git-rev-list(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-REV-LIST(1)                  Git Manual                  GIT-REV-LIST(1)

NAME         top

       git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order

SYNOPSIS         top

       git rev-list [<options>] <commit>... [[--] <path>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from
       the given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable from the
       one(s) given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in
       reverse chronological order by default.

       You can think of this as a set operation. Commits reachable from any
       of the commits given on the command line form a set, and then commits
       reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are subtracted
       from that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in the
       command’s output. Various other options and paths parameters can be
       used to further limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

           $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but
       not from baz".

       A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand
       for "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either of the following may
       be used interchangeably:

           $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
           $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful
       for merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
       between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:

           $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
           $ git rev-list A...B

       rev-list is a very essential Git command, since it provides the
       ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this
       reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be used
       by commands as different as git bisect and git repack.

OPTIONS         top

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it
       with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has
       a line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
           Limit the commits output to specified time range.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header
           lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
           more than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches
           any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple

           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match
           the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the
           given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option
           unless --walk-reflogs is in use.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches
           the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
           instead of ones that match at least one.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not
           match the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
           letter case.

           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
           this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t
           interpret pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
           compile-time dependency. If Git wasn’t compiled with support for
           them providing this option will cause it to die.

           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly
           the same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many
           parent commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as
           --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
           --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3 all
           octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
           limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit
           has 0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers
           denote no upper limit).

           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
           This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution
           of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch
           tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
           time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
           brought in to your history by such a merge.

           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed
           on the command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches
           to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [,
           /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
           pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
           listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [,
           /* at the end is implied.

           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise
           consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion
           patterns up to the next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or
           --glob option (other options or arguments do not clear
           accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags,
           or refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to
           --glob or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
           command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
           repositories were listed on the command line. An alternate
           repository is any repository whose object directory is specified
           in objects/info/alternates. The set of included objects may be
           modified by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

           By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
           options when there are more than one (see git-worktree(1)):
           --all, --reflog and --indexed-objects. This option forces them to
           examine the current working tree only.

           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
           the bad input was not given.

           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
           from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
           commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

           Don’t print anything to standard output. This form is primarily
           meant to allow the caller to test the exit status to see if a
           range of objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster than
           redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be

           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
           rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
           on the “other side” when the set of commits are limited with
           symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to
           list all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right
           (see the example below in the description of the --left-right
           option). However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked
           from the other branch (for example, “3rd on b” may be
           cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of
           commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric
           difference, i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
           from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A.
           In other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B.
           More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the
           exact list.

           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to
           limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
           have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git
           log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
           you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be

           With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for
           obvious reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines
           of information taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in
           the output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
           reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp}
           (with the timestamp for that entry), depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the
               index format.

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
               timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command
               line, show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
           --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown at

           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
           conflict and don’t exist on all heads to merge.

           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
           with -.

           Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if one
           is available). Note that when traversing with --objects, trees
           and blobs will not have their associated path printed.

           Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
           <header> text will be printed with each progress update.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for
       example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two
       parts of History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits
       and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to
       simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
           final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
           branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
           with the same content)

           Include all commits from the default mode, but also any merge
           commits that are not TREESAME to the first parent but are
           TREESAME to a later parent. This mode is helpful for showing the
           merge commits that "first introduced" a change to a branch.

           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
           meaningful history.

           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless
           merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
           commits contributing to this merge.

           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2
           or commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on
           the ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits
           that are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for
       foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent
       of each merge. The commits are:

       •   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents
           “asdf”, and a file quux exists with contents “quux”. Initial
           commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       •   In A, foo contains just “foo”.

       •   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
           TREESAME to all parents.

       •   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to “foobar”, so
           it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N and
           D to “foobarbaz”; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the strings
           to “quux xyzzy”.  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       •   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
           modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P,
           and Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
       commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children) are used. The following settings are

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
           (though this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit
           was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that
           parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only
           one of them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                        /     /   /

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
           available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was
           considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to
           an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that
           does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have
           shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
           all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
           Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
           included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the
           example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and
           B were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to
           talk about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
           we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
           rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
           included themselves. This results in

                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E
           was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P
           was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C
           and N, and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to
           any parent.

