              orsts/s
                     The number of TCP segments sent per second
                     containing the RST flag [tcpOutRsts].

              With the UDP keyword, statistics about UDPv4 network
              traffic are reported.  Note that UDPv4 statistics depend
              on sadc's option -S SNMP to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              idgm/s The total number of UDP datagrams delivered per
                     second to UDP users [udpInDatagrams].

              odgm/s The total number of UDP datagrams sent per second
                     from this entity [udpOutDatagrams].

              noport/s
                     The total number of received UDP datagrams per
                     second for which there was no application at the
                     destination port [udpNoPorts].

              idgmerr/s
                     The number of received UDP datagrams per second
                     that could not be delivered for reasons other than
                     the lack of an application at the destination port
                     [udpInErrors].

              With the UDP6 keyword, statistics about UDPv6 network
              traffic are reported.  Note that UDPv6 statistics depend
              on sadc's option -S IPV6 to be collected.  The following
              values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square
              brackets):

              idgm6/s
                     The total number of UDP datagrams delivered per
                     second to UDP users [udpInDatagrams].

              odgm6/s
                     The total number of UDP datagrams sent per second
                     from this entity [udpOutDatagrams].

              noport6/s
                     The total number of received UDP datagrams per
                     second for which there was no application at the
                     destination port [udpNoPorts].

              idgmer6/s
                     The number of received UDP datagrams per second
                     that could not be delivered for reasons other than
                     the lack of an application at the destination port
                     [udpInErrors].

              The ALL keyword is equivalent to specifying all the
              keywords above and therefore all the network activities
              are reported.

       -o [ filename ]
              Save the readings in the file in binary form. Each reading
              is in a separate record. The default value of the filename
              parameter is the current standard system activity daily
              data file. If filename is a directory instead of a plain
              file then it is considered as the directory where the
              standard system activity daily data files are located.
              Option -o is exclusive of option -f.  All the data
              available from the kernel are saved in the file (in fact,
              sar calls its data collector sadc with the option -S ALL.
              See sadc(8) manual page).

       -P { cpu_list | ALL }
              Report per-processor statistics for the specified
              processor or processors.  cpu_list is a list of comma-
              separated values or range of values (e.g., 0,2,4-7,12-).
              Note that processor 0 is the first processor, and
              processor all is the global average among all processors.
              Specifying the ALL keyword reports statistics for each
              individual processor, and globally for all processors.
              Offline processors are not displayed.

       -p, --pretty
              Make reports easier to read by a human.  This option may
              be especially useful when displaying e.g., network
              interfaces or block devices statistics.

       -q [ keyword[,...] | ALL ]
              Report system load and pressure-stall statistics.

              Possible keywords are CPU, IO, LOAD, MEM and PSI".

              With the CPU keyword, CPU pressure statistics are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              %scpu-10
                     Percentage of the time that at least some runnable
                     tasks were delayed because the CPU was unavailable
                     to them, over the last 10 second window.

              %scpu-60
                     Percentage of the time that at least some runnable
                     tasks were delayed because the CPU was unavailable
                     to them, over the last 60 second window.

              %scpu-300
                     Percentage of the time that at least some runnable
                     tasks were delayed because the CPU was unavailable
                     to them, over the last 300 second window.

              %scpu  Percentage of the time that at least some runnable
                     tasks were delayed because the CPU was unavailable
                     to them, over the last time interval.

              With the IO keyword, I/O pressure statistics are reported.
              The following values are displayed:

              %sio-10
                     Percentage of the time that at least some tasks
                     lost waiting for I/O, over the last 10 second
                     window.

              %sio-60
                     Percentage of the time that at least some tasks
                     lost waiting for I/O, over the last 60 second
                     window.

              %sio-300
                     Percentage of the time that at least some tasks
                     lost waiting for I/O, over the last 300 second
                     window.

              %sio   Percentage of the time that at least some tasks
                     lost waiting for I/O, over the last time interval.

              %fio-10
                     Percentage of the time during which all non-idle
                     tasks were stalled waiting for I/O, over the last
                     10 second window.

