git-rev-list(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-REV-LIST(1)                Git Manual                GIT-REV-LIST(1)

NAME         top

       git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological

SYNOPSIS         top

       git rev-list [<options>] <commit>... [--] [<path>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       List commits that are reachable by following the parent links
       from the given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable
       from the one(s) given with a ^ in front of them. The output is
       given in reverse chronological order by default.

       You can think of this as a set operation. Commits reachable from
       any of the commits given on the command line form a set, and then
       commits reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are
       subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what comes
       out in the command’s output. Various other options and paths
       parameters can be used to further limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

           $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar,
       but not from baz".

       A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a
       short-hand for "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either of the
       following may be used interchangeably:

           $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
           $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is
       useful for merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric
       difference between the two operands. The following two commands
       are equivalent:

           $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
           $ git rev-list A...B

       rev-list is an essential Git command, since it provides the
       ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this
       reason, it has a lot of different options that enable it to be
       used by commands as different as git bisect and git repack.

OPTIONS         top

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using
       the special notations explained in the description, additional
       commit limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using
       it with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log
       message has a line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

           Show all commits more recent than a specific date. This
           visits all commits in the range, rather than stopping at the
           first commit which is older than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
           Limit the commits output to specified time range.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header
           lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
           With more than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author
           matches any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for
           multiple --committer=<pattern>).

           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
           match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
           than one --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches
           any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use
           this option unless --walk-reflogs is in use.

           Limit the commits output to ones with a log message that
           matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
           than one --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any
           of the given patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
           instead of ones that match at least one.

           Limit the commits output to ones with a log message that do
           not match the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard
           to letter case.

           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular
           expressions; this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular
           expressions instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t
           interpret pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
           compile-time dependency. If Git wasn’t compiled with support
           for them providing this option will cause it to die.

           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
           exactly the same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many
           parent commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as
           --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
           --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3
           all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to
           no limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any
           commit has 0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative
           numbers denote no upper limit).

           When finding commits to include, follow only the first parent
           commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a
           better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular
           topic branch, because merges into a topic branch tend to be
           only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time,
           and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
           brought in to your history by such a merge.

           When finding commits to exclude (with a ^), follow only the
           first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This can be
           used to find the set of changes in a topic branch from the
           point where it diverged from the remote branch, given that
           arbitrary merges can be valid topic branch changes.

           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for
           all following revision specifiers, up to the next --not. When
           used on the command line before --stdin, the revisions passed
           through stdin will not be affected by it. Conversely, when
           passed via standard input, the revisions passed on the
           command line will not be affected by it.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are
           listed on the command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks
           ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags
           to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or
           [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
           If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern>
           are listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or
           [, /* at the end is implied.

           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next
           --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would
           otherwise consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate
           exclusion patterns up to the next --all, --branches, --tags,
           --remotes, or --glob option (other options or arguments do
           not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads,
           refs/tags, or refs/remotes when applied to --branches,
           --tags, or --remotes, respectively, and they must begin with
           refs/ when applied to --glob or --all. If a trailing /* is
           intended, it must be given explicitly.

           Do not include refs that would be hidden by git-fetch,
           git-receive-pack or git-upload-pack by consulting the
           appropriate fetch.hideRefs, receive.hideRefs or
           uploadpack.hideRefs configuration along with
           transfer.hideRefs (see git-config(1)). This option affects
           the next pseudo-ref option --all or --glob and is cleared
           after processing them.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on
           the command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
           repositories were listed on the command line. An alternate
           repository is any repository whose object directory is
           specified in objects/info/alternates. The set of included
           objects may be modified by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc.
           See git-config(1).

           By default, all working trees will be examined by the
           following options when there are more than one (see
           git-worktree(1)): --all, --reflog and --indexed-objects. This
           option forces them to examine the current working tree only.

           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as
           if the bad input was not given.

           In addition to getting arguments from the command line, read
           them from standard input as well. This accepts commits and
           pseudo-options like --all and --glob=. When a -- separator is
           seen, the following input is treated as paths and used to
           limit the result. Flags like --not which are read via
           standard input are only respected for arguments passed in the
           same way and will not influence any subsequent command line

           Don’t print anything to standard output. This form is
           primarily meant to allow the caller to test the exit status
           to see if a range of objects is fully connected (or not). It
           is faster than redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output
           does not have to be formatted.