           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges:
           if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so
           the other sides of the merge are never walked.

           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history
           with parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
           history according to the following rules:

           •   Set C' to C.

           •   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In
               the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents
               or that are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and
               remove duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents
               that we are TREESAME to.

           •   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
               (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
               remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

           •   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of
               the other parent M. Still, N remained because it is

           •   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

           •   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
               because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       There is another simplification mode available:

           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
           chain between the “from” and “to” commits in the given commit
           range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the “to”
           commit and descendants of the “from” commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                          /     \       \
                        /                     \

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of
           M, but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful
           to see what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the
           sense that “what does M have that did not exist in D”. The result
           in this example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D
           itself, of course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with
           the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want
           to view only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of
           D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the
           --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range, it
           results in:

                                \       \

       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create a
       new example history.

       A common problem users face when looking at simplified history is
       that a commit they know changed a file somehow does not appear in the
       file’s simplified history. Let’s demonstrate a new example and show
       how options such as --full-history and --simplify-merges works in
       that case:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`-Z'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `---Y--'

       For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified by A,
       B, and X in different ways. The single-parent commits C, Z, and Y do
       not change file.txt. The merge commit M was created by resolving the
       merge conflict to include both changes from A and B and hence is not
       TREESAME to either. The merge commit R, however, was created by
       ignoring the contents of file.txt at M and taking only the contents
       of file.txt at X. Hence, R is TREESAME to X but not M. Finally, the
       natural merge resolution to create N is to take the contents of
       file.txt at R, so N is TREESAME to R but not C. The merge commits O
       and P are TREESAME to their first parents, but not to their second
       parents, Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME parent, so
       those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The resulting
       history graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will discover
       the commits A and B and the merge M, but also will reveal the merge
       commits O and P. With parent rewriting, the resulting graph is:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`--'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as they did
       not actually contribute a change to file.txt. They only merged a
       topic that was based on an older version of file.txt. This is a
       common issue in repositories using a workflow where many contributors
       work in parallel and merge their topic branches along a single trunk:
       manu unrelated merges appear in the --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P
       disappear from the results. This is because the rewritten second
       parents of O and P are reachable from their first parents. Those
       edges are removed and then the commits look like single-parent
       commits that are TREESAME to their parent. This also happens to the
       commit N, resulting in a history view as follows:

                    /     /    \
                   I     B      R
                    \   /      /
                     \ /      /

       In this view, we see all of the important single-parent changes from
       A, B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and the
       not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough information
       to determine why the commits A and B "disappeared" from history in
       the default view. However, there are a few issues with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option requires walking the entire commit history
       before returning a single result. This can make the option difficult
       to use for very large repositories.

       The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors are
       working on the same repository, it is important which merge commits
       introduced a change into an important branch. The problematic merge R
       above is not likely to be the merge commit that was used to merge
       into an important branch. Instead, the merge N was used to merge R
       and X into the important branch. This commit may have information
       about why the change X came to override the changes from A and B in
       its commit message.

           In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show
           each merge commit that is not TREESAME to its first parent but is
           TREESAME to a later parent.

           When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the merge is
           treated as if it "pulled" the change from another branch. When
           using --show-pulls on this example (and no other options) the
           resulting graph is:


           Here, the merge commits R and N are included because they pulled
           the commits X and R into the base branch, respectively. These
           merges are the reason the commits A and B do not appear in the
           default history.

           When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
           includes all of the necessary information:

                         .-A---M--.   N
                        /     /    \ /
                       I     B      R
                        \   /      /
                         \ /      /

           Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N to M was
           simplified away. However, N still appears in the history as an
           important commit because it "pulled" the change R into the main

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if
       (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of
       the paths given on the command line. All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

   Bisection Helpers
           Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway
           between included and excluded commits. Note that the bad
           bisection ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the included commits
           (if it exists) and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are
           added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing
           there are no refs in refs/bisect/, if

                       $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

           outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

                       $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
                       $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

           would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
           introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search:
           repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint’s until the commit
           chain is of length one.

           This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in
           refs/bisect/ are not used, and except that this outputs text
           ready to be eval’ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
           name of the midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the
           expected number of commits to be tested after bisect_rev is
           tested to bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to be tested
           if bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the expected
           number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be bad
           to bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are bisecting right
           now to bisect_all.

