git-diff-tree(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-DIFF-TREE(1)               Git Manual               GIT-DIFF-TREE(1)

NAME         top

       git-diff-tree - Compares the content and mode of blobs found via
       two tree objects

SYNOPSIS         top

       git diff-tree [--stdin] [-m] [-s] [-v] [--no-commit-id] [--pretty]
                     [-t] [-r] [-c | --cc] [--combined-all-paths] [--root] [--merge-base]
                     [<common-diff-options>] <tree-ish> [<tree-ish>] [<path>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Compare the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.

       If there is only one <tree-ish> given, the commit is compared
       with its parents (see --stdin below).

       Note that git diff-tree can use the tree encapsulated in a commit

OPTIONS         top

       -p, -u, --patch
           Generate patch (see the section called “GENERATING PATCH TEXT
           WITH -P”).

       -s, --no-patch
           Suppress all output from the diff machinery. Useful for
           commands like git show that show the patch by default to
           squelch their output, or to cancel the effect of options like
           --patch, --stat earlier on the command line in an alias.

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
           Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
           three. Implies --patch.

           Output to a specific file instead of stdout.

       --output-indicator-new=<char>, --output-indicator-old=<char>,
           Specify the character used to indicate new, old or context
           lines in the generated patch. Normally they are +, - and ' '

           Generate the diff in raw format. This is the default.

           Synonym for -p --raw.

           Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make
           patches easier to read. This is the default.

           Disable the indent heuristic.

           Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is

           Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

           Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

           Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

           This option may be specified more than once.

           If a line exists in both the source and destination, exists
           only once, and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts
           to prevent it from appearing as a deletion or addition in the
           output. It uses the "patience diff" algorithm internally.

           Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

           default, myers
               The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the

               Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff
               is produced.

               Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

               This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
               low-occurrence common elements".

           For instance, if you configured the diff.algorithm variable
           to a non-default value and want to use the default one, then
           you have to use --diff-algorithm=default option.

           Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
           will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the
           graph part. Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80
           columns if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden
           by <width>. The width of the filename part can be limited by
           giving another width <name-width> after a comma or by setting
           diff.statNameWidth=<width>. The width of the graph part can
           be limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width> or by setting
           diff.statGraphWidth=<width>. Using --stat or
           --stat-graph-width affects all commands generating a stat
           graph, while setting diff.statNameWidth or
           diff.statGraphWidth does not affect git format-patch. By
           giving a third parameter <count>, you can limit the output to
           the first <count> lines, followed by ...  if there are more.

           These parameters can also be set individually with
           --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and

           Output a condensed summary of extended header information
           such as file creations or deletions ("new" or "gone",
           optionally "+l" if it’s a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or
           "-x" for adding or removing executable bit respectively) in
           diffstat. The information is put between the filename part
           and the graph part. Implies --stat.

           Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted
           lines in decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation,
           to make it more machine friendly. For binary files, outputs
           two - instead of saying 0 0.

           Output only the last line of the --stat format containing
           total number of modified files, as well as number of added
           and deleted lines.

       -X[<param1,param2,...>], --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
           Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for
           each sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be
           customized by passing it a comma separated list of
           parameters. The defaults are controlled by the diff.dirstat
           configuration variable (see git-config(1)). The following
           parameters are available:

               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that
               have been removed from the source, or added to the
               destination. This ignores the amount of pure code
               movements within a file. In other words, rearranging
               lines in a file is not counted as much as other changes.
               This is the default behavior when no parameter is given.

               Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular
               line-based diff analysis, and summing the removed/added
               line counts. (For binary files, count 64-byte chunks
               instead, since binary files have no natural concept of
               lines). This is a more expensive --dirstat behavior than
               the changes behavior, but it does count rearranged lines
               within a file as much as other changes. The resulting
               output is consistent with what you get from the other
               --*stat options.

               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of
               files changed. Each changed file counts equally in the
               dirstat analysis. This is the computationally cheapest
               --dirstat behavior, since it does not have to look at the
               file contents at all.

               Count changes in a child directory for the parent
               directory as well. Note that when using cumulative, the
               sum of the percentages reported may exceed 100%. The
               default (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with
               the noncumulative parameter.

               An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by
               default). Directories contributing less than this
               percentage of the changes are not shown in the output.

           Example: The following will count changed files, while
           ignoring directories with less than 10% of the total amount
           of changed files, and accumulating child directory counts in
           the parent directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

           Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative

           Synonym for --dirstat=files,<param1>,<param2>...

           Output a condensed summary of extended header information
           such as creations, renames and mode changes.

           Synonym for -p --stat.