       --disk-usage, --disk-usage=human
           Suppress normal output; instead, print the sum of the bytes
           used for on-disk storage by the selected commits or objects.
           This is equivalent to piping the output into git cat-file
           --batch-check='%(objectsize:disk)', except that it runs much
           faster (especially with --use-bitmap-index). See the CAVEATS
           section in git-cat-file(1) for the limitations of what
           "on-disk storage" means. With the optional value human,
           on-disk storage size is shown in human-readable string(e.g.
           12.24 Kib, 3.50 Mib).

           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits
           with = rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with

           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another
           commit on the “other side” when the set of commits are
           limited with symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way
           to list all commits on only one side of them is with
           --left-right (see the example below in the description of the
           --left-right option). However, it shows the commits that were
           cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, “3rd on b”
           may be cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such
           pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric
           difference, i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  >
           by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those
           commits from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a
           commit in A. In other words, this lists the + commits from
           git cherry A B. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only
           --no-merges gives the exact list.

           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful
           to limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those
           that have been applied to the other side of a forked history
           with git log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git
           cherry upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog
           entries from the most recent one to older ones. When this
           option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude (that
           is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2
           notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for
           obvious reasons), this causes the output to have two extra
           lines of information taken from the reflog. The reflog
           designator in the output may be shown as ref@{<Nth>} (where
           <Nth> is the reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as
           ref@{<timestamp>} (with the <timestamp> for that entry),
           depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{<Nth>}, show
               the index format.

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show
               the timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command
               line, show the timestamp in the format requested by

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with
           this information on the same line. This option cannot be
           combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown
           at all.

           Show commits touching conflicted paths in the range
           HEAD...<other>, where <other> is the first existing pseudoref
           Only works when the index has unmerged entries. This option
           can be used to show relevant commits when resolving conflicts
           from a 3-way merge.

           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
           prefixed with -.

           Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if
           one is available). Note that when traversing with --objects,
           trees and blobs will not have their associated path printed.

           Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered.
           The <header> text will be printed with each progress update.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for
       example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are
       two parts of History Simplification, one part is selecting the
       commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various
       strategies to simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful

       The following options affect the way the simplification is

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
           final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
           branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
           with the same content)

           Include all commits from the default mode, but also any merge
           commits that are not TREESAME to the first parent but are
           TREESAME to a later parent. This mode is helpful for showing
           the merge commits that "first introduced" a change to a

           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
           meaningful history.

           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless
           merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
           commits contributing to this merge.

           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.
           commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1), only display commits
           in that range that are ancestors of <commit>, descendants of
           <commit>, or <commit> itself. If no commit is specified, use
           commit1 (the excluded part of the range) as <commit>. Can be
           passed multiple times; if so, a commit is included if it is
           any of the commits given or if it is an ancestor or
           descendant of one of them.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits
       that modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
       filtered for foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example
       history to illustrate the differences between simplification
       settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file foo in this
       commit graph:

                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first
       parent of each merge. The commits are:

       •   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents
           “asdf”, and a file quux exists with contents “quux”. Initial
           commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       •   In A, foo contains just “foo”.

       •   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and
           hence TREESAME to all parents.

       •   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to
           “foobar”, so it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N
           and D to “foobarbaz”; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the
           strings to “quux xyzzy”.  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       •   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side,
           and Y modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added
           side to P, and Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
       commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting
       (via --parents or --children) are used. The following settings
       are available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
           (though this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the
           commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
           only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
           parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all

           This results in:

                        /     /   /

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one
           is available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was
           considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared
           to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but
           that does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so
           we have shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always
           follow all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one
           of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has commits
           that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself
           is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C
           and B were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the
           others do not appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible
           to talk about the parent/child relationships between the
           commits, so we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
           (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
           rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
           included themselves. This results in

                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that
           E was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list
           of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened
           for C and N, and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether
       TREESAME affects inclusion:

           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
           to any parent.

           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies
           merges: if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only
           that one, so the other sides of the merge are never walked.

           First, build a history graph in the same way that
           --full-history with parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the
           final history according to the following rules:

           •   Set C' to C.

           •   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'.
               In the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other
               parents or that are root commits TREESAME to an empty
               tree, and remove duplicates, but take care to never drop
               all parents that we are TREESAME to.