           This outputs all the commit objects between the included and
           excluded commits, ordered by their distance to the included and
           excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not used. The farthest
           from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by

           This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit
           to test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some
           reason (they may not compile for example).

           This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case,
           after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text
           as if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
           otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
           otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
           showing commits on multiple lines of history intermixed.

           For example, in a commit history like this:

                       \              \

           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git
           rev-list and friends with --date-order show the commits in the
           timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6
           5 3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order
           to avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track
           mixed together.

           Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting
           section above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

           Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
           commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus means “send me all object IDs
           which I need to download if I have the commit object bar but not

           Print tree and blob ids in order of the commits. The tree and
           blob ids are printed after they are first referenced by a commit.

           Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits
           prefixed with a “-” character. This is used by
           git-pack-objects(1) to build a “thin” pack, which records objects
           in deltified form based on objects contained in these excluded
           commits to reduce network traffic.

           Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find excluded
           commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
           --objects-edge to build “thin” packs for shallow repositories.

           Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed on
           the command line. Note that you probably want to use --objects,

           Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in

           Only useful with --objects; print the names of the object IDs
           that are found. This is the default behavior.

           Only useful with --objects; does not print the names of the
           object IDs that are found. This inverts --object-names. This flag
           allows the output to be more easily parsed by commands such as

           Only useful with one of the --objects*; omits objects (usually
           blobs) from the list of printed objects. The <filter-spec> may be
           one of the following:

           The form --filter=blob:none omits all blobs.

           The form --filter=blob:limit=<n>[kmg] omits blobs larger than n
           bytes or units. n may be zero. The suffixes k, m, and g can be
           used to name units in KiB, MiB, or GiB. For example,
           blob:limit=1k is the same as blob:limit=1024.

           The form --filter=sparse:oid=<blob-ish> uses a sparse-checkout
           specification contained in the blob (or blob-expression)
           <blob-ish> to omit blobs that would not be not required for a
           sparse checkout on the requested refs.

           The form --filter=tree:<depth> omits all blobs and trees whose
           depth from the root tree is >= <depth> (minimum depth if an
           object is located at multiple depths in the commits traversed).
           <depth>=0 will not include any trees or blobs unless included
           explicitly in the command-line (or standard input when --stdin is
           used). <depth>=1 will include only the tree and blobs which are
           referenced directly by a commit reachable from <commit> or an
           explicitly-given object. <depth>=2 is like <depth>=1 while also
           including trees and blobs one more level removed from an
           explicitly-given commit or tree.

           Note that the form --filter=sparse:path=<path> that wants to read
           from an arbitrary path on the filesystem has been dropped for
           security reasons.

           Multiple --filter= flags can be specified to combine filters.
           Only objects which are accepted by every filter are included.

           The form --filter=combine:<filter1>+<filter2>+...<filterN> can
           also be used to combined several filters, but this is harder than
           just repeating the --filter flag and is usually not necessary.
           Filters are joined by + and individual filters are %-encoded
           (i.e. URL-encoded). Besides the + and % characters, the following
           characters are reserved and also must be encoded:
           ~!@#$^&*()[]{}\;",<>?'` as well as all characters with ASCII code
           <= 0x20, which includes space and newline.

           Other arbitrary characters can also be encoded. For instance,
           combine:tree:3+blob:none and combine:tree%3A3+blob%3Anone are

           Turn off any previous --filter= argument.

           Only useful with --filter=; prints a list of the objects omitted
           by the filter. Object IDs are prefixed with a “~” character.

           A debug option to help with future "partial clone" development.
           This option specifies how missing objects are handled.

           The form --missing=error requests that rev-list stop with an
           error if a missing object is encountered. This is the default

           The form --missing=allow-any will allow object traversal to
           continue if a missing object is encountered. Missing objects will
           silently be omitted from the results.

           The form --missing=allow-promisor is like allow-any, but will
           only allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor
           missing objects. Unexpected missing objects will raise an error.

           The form --missing=print is like allow-any, but will also print a
           list of the missing objects. Object IDs are prefixed with a “?”

           (For internal use only.) Prefilter object traversal at promisor
           boundary. This is used with partial clone. This is stronger than
           --missing=allow-promisor because it limits the traversal, rather
           than just silencing errors about missing objects.