           When --raw, --numstat, --name-only or --name-status has been
           given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field

           Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are
           quoted as explained for the configuration variable
           core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

           Show only the name of each changed file in the post-image
           tree. The file names are often encoded in UTF-8. For more
           information see the discussion about encoding in the
           git-log(1) manual page.

           Show only the name(s) and status of each changed file. See
           the description of the --diff-filter option on what the
           status letters mean. Just like --name-only the file names are
           often encoded in UTF-8.

           Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When
           specifying --submodule=short the short format is used. This
           format just shows the names of the commits at the beginning
           and end of the range. When --submodule or --submodule=log is
           specified, the log format is used. This format lists the
           commits in the range like git-submodule(1) summary does. When
           --submodule=diff is specified, the diff format is used. This
           format shows an inline diff of the changes in the submodule
           contents between the commit range. Defaults to diff.submodule
           or the short format if the config option is unset.

           Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the
           same as --color=always.  <when> can be one of always, never,
           or auto.

           Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

           Moved lines of code are colored differently. The <mode>
           defaults to no if the option is not given and to zebra if the
           option with no mode is given. The mode must be one of:

               Moved lines are not highlighted.

               Is a synonym for zebra. This may change to a more
               sensible mode in the future.

               Any line that is added in one location and was removed in
               another location will be colored with
               color.diff.newMoved. Similarly color.diff.oldMoved will
               be used for removed lines that are added somewhere else
               in the diff. This mode picks up any moved line, but it is
               not very useful in a review to determine if a block of
               code was moved without permutation.

               Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric
               characters are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
               painted using either the color.diff.{old,new}Moved color.
               Adjacent blocks cannot be told apart.

               Blocks of moved text are detected as in blocks mode. The
               blocks are painted using either the
               color.diff.{old,new}Moved color or
               color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative. The change between
               the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.

               Similar to zebra, but additional dimming of uninteresting
               parts of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of
               two adjacent blocks are considered interesting, the rest
               is uninteresting.  dimmed_zebra is a deprecated synonym.

           Turn off move detection. This can be used to override
           configuration settings. It is the same as --color-moved=no.

           This configures how whitespace is ignored when performing the
           move detection for --color-moved. These modes can be given as
           a comma separated list:

               Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection.

               Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

               Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
               whitespace at line end, and considers all other sequences
               of one or more whitespace characters to be equivalent.

               Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
               differences even if one line has whitespace where the
               other line has none.

               Initially ignore any whitespace in the move detection,
               then group the moved code blocks only into a block if the
               change in whitespace is the same per line. This is
               incompatible with the other modes.

           Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection. This
           can be used to override configuration settings. It is the
           same as --color-moved-ws=no.

           Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words.
           By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see
           --word-diff-regex below. The <mode> defaults to plain, and
           must be one of:

               Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies

               Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no
               attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in the
               input, so the output may be ambiguous.

               Use a special line-based format intended for script
               consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in
               the usual unified diff format, starting with a +/-/` `
               character at the beginning of the line and extending to
               the end of the line. Newlines in the input are
               represented by a tilde ~ on a line of its own.

               Disable word diff again.

           Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used
           to highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.

           Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering
           runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies --word-diff
           unless it was already enabled.

           Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a
           word. Anything between these matches is considered whitespace
           and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You
           may want to append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression
           to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters. A
           match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the

           For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each character
           as a word and, correspondingly, show differences character by

           The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
           option, see gitattributes(5) or git-config(1). Giving it
           explicitly overrides any diff driver or configuration
           setting. Diff drivers override configuration settings.

           Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was
           specified) --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

           Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file
           gives the default to do so.

           Whether to use empty blobs as rename source.

           Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace
           errors. What are considered whitespace errors is controlled
           by core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing
           whitespaces (including lines that consist solely of
           whitespaces) and a space character that is immediately
           followed by a tab character inside the initial indent of the
           line are considered whitespace errors. Exits with non-zero
           status if problems are found. Not compatible with

           Highlight whitespace errors in the context, old or new lines
           of the diff. Multiple values are separated by comma, none
           resets previous values, default reset the list to new and all
           is a shorthand for old,new,context. When this option is not
           given, and the configuration variable diff.wsErrorHighlight
           is not set, only whitespace errors in new lines are
           highlighted. The whitespace errors are colored with

           Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
           pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index" line
           when generating patch format output.

           In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be
           applied with git-apply. Implies --patch.