           •   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge
               commit (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or
               !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its
               only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over

           •   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor
               of the other parent M. Still, N remained because it is

           •   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then
               removed completely, because it had one parent and is

           •   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then
               removed, because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then
               removed completely, because it had one parent and is

       There is another simplification mode available:

           Limit the displayed commits to those which are an ancestor of
           <commit>, or which are a descendant of <commit>, or are
           <commit> itself.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit

                          /     \       \
                        /                     \

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors
           of M, but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is
           useful to see what happened to the history leading to M since
           D, in the sense that “what does M have that did not exist in
           D”. The result in this example would be all the commits,
           except A and B (and D itself, of course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated
           with the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we
           might want to view only the subset of D..M that are actually
           descendants of D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly
           what the --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M
           range, it results in:

                                \       \

           We can also use --ancestry-path=D instead of --ancestry-path
           which means the same thing when applied to the D..M range but
           is just more explicit.

           If we instead are interested in a given topic within this
           range, and all commits affected by that topic, we may only
           want to view the subset of D..M which contain that topic in
           their ancestry path. So, using --ancestry-path=H D..M for
           example would result in:


           Whereas --ancestry-path=K D..M would result in


       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create
       a new example history.

       A common problem users face when looking at simplified history is
       that a commit they know changed a file somehow does not appear in
       the file’s simplified history. Let’s demonstrate a new example
       and show how options such as --full-history and --simplify-merges
       works in that case:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`-Z'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `---Y--'

       For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified
       by A, B, and X in different ways. The single-parent commits C, Z,
       and Y do not change file.txt. The merge commit M was created by
       resolving the merge conflict to include both changes from A and B
       and hence is not TREESAME to either. The merge commit R, however,
       was created by ignoring the contents of file.txt at M and taking
       only the contents of file.txt at X. Hence, R is TREESAME to X but
       not M. Finally, the natural merge resolution to create N is to
       take the contents of file.txt at R, so N is TREESAME to R but not
       C. The merge commits O and P are TREESAME to their first parents,
       but not to their second parents, Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME parent,
       so those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The
       resulting history graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will
       discover the commits A and B and the merge M, but also will
       reveal the merge commits O and P. With parent rewriting, the
       resulting graph is:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`--'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as they
       did not actually contribute a change to file.txt. They only
       merged a topic that was based on an older version of file.txt.
       This is a common issue in repositories using a workflow where
       many contributors work in parallel and merge their topic branches
       along a single trunk: many unrelated merges appear in the
       --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P
       disappear from the results. This is because the rewritten second
       parents of O and P are reachable from their first parents. Those
       edges are removed and then the commits look like single-parent
       commits that are TREESAME to their parent. This also happens to
       the commit N, resulting in a history view as follows:

                    /     /    \
                   I     B      R
                    \   /      /
                     \ /      /

       In this view, we see all of the important single-parent changes
       from A, B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and
       the not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough
       information to determine why the commits A and B "disappeared"
       from history in the default view. However, there are a few issues
       with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option requires walking the entire commit
       history before returning a single result. This can make the
       option difficult to use for very large repositories.

       The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors are
       working on the same repository, it is important which merge
       commits introduced a change into an important branch. The
       problematic merge R above is not likely to be the merge commit
       that was used to merge into an important branch. Instead, the
       merge N was used to merge R and X into the important branch. This
       commit may have information about why the change X came to
       override the changes from A and B in its commit message.

           In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show
           each merge commit that is not TREESAME to its first parent
           but is TREESAME to a later parent.

           When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the merge is
           treated as if it "pulled" the change from another branch.
           When using --show-pulls on this example (and no other
           options) the resulting graph is:


           Here, the merge commits R and N are included because they
           pulled the commits X and R into the base branch,
           respectively. These merges are the reason the commits A and B
           do not appear in the default history.

           When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
           includes all of the necessary information:

                         .-A---M--.   N
                        /     /    \ /
                       I     B      R
                        \   /      /
                         \ /      /

           Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N to M
           was simplified away. However, N still appears in the history
           as an important commit because it "pulled" the change R into
           the main branch.