           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
           This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
           unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
           given on the command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument
           was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
           by commit time. Cannot be combined with --graph.

           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more
       specialized family of commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
           where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full,
           fuller, reference, email, raw, format:<string> and
           tformat:<string>. When <format> is none of the above, and has
           %placeholder in it, it acts as if --pretty=tformat:<format> were

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
           each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
           name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits
           can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff
           output, if it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This
           negates --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied by other
           options such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
           log.abbrevCommit variable.

           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used

           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message
           in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the
           command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
           preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
           UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be encoded in X and we
           are outputting in X, we will output the object verbatim; this
           means that invalid sequences in the original commit may be copied
           to the output.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to
           fill to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the
           log message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the
           log message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default,
           full, and fuller).

           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
           signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

           Synonym for --date=relative.

           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
           as when using --pretty. config variable sets a default
           value for the log command’s --date option. By default, dates are
           shown in the original time zone (either committer’s or author’s).
           If -local is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user’s
           local time zone is used instead.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. “2
           hours ago”. The -local option has no effect for --date=relative.

           --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO
           8601-like format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format

           •   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

           •   a space between time and time zone

           •   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

           --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in
           strict ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
           format, often found in email messages.

           --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD

           --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
           00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an
           offset from UTC (a + or - with four digits; the first two are
           hours, and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp
           were formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local
           option does not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is
           always measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying
           timezone value.

           --date=human shows the timezone if the timezone does not match
           the current time-zone, and doesn’t print the whole date if that
           matches (ie skip printing year for dates that are "this year",
           but also skip the whole date itself if it’s in the last few days
           and we can just say what weekday it was). For older dates the
           hour and minute is also omitted.

           --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds
           since 1970). As with --raw, this is always in UTC and therefore
           -local has no effect.

           --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system strftime,
           except for %z and %Z, which are handled internally. Use
           --date=format:%c to show the date in your system locale’s
           preferred format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of
           format placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is

           --date=default is the default format, and is similar to
           --date=rfc2822, with a few exceptions:

           •   there is no comma after the day-of-week

           •   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

           Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
           separated with a NUL character.

           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
           parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification above.

           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
           child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification above.

           Print the raw commit timestamp.

           Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable
           from. Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those
           from the right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits
           are prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
           on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
           to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
           to be drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
           --date-order option may also be specified.

           When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
           which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits do
           not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in
           between them in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the
           string that will be shown instead of the default one.

           Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed,
           and suppress all other output. When used together with
           --left-right, instead print the counts for left and right
           commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
           --cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent commits from these counts
           and print the count for equivalent commits separated by a tab.

PRETTY FORMATS         top

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the hashes of ancestral commits
       are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may
       not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see
       git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       •   oneline

               <hash> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       •   short

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       •   medium

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   full

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   fuller

               commit <hash>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   reference

               <abbrev hash> (<title line>, <short author date>)

           This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit
           message and is the same as --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s,
           %ad)'. By default, the date is formatted with --date=short unless
           another --date option is explicitly specified. As with any
           format: with format placeholders, its output is not affected by
           other options like --decorate and --walk-reflogs.

       •   email

               From <hash> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   mboxrd

           Like email, but lines in the commit message starting with "From "
           (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted with ">" so they aren’t
           confused as starting a new commit.

       •   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed in full,
           regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and
           parents information show the true parent commits, without taking
           grafts or history simplification into account. Note that this
           format affects the way commits are displayed, but not the way the
           diff is shown e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names
           in a raw diff format, use --no-abbrev.

       •   format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which
           information you want to show. It works a little bit like printf
           format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n
           instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was
           >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           •   Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:


                   a raw %

                   print a byte from a hex code

           •   Placeholders that affect formatting of later placeholders:

                   switch color to red

                   switch color to green

                   switch color to blue

                   reset color

                   color specification, as described under Values in the
                   "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By
                   default, colors are shown only when enabled for log
                   output (by color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and
                   respecting the auto settings of the former if we are
                   going to a terminal).  %C(auto,...)  is accepted as a
                   historical synonym for the default (e.g., %C(auto,red)).
                   Specifying %C(always,...)  will show the colors even when
                   color is not otherwise enabled (though consider just
                   using --color=always to enable color for the whole
                   output, including this format and anything else git might
                   color).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on auto
                   coloring on the next placeholders until the color is
                   switched again.