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name
           in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show
           the shortest prefix that is at least <n> hexdigits long that
           uniquely refers the object. In diff-patch output format,
           --full-index takes higher precedence, i.e. if --full-index is
           specified, full blob names will be shown regardless of
           --abbrev. Non default number of digits can be specified with

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
           Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
           create. This serves two purposes:

           It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite
           of a file not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed
           together with a very few lines that happen to match textually
           as the context, but as a single deletion of everything old
           followed by a single insertion of everything new, and the
           number m controls this aspect of the -B option (defaults to
           60%).  -B/70% specifies that less than 30% of the original
           should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
           rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series
           of deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).

           When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also
           considered as the source of a rename (usually -M only
           considers a file that disappeared as the source of a rename),
           and the number n controls this aspect of the -B option
           (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies that a change with
           addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the file’s
           size are eligible for being picked up as a possible source of
           a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
           Detect renames. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the
           similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared
           to the file’s size). For example, -M90% means Git should
           consider a delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of
           the file hasn’t changed. Without a % sign, the number is to
           be read as a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e.,
           -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus the same as -M50%. Similarly,
           -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit detection to exact
           renames, use -M100%. The default similarity index is 50%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
           Detect copies as well as renames. See also
           --find-copies-harder. If n is specified, it has the same
           meaning as for -M<n>.

           For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies
           only if the original file of the copy was modified in the
           same changeset. This flag makes the command inspect
           unmodified files as candidates for the source of copy. This
           is a very expensive operation for large projects, so use it
           with caution. Giving more than one -C option has the same

       -D, --irreversible-delete
           Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but
           not the diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The
           resulting patch is not meant to be applied with patch or git
           apply; this is solely for people who want to just concentrate
           on reviewing the text after the change. In addition, the
           output obviously lacks enough information to apply such a
           patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of the

           When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the
           deletion part of a delete/create pair.

           The -M and -C options involve some preliminary steps that can
           detect subsets of renames/copies cheaply, followed by an
           exhaustive fallback portion that compares all remaining
           unpaired destinations to all relevant sources. (For renames,
           only remaining unpaired sources are relevant; for copies, all
           original sources are relevant.) For N sources and
           destinations, this exhaustive check is O(N^2). This option
           prevents the exhaustive portion of rename/copy detection from
           running if the number of source/destination files involved
           exceeds the specified number. Defaults to diff.renameLimit.
           Note that a value of 0 is treated as unlimited.

           Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted
           (D), Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular
           file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U),
           are Unknown (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any
           combination of the filter characters (including none) can be
           used. When * (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all
           paths are selected if there is any file that matches other
           criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that matches
           other criteria, nothing is selected.

           Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude.
           E.g.  --diff-filter=ad excludes added and deleted paths.

           Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance,
           copied and renamed entries cannot appear if detection for
           those types is disabled.

           Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
           the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
           Intended for the scripter’s use.

           It is useful when you’re looking for an exact block of code
           (like a struct), and want to know the history of that block
           since it first came into being: use the feature iteratively
           to feed the interesting block in the preimage back into -S,
           and keep going until you get the very first version of the

           Binary files are searched as well.

           Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
           lines that match <regex>.

           To illustrate the difference between -S<regex>
           --pickaxe-regex and -G<regex>, consider a commit with the
           following diff in the same file:

               +    return frotz(nitfol, two->ptr, 1, 0);
               -    hit = frotz(nitfol, mf2.ptr, 1, 0);

           While git log -G"frotz\(nitfol" will show this commit, git
           log -S"frotz\(nitfol" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the
           number of occurrences of that string did not change).

           Unless --text is supplied patches of binary files without a
           textconv filter will be ignored.

           See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

           Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
           the specified object. Similar to -S, just the argument is
           different in that it doesn’t search for a specific string but
           for a specific object id.

           The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies
           the -t option in git-log to also find trees.

           When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that
           changeset, not just the files that contain the change in

           Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX regular
           expression to match.

           Control the order in which files appear in the output. This
           overrides the diff.orderFile configuration variable (see
           git-config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

           The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns
           in <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that match the first
           pattern are output first, all files with pathnames that match
           the second pattern (but not the first) are output next, and
           so on. All files with pathnames that do not match any pattern
           are output last, as if there was an implicit match-all
           pattern at the end of the file. If multiple pathnames have
           the same rank (they match the same pattern but no earlier
           patterns), their output order relative to each other is the
           normal order.

           <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

           •   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as
               separators for readability.

           •   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so they can
               be used for comments. Add a backslash ("\") to the
               beginning of the pattern if it starts with a hash.

           •   Each other line contains a single pattern.

           Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used
           for fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a
           pathname also matches a pattern if removing any number of the
           final pathname components matches the pattern. For example,
           the pattern "foo*bar" matches "fooasdfbar" and
           "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

       --skip-to=<file>, --rotate-to=<file>
           Discard the files before the named <file> from the output
           (i.e.  skip to), or move them to the end of the output (i.e.
           rotate to). These options were invented primarily for the use
           of the git difftool command, and may not be very useful

           Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
           on-disk file to tree contents.