              %fio-60
                     Percentage of the time during which all non-idle
                     tasks were stalled waiting for I/O, over the last
                     60 second window.

              %fio-300
                     Percentage of the time during which all non-idle
                     tasks were stalled waiting for I/O, over the last
                     300 second window.

              %fio   Percentage of the time during which all non-idle
                     tasks were stalled waiting for I/O, over the last
                     time interval.

              With the LOAD keyword, queue length and load averages
              statistics are reported.  The following values are
              displayed:

              runq-sz
                     Run queue length (number of tasks running or
                     waiting for run time).

              plist-sz
                     Number of tasks in the task list.

              ldavg-1
                     System load average for the last minute.  The load
                     average is calculated as the average number of
                     runnable or running tasks (R state), and the number
                     of tasks in uninterruptible sleep (D state) over
                     the specified interval.

              ldavg-5
                     System load average for the past 5 minutes.

              ldavg-15
                     System load average for the past 15 minutes.

              blocked
                     Number of tasks currently blocked, waiting for I/O
                     to complete.

              With the MEM keyword, memory pressure statistics are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              %smem-10
                     Percentage of the time during which at least some
                     tasks were waiting for memory resources, over the
                     last 10 second window.

              %smem-60
                     Percentage of the time during which at least some
                     tasks were waiting for memory resources, over the
                     last 60 second window.

              %smem-300
                     Percentage of the time during which at least some
                     tasks were waiting for memory resources, over the
                     last 300 second window.

              %smem  Percentage of the time during which at least some
                     tasks were waiting for memory resources, over the
                     last time interval.

              %fmem-10
                     Percentage of the time during which all non-idle
                     tasks were stalled waiting for memory resources,
                     over the last 10 second window.

              %fmem-60
                     Percentage of the time during which all non-idle
                     tasks were stalled waiting for memory resources,
                     over the last 60 second window.

              %fmem-300
                     Percentage of the time during which all non-idle
                     tasks were stalled waiting for memory resources,
                     over the last 300 second window.

              %fmem  Percentage of the time during which all non-idle
                     tasks were stalled waiting for memory resources,
                     over the last time interval.

              The PSI keyword is equivalent to specifying CPU, IO and
              MEM keywords together and therefore all the pressure-stall
              statistics are reported.

              The ALL keyword is equivalent to specifying all the
              keywords above and therefore all the statistics are
              reported.

       -r [ ALL ]
              Report memory utilization statistics. The ALL keyword
              indicates that all the memory fields should be displayed.
              The following values may be displayed:

              kbmemfree
                     Amount of free memory available in kilobytes.

              kbavail
                     Estimate of how much memory in kilobytes is
                     available for starting new applications, without
                     swapping.  The estimate takes into account that the
                     system needs some page cache to function well, and
                     that not all reclaimable slab will be reclaimable,
                     due to items being in use. The impact of those
                     factors will vary from system to system.

              kbmemused
                     Amount of used memory in kilobytes (calculated as
                     total installed memory - kbmemfree - kbbuffers -
                     kbcached - kbslab).

              %memused
                     Percentage of used memory.

              kbbuffers
                     Amount of memory used as buffers by the kernel in
                     kilobytes.

              kbcached
                     Amount of memory used to cache data by the kernel
                     in kilobytes.

              kbcommit
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes needed for current
                     workload.  This is an estimate of how much RAM/swap
                     is needed to guarantee that there never is out of
                     memory.

              %commit
                     Percentage of memory needed for current workload in
                     relation to the total amount of memory (RAM+swap).
                     This number may be greater than 100% because the
                     kernel usually overcommits memory.

              kbactive
                     Amount of active memory in kilobytes (memory that
                     has been used more recently and usually not
                     reclaimed unless absolutely necessary).

              kbinact
                     Amount of inactive memory in kilobytes (memory
                     which has been less recently used. It is more
                     eligible to be reclaimed for other purposes).

              kbdirty
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes waiting to get
                     written back to the disk.

              kbanonpg
                     Amount of non-file backed pages in kilobytes mapped
                     into userspace page tables.

              kbslab Amount of memory in kilobytes used by the kernel to
                     cache data structures for its own use.

              kbkstack
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes used for kernel stack
                     space.

              kbpgtbl
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes dedicated to the
                     lowest level of page tables.

              kbvmused
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes of used virtual
                     address space.