                   left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

                   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of

                   make the next placeholder take at least N columns,
                   padding spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally
                   truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc)
                   or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N
                   columns. Note that truncating only works correctly with N
                   >= 2.

                   make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
                   columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary

               %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
                   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding
                   spaces on the left

               %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>)
                   similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively, except that if
                   the next placeholder takes more spaces than given and
                   there are spaces on its left, use those spaces

               %><(<N>), %><|(<N>)
                   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding
                   both sides (i.e. the text is centered)

           •   Placeholders that expand to information extracted from the

                   commit hash

                   abbreviated commit hash

                   tree hash

                   abbreviated tree hash

                   parent hashes

                   abbreviated parent hashes

                   author name

                   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

                   author email

                   author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

                   author email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

                   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   author date (format respects --date= option)

                   author date, RFC2822 style

                   author date, relative

                   author date, UNIX timestamp

                   author date, ISO 8601-like format

                   author date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   committer name

                   committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
                   or git-blame(1))

                   committer email

                   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
                   or git-blame(1))

                   committer email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

                   committer local-part (see %cl) respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer date (format respects --date= option)

                   committer date, RFC2822 style

                   committer date, relative

                   committer date, UNIX timestamp

                   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

                   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

                   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

                   ref name given on the command line by which the commit
                   was reached (like git log --source), only works with git



                   sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename


                   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

                   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

                   show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
                   signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown
                   validity, "X" for a good signature that has expired, "Y"
                   for a good signature made by an expired key, "R" for a
                   good signature made by a revoked key, "E" if the
                   signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing key) and "N"
                   for no signature

                   show the name of the signer for a signed commit

                   show the key used to sign a signed commit

                   show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed

                   show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was
                   used to sign a signed commit

                   show the trust level for the key used to sign a signed

                   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
                   minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for
                   the -g option. The portion before the @ is the refname as
                   given on the command line (so git log -g
                   refs/heads/master would yield refs/heads/master@{0}).

                   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
                   portion is shortened for human readability (so
                   refs/heads/master becomes just master).

                   reflog identity name

                   reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   reflog identity email

                   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   reflog subject

                   display the trailers of the body as interpreted by
                   git-interpret-trailers(1). The trailers string may be
                   followed by a colon and zero or more comma-separated

                   •   key=<K>: only show trailers with specified key.
                       Matching is done case-insensitively and trailing
                       colon is optional. If option is given multiple times
                       trailer lines matching any of the keys are shown.
                       This option automatically enables the only option so
                       that non-trailer lines in the trailer block are
                       hidden. If that is not desired it can be disabled
                       with only=false. E.g., %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by)
                       shows trailer lines with key Reviewed-by.

                   •   only[=val]: select whether non-trailer lines from the
                       trailer block should be included. The only keyword
                       may optionally be followed by an equal sign and one
                       of true, on, yes to omit or false, off, no to show
                       the non-trailer lines. If option is given without
                       value it is enabled. If given multiple times the last
                       value is used.

                   •   separator=<SEP>: specify a separator inserted between
                       trailer lines. When this option is not given each
                       trailer line is terminated with a line feed
                       character. The string SEP may contain the literal
                       formatting codes described above. To use comma as
                       separator one must use %x2C as it would otherwise be
                       parsed as next option. If separator option is given
                       multiple times only the last one is used. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C ) shows all
                       trailer lines whose key is "Ticket" separated by a
                       comma and a space.

                   •   unfold[=val]: make it behave as if
                       interpret-trailer’s --unfold option was given. In
                       same way as to for only it can be followed by an
                       equal sign and explicit value. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and shows all
                       trailer lines.

                   •   valueonly[=val]: skip over the key part of the
                       trailer line and only show the value part. Also this
                       optionally allows explicit value.

           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
           revision traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options
           will insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog
           entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will
           use the "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already
           provided on the command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and
       only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       •   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
           provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
           In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
           (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
           between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
           format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
           "oneline" format does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
           these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2020-11-01.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2020-10-30.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           10/31/2020                  GIT-REV-LIST(1)

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