       --relative[=<path>], --no-relative
           When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told
           to exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames
           relative to it with this option. When you are not in a
           subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you can name which
           subdirectory to make the output relative to by giving a
           <path> as an argument.  --no-relative can be used to
           countermand both diff.relative config option and previous

       -a, --text
           Treat all files as text.

           Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a

           Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
           Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
           whitespace at line end, and considers all other sequences of
           one or more whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
           Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
           differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
           line has none.

           Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

       -I<regex>, --ignore-matching-lines=<regex>
           Ignore changes whose all lines match <regex>. This option may
           be specified more than once.

           Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified
           number of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each
           other. Defaults to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the config
           option is unset.

       -W, --function-context
           Show whole function as context lines for each change. The
           function names are determined in the same way as git diff
           works out patch hunk headers (see Defining a custom
           hunk-header in gitattributes(5)).

           Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1). That is,
           it exits with 1 if there were differences and 0 means no

           Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.

           Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
           external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use
           this option with git-log(1) and friends.

           Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
           Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be
           run when comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for
           details. Because textconv filters are typically a one-way
           conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human
           consumption, but cannot be applied. For this reason, textconv
           filters are enabled by default only for git-diff(1) and
           git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff plumbing

           Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when>
           can be either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is
           the default. Using "none" will consider the submodule
           modified when it either contains untracked or modified files
           or its HEAD differs from the commit recorded in the
           superproject and can be used to override any settings of the
           ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5). When
           "untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when
           they only contain untracked content (but they are still
           scanned for modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all
           changes to the work tree of submodules, only changes to the
           commits stored in the superproject are shown (this was the
           behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to

           Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

           Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

           Do not show any source or destination prefix.

           Use the default source and destination prefixes ("a/" and
           "b/"). This overrides configuration variables such as
           diff.noprefix, diff.srcPrefix, diff.dstPrefix, and
           diff.mnemonicPrefix (see git-config(1)).

           Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

           By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an
           existing empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff
           --cached". This option makes the entry appear as a new file
           in "git diff" and non-existent in "git diff --cached". This
           option could be reverted with --ita-visible-in-index. Both
           options are experimental and could be removed in future.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also

           The id of a tree object.

           If provided, the results are limited to a subset of files
           matching one of the provided pathspecs.

           Recurse into sub-trees.

           Show tree entry itself as well as subtrees. Implies -r.

           When --root is specified the initial commit will be shown as
           a big creation event. This is equivalent to a diff against
           the NULL tree.

           Instead of comparing the <tree-ish>s directly, use the merge
           base between the two <tree-ish>s as the "before" side. There
           must be two <tree-ish>s given and they must both be commits.

           When --stdin is specified, the command does not take
           <tree-ish> arguments from the command line. Instead, it reads
           lines containing either two <tree>, one <commit>, or a list
           of <commit> from its standard input. (Use a single space as

           When two trees are given, it compares the first tree with the
           second. When a single commit is given, it compares the commit
           with its parents. The remaining commits, when given, are used
           as if they are parents of the first commit.

           When comparing two trees, the ID of both trees (separated by
           a space and terminated by a newline) is printed before the
           difference. When comparing commits, the ID of the first (or
           only) commit, followed by a newline, is printed.

           The following flags further affect the behavior when
           comparing commits (but not trees).

           By default, git diff-tree --stdin does not show differences
           for merge commits. With this flag, it shows differences to
           that commit from all of its parents. See also -c.

           By default, git diff-tree --stdin shows differences, either
           in machine-readable form (without -p) or in patch form (with
           -p). This output can be suppressed. It is only useful with
           the -v flag.

           This flag causes git diff-tree --stdin to also show the
           commit message before the differences.

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given
           format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium,
           full, fuller, reference, email, raw, format:<string> and
           tformat:<string>. When <format> is none of the above, and has
           %placeholder in it, it acts as if --pretty=tformat:<format>
           were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details
           for each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults
           to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the
           repository configuration (see git-config(1)).

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
           name, show a prefix that names the object uniquely.
           "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if it is
           displayed) option can be used to specify the minimum length
           of the prefix.

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable
           for people using 80-column terminals.

           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This
           negates --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied by other
           options such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
           log.abbrevCommit variable.

           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
           used together.