       -S     Report swap space utilization statistics.  The following
              values are displayed:

              kbswpfree
                     Amount of free swap space in kilobytes.

              kbswpused
                     Amount of used swap space in kilobytes.

              %swpused
                     Percentage of used swap space.

              kbswpcad
                     Amount of cached swap memory in kilobytes.  This is
                     memory that once was swapped out, is swapped back
                     in but still also is in the swap area (if memory is
                     needed it doesn't need to be swapped out again
                     because it is already in the swap area. This saves
                     I/O).

              %swpcad
                     Percentage of cached swap memory in relation to the
                     amount of used swap space.

       -s [ hh:mm[:ss] ]
              Set the starting time of the data, causing the sar command
              to extract records time-tagged at, or following, the time
              specified. The default starting time is 08:00:00.  Hours
              must be given in 24-hour format. This option can be used
              only when data are read from a file (option -f).

       --sadc Indicate which data collector is called by sar.  If the
              data collector is sought in PATH then enter "which sadc"
              to know where it is located.

       -t     When reading data from a daily data file, indicate that
              sar should display the timestamps in the original local
              time of the data file creator. Without this option, the
              sar command displays the timestamps in the user's locale
              time.

       -u [ ALL ]
              Report CPU utilization. The ALL keyword indicates that all
              the CPU fields should be displayed.  The report may show
              the following fields:

              %user  Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while
                     executing at the user level (application). Note
                     that this field includes time spent running virtual
                     processors.

              %usr   Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while
                     executing at the user level (application). Note
                     that this field does NOT include time spent running
                     virtual processors.

              %nice  Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while
                     executing at the user level with nice priority.

              %system
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while
                     executing at the system level (kernel). Note that
                     this field includes time spent servicing hardware
                     and software interrupts.

              %sys   Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while
                     executing at the system level (kernel). Note that
                     this field does NOT include time spent servicing
                     hardware or software interrupts.

              %iowait
                     Percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle
                     during which the system had an outstanding disk I/O
                     request.

              %steal Percentage of time spent in involuntary wait by the
                     virtual CPU or CPUs while the hypervisor was
                     servicing another virtual processor.

              %irq   Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to
                     service hardware interrupts.

              %soft  Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to
                     service software interrupts.

              %guest Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to run
                     a virtual processor.

              %gnice Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to run
                     a niced guest.

              %idle  Percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle
                     and the system did not have an outstanding disk I/O
                     request.

       -V     Print version number then exit.

       -v     Report status of inode, file and other kernel tables.  The
              following values are displayed:

              dentunusd
                     Number of unused cache entries in the directory
                     cache.

              file-nr
                     Number of file handles used by the system.

              inode-nr
                     Number of inode handlers used by the system.

              pty-nr Number of pseudo-terminals used by the system.

       -W     Report swapping statistics. The following values are
              displayed:

              pswpin/s
                     Total number of swap pages the system brought in
                     per second.

              pswpout/s
                     Total number of swap pages the system brought out
                     per second.

       -w     Report task creation and system switching activity.  The
              following values are displayed:

              proc/s Total number of tasks created per second.

              cswch/s
                     Total number of context switches per second.

       -y     Report TTY devices activity. The following values are
              displayed:

              rcvin/s
                     Number of receive interrupts per second for current
                     serial line.  Serial line number is given in the
                     TTY column.

              xmtin/s
                     Number of transmit interrupts per second for
                     current serial line.

              framerr/s
                     Number of frame errors per second for current
                     serial line.

              prtyerr/s
                     Number of parity errors per second for current
                     serial line.

              brk/s  Number of breaks per second for current serial
                     line.

              ovrun/s
                     Number of overrun errors per second for current
                     serial line.