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the
       big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
       that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
       (in other words, kept after history simplification rules
       described above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they
       change the contents of the paths given on the command line. All
       other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified

   Bisection Helpers
           Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly
           halfway between included and excluded commits. Note that the
           bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the included
           commits (if it exists) and the good bisection refs
           refs/bisect/good-* are added to the excluded commits (if they
           exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs in refs/bisect/, if

                       $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

           outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

                       $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
                       $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

           would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
           introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search:
           repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint’s until the commit
           chain is of length one.

           This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in
           refs/bisect/ are not used, and except that this outputs text
           ready to be eval’ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
           name of the midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and
           the expected number of commits to be tested after bisect_rev
           is tested to bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to be
           tested if bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the
           expected number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns
           out to be bad to bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are
           bisecting right now to bisect_all.

           This outputs all the commit objects between the included and
           excluded commits, ordered by their distance to the included
           and excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not used. The
           farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only one
           displayed by --bisect.)

           This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good
           commit to test when you want to avoid to test some of them
           for some reason (they may not compile for example).

           This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this
           case, after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the
           same text as if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
           otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
           otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
           avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history

           For example, in a commit history like this:

                       \              \

           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git
           rev-list and friends with --date-order show the commits in
           the timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4
           2 6 5 3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in
           order to avoid showing the commits from two parallel
           development track mixed together.

           Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting
           section above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git

           Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
           commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus means “send me all object
           IDs which I need to download if I have the commit object bar
           but not foo”. See also --object-names below.

           Print tree and blob ids in order of the commits. The tree and
           blob ids are printed after they are first referenced by a

           Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded
           commits prefixed with a “-” character. This is used by
           git-pack-objects(1) to build a “thin” pack, which records
           objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
           excluded commits to reduce network traffic.

           Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find
           excluded commits at the cost of increased time. This is used
           instead of --objects-edge to build “thin” packs for shallow

           Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are
           listed on the command line. Note that you probably want to
           use --objects, too.

           Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not
           in packs.

           Only useful with --objects; print the names of the object IDs
           that are found. This is the default behavior. Note that the
           "name" of each object is ambiguous, and mostly intended as a
           hint for packing objects. In particular: no distinction is
           made between the names of tags, trees, and blobs; path names
           may be modified to remove newlines; and if an object would
           appear multiple times with different names, only one name is

           Only useful with --objects; does not print the names of the
           object IDs that are found. This inverts --object-names. This
           flag allows the output to be more easily parsed by commands
           such as git-cat-file(1).

           Only useful with one of the --objects*; omits objects
           (usually blobs) from the list of printed objects. The
           <filter-spec> may be one of the following:

           The form --filter=blob:none omits all blobs.

           The form --filter=blob:limit=<n>[kmg] omits blobs of size at
           least n bytes or units. n may be zero. The suffixes k, m, and
           g can be used to name units in KiB, MiB, or GiB. For example,
           blob:limit=1k is the same as blob:limit=1024.

           The form --filter=object:type=(tag|commit|tree|blob) omits
           all objects which are not of the requested type.

           The form --filter=sparse:oid=<blob-ish> uses a
           sparse-checkout specification contained in the blob (or
           blob-expression) <blob-ish> to omit blobs that would not be
           required for a sparse checkout on the requested refs.

           The form --filter=tree:<depth> omits all blobs and trees
           whose depth from the root tree is >= <depth> (minimum depth
           if an object is located at multiple depths in the commits
           traversed). <depth>=0 will not include any trees or blobs
           unless included explicitly in the command-line (or standard
           input when --stdin is used). <depth>=1 will include only the
           tree and blobs which are referenced directly by a commit
           reachable from <commit> or an explicitly-given object.
           <depth>=2 is like <depth>=1 while also including trees and
           blobs one more level removed from an explicitly-given commit
           or tree.

           Note that the form --filter=sparse:path=<path> that wants to
           read from an arbitrary path on the filesystem has been
           dropped for security reasons.

           Multiple --filter= flags can be specified to combine filters.
           Only objects which are accepted by every filter are included.

           The form --filter=combine:<filter1>+<filter2>+...<filterN>
           can also be used to combined several filters, but this is
           harder than just repeating the --filter flag and is usually
           not necessary. Filters are joined by + and individual filters
           are %-encoded (i.e. URL-encoded). Besides the + and %
           characters, the following characters are reserved and also
           must be encoded: ~!@#$^&*()[]{}\;",<>?'` as well as all
           characters with ASCII code <= 0x20, which includes space and

           Other arbitrary characters can also be encoded. For instance,
           combine:tree:3+blob:none and combine:tree%3A3+blob%3Anone are

           Turn off any previous --filter= argument.