           Commit objects record the character encoding used for the log
           message in their encoding header; this option can be used to
           tell the command to re-code the commit log message in the
           encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands
           this defaults to UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be
           encoded in X and we are outputting in X, we will output the
           object verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the
           original commit may be copied to the output. Likewise, if
           iconv(3) fails to convert the commit, we will quietly output
           the original object verbatim.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces
           to fill to the next display column that is a multiple of <n>)
           in the log message before showing it in the output.
           --expand-tabs is a short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and
           --no-expand-tabs is a short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which
           disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent
           the log message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the
           default, full, and fuller).

           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit,
           when showing the commit log message. This is the default for
           git log, git show and git whatchanged commands when there is
           no --pretty, --format, or --oneline option given on the
           command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in
           the core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or
           corresponding environment overrides). See git-config(1) for
           more details.

           With an optional <ref> argument, use the ref to find the
           notes to display. The ref can specify the full refname when
           it begins with refs/notes/; when it begins with notes/, refs/
           and otherwise refs/notes/ is prefixed to form the full name
           of the ref.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which
           notes are being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show
           only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will
           show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and from the default
           notes ref(s).

           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by
           resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
           Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so
           e.g. "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only
           show notes from "refs/notes/bar".

           Show the default notes unless options for displaying specific
           notes are given.

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above
           --notes/--no-notes options instead.

           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
           signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

           git diff-tree outputs a line with the commit ID when
           applicable. This flag suppressed the commit ID output.

           This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed (which
           means it is useful only when the command is given one
           <tree-ish>, or --stdin). It shows the differences from each
           of the parents to the merge result simultaneously instead of
           showing pairwise diff between a parent and the result one at
           a time (which is what the -m option does). Furthermore, it
           lists only files which were modified from all parents.

           This flag changes the way a merge commit patch is displayed,
           in a similar way to the -c option. It implies the -c and -p
           options and further compresses the patch output by omitting
           uninteresting hunks whose contents in the parents have only
           two variants and the merge result picks one of them without
           modification. When all hunks are uninteresting, the commit
           itself and the commit log message are not shown, just like in
           any other "empty diff" case.

           This flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits) to
           list the name of the file from all parents. It thus only has
           effect when -c or --cc are specified, and is likely only
           useful if filename changes are detected (i.e. when either
           rename or copy detection have been requested).

           Show the commit itself and the commit log message even if the
           diff itself is empty.

PRETTY FORMATS         top

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not
       oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the
       Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the hashes of
       ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the
       listed commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct
       parent commits if you have limited your view of history: for
       example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
       certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either
       another format name, or a format: string, as described below (see
       git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       •   oneline

               <hash> <title-line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       •   short

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>


       •   medium

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author-date>



       •   full

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>



       •   fuller

               commit <hash>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author-date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer-date>



       •   reference

               <abbrev-hash> (<title-line>, <short-author-date>)

           This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit
           message and is the same as --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s,
           %ad)'. By default, the date is formatted with --date=short
           unless another --date option is explicitly specified. As with
           any format: with format placeholders, its output is not
           affected by other options like --decorate and --walk-reflogs.

       •   email

               From <hash> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author-date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title-line>


       •   mboxrd

           Like email, but lines in the commit message starting with
           "From " (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted with ">" so
           they aren’t confused as starting a new commit.

       •   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in
           the commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed in full,
           regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and
           parents information show the true parent commits, without
           taking grafts or history simplification into account. Note
           that this format affects the way commits are displayed, but
           not the way the diff is shown e.g. with git log --raw. To get
           full object names in a raw diff format, use --no-abbrev.

       •   format:<format-string>

           The format:<format-string> format allows you to specify which
           information you want to show. It works a little bit like
           printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
           newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was
           >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           •   Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:


                   a raw %

                   %x followed by two hexadecimal digits is replaced
                   with a byte with the hexadecimal digits' value (we
                   will call this "literal formatting code" in the rest
                   of this document).

           •   Placeholders that affect formatting of later

                   switch color to red

                   switch color to green

                   switch color to blue

                   reset color

                   color specification, as described under Values in the
                   "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By
                   default, colors are shown only when enabled for log
                   output (by color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and
                   respecting the auto settings of the former if we are
                   going to a terminal).  %C(auto,...)  is accepted as a
                   historical synonym for the default (e.g.,
                   %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...)  will show
                   the colors even when color is not otherwise enabled
                   (though consider just using --color=always to enable
                   color for the whole output, including this format and
                   anything else git might color).  auto alone (i.e.
                   %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the next
                   placeholders until the color is switched again.