       -z     Tell sar to omit output for any devices for which there
              was no activity during the sample period.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       The sar command takes into account the following environment
       variables:

       S_COLORS
              By default statistics are displayed in color when the
              output is connected to a terminal.  Use this variable to
              change the settings. Possible values for this variable are
              never, always or auto (the latter is equivalent to the
              default settings).
              Please note that the color (being red, yellow, or some
              other color) used to display a value is not indicative of
              any kind of issue simply because of the color. It only
              indicates different ranges of values.

       S_COLORS_SGR
              Specify the colors and other attributes used to display
              statistics on the terminal.  Its value is a colon-
              separated list of capabilities that defaults to
              C=33;22:H=31;1:I=32;22:M=35;1:N=34;1:R=31;22:Z=34;22.
              Supported capabilities are:

              C=     SGR (Select Graphic Rendition) substring for
                     comments inserted in the binary daily data files.

              H=     SGR substring for percentage values greater than or
                     equal to 75%.

              I=     SGR substring for item names or values (eg. network
                     interfaces, CPU number...)

              M=     SGR substring for percentage values in the range
                     from 50% to 75%.

              N=     SGR substring for non-zero statistics values.

              R=     SGR substring for restart messages.

              Z=     SGR substring for zero values.

       S_TIME_DEF_TIME
              If this variable exists and its value is UTC then sar will
              save its data in UTC time (data will still be displayed in
              local time).  sar will also use UTC time instead of local
              time to determine the current daily data file located in
              the /var/log/sa directory. This variable may be useful for
              servers with users located across several timezones.

       S_TIME_FORMAT
              If this variable exists and its value is ISO then the
              current locale will be ignored when printing the date in
              the report header.  The sar command will use the ISO 8601
              format (YYYY-MM-DD) instead.  The timestamp will also be
              compliant with ISO 8601 format.

EXAMPLES         top

       sar -u 2 5
              Report CPU utilization for each 2 seconds. 5 lines are
              displayed.

       sar -I 14 -o int14.file 2 10
              Report statistics on IRQ 14 for each 2 seconds. 10 lines
              are displayed.  Data are stored in a file called
              int14.file.

       sar -r -n DEV -f /var/log/sa/sa16
              Display memory and network statistics saved in daily data
              file sa16.

       sar -A Display all the statistics saved in current daily data
              file.

BUGS         top

       /proc filesystem must be mounted for the sar command to work.

       All the statistics are not necessarily available, depending on
       the kernel version used.  sar assumes that you are using at least
       a 2.6 kernel.

       Although sar speaks of kilobytes (kB), megabytes (MB)..., it
       actually uses kibibytes (kiB), mebibytes (MiB)...  A kibibyte is
       equal to 1024 bytes, and a mebibyte is equal to 1024 kibibytes.

FILES         top

       /var/log/sa/saDD
       /var/log/sa/saYYYYMMDD
              The standard system activity daily data files and their
              default location.  YYYY stands for the current year, MM
              for the current month and DD for the current day.

       /proc and /sys contain various files with system statistics.

AUTHOR         top

       Sebastien Godard (sysstat <at> orange.fr)

SEE ALSO         top

       sadc(8), sa1(8), sa2(8), sadf(1), sysstat(5), pidstat(1),
       mpstat(1), iostat(1), vmstat(8)

       https://github.com/sysstat/sysstat 
       http://pagesperso-orange.fr/sebastien.godard/ 

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the sysstat (sysstat performance monitoring
       tools) project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://sebastien.godard.pagesperso-orange.fr/⟩.  If you have a
       bug report for this manual page, send it to sysstat-AT-orange.fr.
       This page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/sysstat/sysstat.git⟩ on 2020-12-18.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2020-12-13.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
       man-pages@man7.org

Linux                          AUGUST 2020                        SAR(1)

Pages that refer to this page: cifsiostat(1)iostat(1)mpstat(1)nfsiostat-sysstat(1)pidstat(1)pmrep(1)sadf(1)sar2pcp(1)sa1(8)sa2(8)sadc(8)vmstat(8)