           Filter the list of explicitly provided objects, which would
           otherwise always be printed even if they did not match any of
           the filters. Only useful with --filter=.

           Only useful with --filter=; prints a list of the objects
           omitted by the filter. Object IDs are prefixed with a “~”

           A debug option to help with future "partial clone"
           development. This option specifies how missing objects are

           The form --missing=error requests that rev-list stop with an
           error if a missing object is encountered. This is the default

           The form --missing=allow-any will allow object traversal to
           continue if a missing object is encountered. Missing objects
           will silently be omitted from the results.

           The form --missing=allow-promisor is like allow-any, but will
           only allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor
           missing objects. Unexpected missing objects will raise an

           The form --missing=print is like allow-any, but will also
           print a list of the missing objects. Object IDs are prefixed
           with a “?” character.

           If some tips passed to the traversal are missing, they will
           be considered as missing too, and the traversal will ignore
           them. In case we cannot get their Object ID though, an error
           will be raised.

           (For internal use only.) Prefilter object traversal at
           promisor boundary. This is used with partial clone. This is
           stronger than --missing=allow-promisor because it limits the
           traversal, rather than just silencing errors about missing

           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their
           ancestors. This has no effect if a range is specified. If the
           argument unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the
           order they were given on the command line. Otherwise (if
           sorted or no argument was given), the commits are shown in
           reverse chronological order by commit time. Cannot be
           combined with --graph.

           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more
       specialized family of commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1),
       and git-whatchanged(1)

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given
           format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium,
           full, fuller, reference, email, raw, format:<string> and
           tformat:<string>. When <format> is none of the above, and has
           %placeholder in it, it acts as if --pretty=tformat:<format>
           were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details
           for each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults
           to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the
           repository configuration (see git-config(1)).

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
           name, show a prefix that names the object uniquely.
           "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if it is
           displayed) option can be used to specify the minimum length
           of the prefix.

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable
           for people using 80-column terminals.

           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This
           negates --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied by other
           options such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
           log.abbrevCommit variable.

           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
           used together.

           Commit objects record the character encoding used for the log
           message in their encoding header; this option can be used to
           tell the command to re-code the commit log message in the
           encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands
           this defaults to UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be
           encoded in X and we are outputting in X, we will output the
           object verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the
           original commit may be copied to the output. Likewise, if
           iconv(3) fails to convert the commit, we will quietly output
           the original object verbatim.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces
           to fill to the next display column that is a multiple of <n>)
           in the log message before showing it in the output.
           --expand-tabs is a short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and
           --no-expand-tabs is a short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which
           disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent
           the log message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the
           default, full, and fuller).

           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
           signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

           Synonym for --date=relative.

           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format,
           such as when using --pretty. config variable sets a
           default value for the log command’s --date option. By
           default, dates are shown in the original time zone (either
           committer’s or author’s). If -local is appended to the format
           (e.g., iso-local), the user’s local time zone is used

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time,
           e.g. “2 hours ago”. The -local option has no effect for

           --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO
           8601-like format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601
           format are:

           •   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

           •   a space between time and time zone

           •   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

           --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps
           in strict ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
           format, often found in email messages.

           --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in
           YYYY-MM-DD format.

           --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch
           (1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the
           timezone as an offset from UTC (a + or - with four digits;
           the first two are hours, and the second two are minutes).
           I.e., as if the timestamp were formatted with strftime("%s
           %z")). Note that the -local option does not affect the
           seconds-since-epoch value (which is always measured in UTC),
           but does switch the accompanying timezone value.

           --date=human shows the timezone if the timezone does not
           match the current time-zone, and doesn’t print the whole date
           if that matches (ie skip printing year for dates that are
           "this year", but also skip the whole date itself if it’s in
           the last few days and we can just say what weekday it was).
           For older dates the hour and minute is also omitted.

           --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds
           since 1970). As with --raw, this is always in UTC and
           therefore -local has no effect.

           --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system
           strftime, except for %s, %z, and %Z, which are handled
           internally. Use --date=format:%c to show the date in your
           system locale’s preferred format. See the strftime manual for
           a complete list of format placeholders. When using -local,
           the correct syntax is --date=format-local:....