                   left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

                   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of

               %<( <N> [,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])
                   make the next placeholder take at least N column
                   widths, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
                   Optionally truncate (with ellipsis ..) at the left
                   (ltrunc) ..ft, the middle (mtrunc) mi..le, or the end
                   (trunc) rig.., if the output is longer than N
                   columns. Note 1: that truncating only works correctly
                   with N >= 2. Note 2: spaces around the N and M (see
                   below) values are optional. Note 3: Emojis and other
                   wide characters will take two display columns, which
                   may over-run column boundaries. Note 4: decomposed
                   character combining marks may be misplaced at padding

               %<|( <M> )
                   make the next placeholder take at least until Mth
                   display column, padding spaces on the right if
                   necessary. Use negative M values for column positions
                   measured from the right hand edge of the terminal

               %>( <N> ), %>|( <M> )
                   similar to %<( <N> ), %<|( <M> ) respectively, but
                   padding spaces on the left

               %>>( <N> ), %>>|( <M> )
                   similar to %>( <N> ), %>|( <M> ) respectively, except
                   that if the next placeholder takes more spaces than
                   given and there are spaces on its left, use those

               %><( <N> ), %><|( <M> )
                   similar to %<( <N> ), %<|( <M> ) respectively, but
                   padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)

           •   Placeholders that expand to information extracted from
               the commit:

                   commit hash

                   abbreviated commit hash

                   tree hash

                   abbreviated tree hash

                   parent hashes

                   abbreviated parent hashes

                   author name

                   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
                   or git-blame(1))

                   author email

                   author email (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   author email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

                   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   author date (format respects --date= option)

                   author date, RFC2822 style

                   author date, relative

                   author date, UNIX timestamp

                   author date, ISO 8601-like format

                   author date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   author date, human style (like the --date=human
                   option of git-rev-list(1))

                   committer name

                   committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer email

                   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer email local-part (the part before the @

                   committer local-part (see %cl) respecting .mailmap,
                   see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer date (format respects --date= option)

                   committer date, RFC2822 style

                   committer date, relative

                   committer date, UNIX timestamp

                   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

                   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   committer date, human style (like the --date=human
                   option of git-rev-list(1))

                   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

                   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

                   ref names with custom decorations. The decorate
                   string may be followed by a colon and zero or more
                   comma-separated options. Option values may contain
                   literal formatting codes. These must be used for
                   commas (%x2C) and closing parentheses (%x29), due to
                   their role in the option syntax.

                   •   prefix=<value>: Shown before the list of ref
                       names. Defaults to " (".

                   •   suffix=<value>: Shown after the list of ref
                       names. Defaults to ")".

                   •   separator=<value>: Shown between ref names.
                       Defaults to ", ".

                   •   pointer=<value>: Shown between HEAD and the
                       branch it points to, if any. Defaults to " -> ".

                   •   tag=<value>: Shown before tag names. Defaults to
                       "tag: ".

                   For example, to produce decorations with no wrapping
                   or tag annotations, and spaces as separators:

                   %(decorate:prefix=,suffix=,tag=,separator= )

                   human-readable name, like git-describe(1); empty
                   string for undescribable commits. The describe string
                   may be followed by a colon and zero or more
                   comma-separated options. Descriptions can be
                   inconsistent when tags are added or removed at the
                   same time.

                   •   tags[=<bool-value>]: Instead of only considering
                       annotated tags, consider lightweight tags as

                   •   abbrev=<number>: Instead of using the default
                       number of hexadecimal digits (which will vary
                       according to the number of objects in the
                       repository with a default of 7) of the
                       abbreviated object name, use <number> digits, or
                       as many digits as needed to form a unique object

                   •   match=<pattern>: Only consider tags matching the
                       given glob(7) pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/"

                   •   exclude=<pattern>: Do not consider tags matching
                       the given glob(7) pattern, excluding the
                       "refs/tags/" prefix.

                   ref name given on the command line by which the
                   commit was reached (like git log --source), only
                   works with git log



                   sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename


                   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

                   commit notes

                   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

                   show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
                   signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown
                   validity, "X" for a good signature that has expired,
                   "Y" for a good signature made by an expired key, "R"
                   for a good signature made by a revoked key, "E" if
                   the signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing key)
                   and "N" for no signature

                   show the name of the signer for a signed commit

                   show the key used to sign a signed commit

                   show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed

                   show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey
                   was used to sign a signed commit

                   show the trust level for the key used to sign a
                   signed commit

                   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or
                   refs/stash@{2 minutes ago}; the format follows the
                   rules described for the -g option. The portion before
                   the @ is the refname as given on the command line (so
                   git log -g refs/heads/master would yield

                   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the
                   refname portion is shortened for human readability
                   (so refs/heads/master becomes just master).

                   reflog identity name

                   reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   reflog identity email

                   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
                   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   reflog subject

                   display the trailers of the body as interpreted by
                   git-interpret-trailers(1). The trailers string may be
                   followed by a colon and zero or more comma-separated
                   options. If any option is provided multiple times,
                   the last occurrence wins.

                   •   key=<key>: only show trailers with specified
                       <key>. Matching is done case-insensitively and
                       trailing colon is optional. If option is given
                       multiple times trailer lines matching any of the
                       keys are shown. This option automatically enables
                       the only option so that non-trailer lines in the
                       trailer block are hidden. If that is not desired
                       it can be disabled with only=false. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer lines
                       with key Reviewed-by.

                   •   only[=<bool>]: select whether non-trailer lines
                       from the trailer block should be included.

                   •   separator=<sep>: specify the separator inserted
                       between trailer lines. Defaults to a line feed
                       character. The string <sep> may contain the
                       literal formatting codes described above. To use
                       comma as separator one must use %x2C as it would
                       otherwise be parsed as next option. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C ) shows all
                       trailer lines whose key is "Ticket" separated by
                       a comma and a space.

                   •   unfold[=<bool>]: make it behave as if
                       interpret-trailer’s --unfold option was given.
                       E.g., %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and
                       shows all trailer lines.

                   •   keyonly[=<bool>]: only show the key part of the

                   •   valueonly[=<bool>]: only show the value part of
                       the trailer.

                   •   key_value_separator=<sep>: specify the separator
                       inserted between the key and value of each
                       trailer. Defaults to ": ". Otherwise it shares
                       the same semantics as separator=<sep> above.


           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
           revision traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog
           options will insert an empty string unless we are traversing
           reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d and %D
           placeholders will use the "short" decoration format if
           --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       The boolean options accept an optional value [=<bool-value>]. The
       values true, false, on, off etc. are all accepted. See the
       "boolean" sub-section in "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a
       boolean option is given with no value, it’s enabled.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed
       is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all
       consecutive line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are
       deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       •   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that
           it provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator"
           semantics. In other words, each commit has the message
           terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather
           than a separator placed between entries. This means that the
           final entry of a single-line format will be properly
           terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format
           does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For
           example, these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef


       The raw output format from "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree",
       "git-diff-files" and "git diff --raw" are very similar.

       These commands all compare two sets of things; what is compared

       git-diff-index <tree-ish>
           compares the <tree-ish> and the files on the filesystem.

       git-diff-index --cached <tree-ish>
           compares the <tree-ish> and the index.

       git-diff-tree [-r] <tree-ish-1> <tree-ish-2> [<pattern>...]
           compares the trees named by the two arguments.

       git-diff-files [<pattern>...]
           compares the index and the files on the filesystem.

       The "git-diff-tree" command begins its output by printing the
       hash of what is being compared. After that, all the commands
       print one output line per changed file.

       An output line is formatted this way:

           in-place edit  :100644 100644 bcd1234 0123456 M file0
           copy-edit      :100644 100644 abcd123 1234567 C68 file1 file2
           rename-edit    :100644 100644 abcd123 1234567 R86 file1 file3
           create         :000000 100644 0000000 1234567 A file4
           delete         :100644 000000 1234567 0000000 D file5
           unmerged       :000000 000000 0000000 0000000 U file6

       That is, from the left to the right:

        1. a colon.

        2. mode for "src"; 000000 if creation or unmerged.

        3. a space.

        4. mode for "dst"; 000000 if deletion or unmerged.

        5. a space.

        6. sha1 for "src"; 0{40} if creation or unmerged.

        7. a space.

        8. sha1 for "dst"; 0{40} if deletion, unmerged or "work tree out
           of sync with the index".

        9. a space.

       10. status, followed by optional "score" number.

       11. a tab or a NUL when -z option is used.

       12. path for "src"

       13. a tab or a NUL when -z option is used; only exists for C or

       14. path for "dst"; only exists for C or R.

       15. an LF or a NUL when -z option is used, to terminate the

       Possible status letters are:

       •   A: addition of a file

       •   C: copy of a file into a new one

       •   D: deletion of a file

       •   M: modification of the contents or mode of a file

       •   R: renaming of a file

       •   T: change in the type of the file (regular file, symbolic
           link or submodule)

       •   U: file is unmerged (you must complete the merge before it
           can be committed)

       •   X: "unknown" change type (most probably a bug, please report

       Status letters C and R are always followed by a score (denoting
       the percentage of similarity between the source and target of the
       move or copy). Status letter M may be followed by a score
       (denoting the percentage of dissimilarity) for file rewrites.