           --date=default is the default format, and is based on
           ctime(3) output. It shows a single line with three-letter day
           of the week, three-letter month, day-of-month,
           hour-minute-seconds in "HH:MM:SS" format, followed by 4-digit
           year, plus timezone information, unless the local time zone
           is used, e.g.  Thu Jan 1 00:00:00 1970 +0000.

           Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record
           is separated with a NUL character.

           Suppress the header line containing "commit" and the object
           ID printed before the specified format. This has no effect on
           the built-in formats; only custom formats are affected.

           Overrides a previous --no-commit-header.

           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
           parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification above.

           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
           child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification above.

           Print the raw commit timestamp.

           Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is
           reachable from. Commits from the left side are prefixed with
           < and those from the right with >. If combined with
           --boundary, those commits are prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit
           history on the left hand side of the output. This may cause
           extra lines to be printed in between commits, in order for
           the graph history to be drawn properly. Cannot be combined
           with --no-walk.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
           --date-order option may also be specified.

           When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
           which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive
           commits do not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a
           barrier in between them in that case. If <barrier> is
           specified, it is the string that will be shown instead of the
           default one.

           Print a number stating how many commits would have been
           listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
           with --left-right, instead print the counts for left and
           right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
           --cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent commits from these
           counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
           by a tab.

PRETTY FORMATS         top

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not
       oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the
       Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the hashes of
       ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the
       listed commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct
       parent commits if you have limited your view of history: for
       example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
       certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either
       another format name, or a format: string, as described below (see
       git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       •   oneline

               <hash> <title-line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       •   short

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>


       •   medium

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author-date>



       •   full

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>



       •   fuller

               commit <hash>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author-date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer-date>



       •   reference

               <abbrev-hash> (<title-line>, <short-author-date>)

           This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit
           message and is the same as --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s,
           %ad)'. By default, the date is formatted with --date=short
           unless another --date option is explicitly specified. As with
           any format: with format placeholders, its output is not
           affected by other options like --decorate and --walk-reflogs.

       •   email

               From <hash> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author-date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title-line>


       •   mboxrd

           Like email, but lines in the commit message starting with
           "From " (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted with ">" so
           they aren’t confused as starting a new commit.

       •   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in
           the commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed in full,
           regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and
           parents information show the true parent commits, without
           taking grafts or history simplification into account. Note
           that this format affects the way commits are displayed, but
           not the way the diff is shown e.g. with git log --raw. To get
           full object names in a raw diff format, use --no-abbrev.

       •   format:<format-string>

           The format:<format-string> format allows you to specify which
           information you want to show. It works a little bit like
           printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
           newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was
           >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           •   Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:


                   a raw %

                   %x followed by two hexadecimal digits is replaced
                   with a byte with the hexadecimal digits' value (we
                   will call this "literal formatting code" in the rest
                   of this document).

           •   Placeholders that affect formatting of later

                   switch color to red

                   switch color to green

                   switch color to blue

                   reset color

                   color specification, as described under Values in the
                   "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By
                   default, colors are shown only when enabled for log
                   output (by color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and
                   respecting the auto settings of the former if we are
                   going to a terminal).  %C(auto,...)  is accepted as a
                   historical synonym for the default (e.g.,
                   %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...)  will show
                   the colors even when color is not otherwise enabled
                   (though consider just using --color=always to enable
                   color for the whole output, including this format and
                   anything else git might color).  auto alone (i.e.
                   %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the next
                   placeholders until the color is switched again.

                   left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

                   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of

               %<( <N> [,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])
                   make the next placeholder take at least N column
                   widths, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
                   Optionally truncate (with ellipsis ..) at the left
                   (ltrunc) ..ft, the middle (mtrunc) mi..le, or the end
                   (trunc) rig.., if the output is longer than N
                   columns. Note 1: that truncating only works correctly
                   with N >= 2. Note 2: spaces around the N and M (see
                   below) values are optional. Note 3: Emojis and other
                   wide characters will take two display columns, which
                   may over-run column boundaries. Note 4: decomposed
                   character combining marks may be misplaced at padding

               %<|( <M> )
                   make the next placeholder take at least until Mth
                   display column, padding spaces on the right if
                   necessary. Use negative M values for column positions
                   measured from the right hand edge of the terminal

               %>( <N> ), %>|( <M> )
                   similar to %<( <N> ), %<|( <M> ) respectively, but
                   padding spaces on the left

               %>>( <N> ), %>>|( <M> )
                   similar to %>( <N> ), %>|( <M> ) respectively, except
                   that if the next placeholder takes more spaces than
                   given and there are spaces on its left, use those

               %><( <N> ), %><|( <M> )
                   similar to %<( <N> ), %<|( <M> ) respectively, but
                   padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)

           •   Placeholders that expand to information extracted from
               the commit:

                   commit hash

                   abbreviated commit hash

                   tree hash

                   abbreviated tree hash

                   parent hashes

                   abbreviated parent hashes

                   author name

                   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
                   or git-blame(1))

                   author email

                   author email (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   author email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

                   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   author date (format respects --date= option)

                   author date, RFC2822 style

                   author date, relative

                   author date, UNIX timestamp

                   author date, ISO 8601-like format

                   author date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   author date, human style (like the --date=human
                   option of git-rev-list(1))

                   committer name

                   committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer email

                   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer email local-part (the part before the @

                   committer local-part (see %cl) respecting .mailmap,
                   see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer date (format respects --date= option)

                   committer date, RFC2822 style

                   committer date, relative

                   committer date, UNIX timestamp

                   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

                   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   committer date, human style (like the --date=human
                   option of git-rev-list(1))

                   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

                   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

                   ref names with custom decorations. The decorate
                   string may be followed by a colon and zero or more
                   comma-separated options. Option values may contain
                   literal formatting codes. These must be used for
                   commas (%x2C) and closing parentheses (%x29), due to
                   their role in the option syntax.

                   •   prefix=<value>: Shown before the list of ref
                       names. Defaults to " (".

                   •   suffix=<value>: Shown after the list of ref
                       names. Defaults to ")".

                   •   separator=<value>: Shown between ref names.
                       Defaults to ", ".

                   •   pointer=<value>: Shown between HEAD and the
                       branch it points to, if any. Defaults to " -> ".

                   •   tag=<value>: Shown before tag names. Defaults to
                       "tag: ".

                   For example, to produce decorations with no wrapping
                   or tag annotations, and spaces as separators:

                   %(decorate:prefix=,suffix=,tag=,separator= )

                   human-readable name, like git-describe(1); empty
                   string for undescribable commits. The describe string
                   may be followed by a colon and zero or more
                   comma-separated options. Descriptions can be
                   inconsistent when tags are added or removed at the
                   same time.

                   •   tags[=<bool-value>]: Instead of only considering
                       annotated tags, consider lightweight tags as

                   •   abbrev=<number>: Instead of using the default
                       number of hexadecimal digits (which will vary
                       according to the number of objects in the
                       repository with a default of 7) of the
                       abbreviated object name, use <number> digits, or
                       as many digits as needed to form a unique object

                   •   match=<pattern>: Only consider tags matching the
                       given glob(7) pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/"

                   •   exclude=<pattern>: Do not consider tags matching
                       the given glob(7) pattern, excluding the
                       "refs/tags/" prefix.

                   ref name given on the command line by which the
                   commit was reached (like git log --source), only
                   works with git log



                   sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename


                   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

                   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

                   show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
                   signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown
                   validity, "X" for a good signature that has expired,
                   "Y" for a good signature made by an expired key, "R"
                   for a good signature made by a revoked key, "E" if
                   the signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing key)
                   and "N" for no signature

                   show the name of the signer for a signed commit

                   show the key used to sign a signed commit

                   show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed

                   show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey
                   was used to sign a signed commit

                   show the trust level for the key used to sign a
                   signed commit

                   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or
                   refs/stash@{2 minutes ago}; the format follows the
                   rules described for the -g option. The portion before
                   the @ is the refname as given on the command line (so
                   git log -g refs/heads/master would yield

                   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the
                   refname portion is shortened for human readability
                   (so refs/heads/master becomes just master).

                   reflog identity name

                   reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   reflog identity email

                   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   reflog subject

                   display the trailers of the body as interpreted by
                   git-interpret-trailers(1). The trailers string may be
                   followed by a colon and zero or more comma-separated
                   options. If any option is provided multiple times,
                   the last occurrence wins.

                   •   key=<key>: only show trailers with specified
                       <key>. Matching is done case-insensitively and
                       trailing colon is optional. If option is given
                       multiple times trailer lines matching any of the
                       keys are shown. This option automatically enables
                       the only option so that non-trailer lines in the
                       trailer block are hidden. If that is not desired
                       it can be disabled with only=false. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer lines
                       with key Reviewed-by.

                   •   only[=<bool>]: select whether non-trailer lines
                       from the trailer block should be included.

                   •   separator=<sep>: specify the separator inserted
                       between trailer lines. Defaults to a line feed
                       character. The string <sep> may contain the
                       literal formatting codes described above. To use
                       comma as separator one must use %x2C as it would
                       otherwise be parsed as next option. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C ) shows all
                       trailer lines whose key is "Ticket" separated by
                       a comma and a space.

                   •   unfold[=<bool>]: make it behave as if
                       interpret-trailer’s --unfold option was given.
                       E.g., %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and
                       shows all trailer lines.

                   •   keyonly[=<bool>]: only show the key part of the

                   •   valueonly[=<bool>]: only show the value part of
                       the trailer.

                   •   key_value_separator=<sep>: specify the separator
                       inserted between the key and value of each
                       trailer. Defaults to ": ". Otherwise it shares
                       the same semantics as separator=<sep> above.


           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
           revision traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog
           options will insert an empty string unless we are traversing
           reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d and %D
           placeholders will use the "short" decoration format if
           --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       The boolean options accept an optional value [=<bool-value>]. The
       values true, false, on, off etc. are all accepted. See the
       "boolean" sub-section in "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a
       boolean option is given with no value, it’s enabled.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed
       is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all
       consecutive line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are
       deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       •   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that
           it provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator"
           semantics. In other words, each commit has the message
           terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather
           than a separator placed between entries. This means that the
           final entry of a single-line format will be properly
           terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format
           does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For
           example, these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

EXAMPLES         top

       •   Print the list of commits reachable from the current branch.

               git rev-list HEAD

       •   Print the list of commits on this branch, but not present in
           the upstream branch.

               git rev-list @{upstream}..HEAD

       •   Format commits with their author and commit message (see also
           the porcelain git-log(1)).

               git rev-list --format=medium HEAD

       •   Format commits along with their diffs (see also the porcelain
           git-log(1), which can do this in a single process).

               git rev-list HEAD |
               git diff-tree --stdin --format=medium -p

       •   Print the list of commits on the current branch that touched
           any file in the Documentation directory.

               git rev-list HEAD -- Documentation/

       •   Print the list of commits authored by you in the past year,
           on any branch, tag, or other ref.

               git rev-list --since=1.year.ago --all

       •   Print the list of objects reachable from the current branch
           (i.e., all commits and the blobs and trees they contain).

               git rev-list --objects HEAD

       •   Compare the disk size of all reachable objects, versus those
           reachable from reflogs, versus the total packed size. This
           can tell you whether running git repack -ad might reduce the
           repository size (by dropping unreachable objects), and
           whether expiring reflogs might help.

               # reachable objects
               git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --all
               # plus reflogs
               git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --all --reflog
               # total disk size used
               du -c .git/objects/pack/*.pack .git/objects/??/*
               # alternative to du: add up "size" and "size-pack" fields
               git count-objects -v

       •   Report the disk size of each branch, not including objects
           used by the current branch. This can find outliers that are
           contributing to a bloated repository size (e.g., because
           somebody accidentally committed large build artifacts).

               git for-each-ref --format='%(refname)' |
               while read branch
                       size=$(git rev-list --disk-usage --objects HEAD..$branch)
                       echo "$size $branch"
               done |
               sort -n

       •   Compare the on-disk size of branches in one group of refs,
           excluding another. If you co-mingle objects from multiple
           remotes in a single repository, this can show which remotes
           are contributing to the repository size (taking the size of
           origin as a baseline).

               git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --remotes=$suspect --not --remotes=origin

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control
       system) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2024-06-14.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2024-06-12.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git         2024-06-12                GIT-REV-LIST(1)

Pages that refer to this page: dpkg-source(1)git(1)git-annotate(1)git-blame(1)git-cherry-pick(1)git-clone(1)git-config(1)git-diff-tree(1)git-fast-export(1)git-filter-branch(1)git-for-each-ref(1)gitk(1)git-log(1)git-merge-base(1)git-pack-objects(1)git-repack(1)git-revert(1)git-rev-list(1)git-show(1)git-submodule(1)gitformat-bundle(5)