       The sha1 for "dst" is shown as all 0’s if a file on the
       filesystem is out of sync with the index.


           :100644 100644 5be4a4a 0000000 M file.c

       Without the -z option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are
       quoted as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath
       (see git-config(1)). Using -z the filename is output verbatim and
       the line is terminated by a NUL byte.


       "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff --raw" can take
       -c or --cc option to generate diff output also for merge commits.
       The output differs from the format described above in the
       following way:

        1. there is a colon for each parent

        2. there are more "src" modes and "src" sha1

        3. status is concatenated status characters for each parent

        4. no optional "score" number

        5. tab-separated pathname(s) of the file

       For -c and --cc, only the destination or final path is shown even
       if the file was renamed on any side of history. With
       --combined-all-paths, the name of the path in each parent is
       shown followed by the name of the path in the merge commit.

       Examples for -c and --cc without --combined-all-paths:

           ::100644 100644 100644 fabadb8 cc95eb0 4866510 MM       desc.c
           ::100755 100755 100755 52b7a2d 6d1ac04 d2ac7d7 RM
           ::100644 100644 100644 e07d6c5 9042e82 ee91881 RR       phooey.c

       Examples when --combined-all-paths added to either -c or --cc:

           ::100644 100644 100644 fabadb8 cc95eb0 4866510 MM       desc.c  desc.c  desc.c
           ::100755 100755 100755 52b7a2d 6d1ac04 d2ac7d7 RM
           ::100644 100644 100644 e07d6c5 9042e82 ee91881 RR       fooey.c fuey.c  phooey.c

       Note that combined diff lists only files which were modified from
       all parents.


       Running git-diff(1), git-log(1), git-show(1), git-diff-index(1),
       git-diff-tree(1), or git-diff-files(1) with the -p option
       produces patch text. You can customize the creation of patch text
       via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment
       variables (see git(1)), and the diff attribute (see

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the
       traditional diff format:

        1. It is preceded by a "git diff" header that looks like this:

               diff --git a/file1 b/file2

           The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
           involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion,
           /dev/null is not used in place of the a/ or b/ filenames.

           When a rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name
           of the source file of the rename/copy and the name of the
           file that the rename/copy produces, respectively.

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

               old mode <mode>
               new mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               copy from <path>
               copy to <path>
               rename from <path>
               rename to <path>
               similarity index <number>
               dissimilarity index <number>
               index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

           File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the
           file type and file permission bits.

           Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and b/

           The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines,
           and the dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed
           lines. It is a rounded down integer, followed by a percent
           sign. The similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for
           two equal files, while 100% dissimilarity means that no line
           from the old file made it into the new one.

           The index line includes the blob object names before and
           after the change. The <mode> is included if the file mode
           does not change; otherwise, separate lines indicate the old
           and the new mode.

        3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained
           for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see

        4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the
           commit, and all the file2 files refer to files after the
           commit. It is incorrect to apply each change to each file
           sequentially. For example, this patch will swap a and b:

               diff --git a/a b/b
               rename from a
               rename to b
               diff --git a/b b/a
               rename from b
               rename to a

        5. Hunk headers mention the name of the function to which the
           hunk applies. See "Defining a custom hunk-header" in
           gitattributes(5) for details of how to tailor this to
           specific languages.


       Any diff-generating command can take the -c or --cc option to
       produce a combined diff when showing a merge. This is the default
       format when showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-show(1). Note
       also that you can give suitable --diff-merges option to any of
       these commands to force generation of diffs in a specific format.

       A "combined diff" format looks like this:

           diff --combined describe.c
           index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
           --- a/describe.c
           +++ b/describe.c
           @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;

           - static void describe(char *arg)
            -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
           ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
            +      unsigned char sha1[20];
            +      struct commit *cmit;
                   struct commit_list *list;
                   static int initialized = 0;
                   struct commit_name *n;

            +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
            +      if (!cmit)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
                   if (!initialized) {
                           initialized = 1;

        1. It is preceded by a "git diff" header, that looks like this
           (when the -c option is used):

               diff --combined file

           or like this (when the --cc option is used):

               diff --cc file

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this
           example shows a merge with two parents):

               index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
               mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

           The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least
           one of the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended
           headers with information about detected content movement
           (renames and copying detection) are designed to work with the
           diff of two <tree-ish> and are not used by combined diff

        3. It is followed by a two-line from-file/to-file header:

               --- a/file
               +++ b/file

           Similar to the two-line header for the traditional unified
           diff format, /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted

           However, if the --combined-all-paths option is provided,
           instead of a two-line from-file/to-file, you get an N+1 line
           from-file/to-file header, where N is the number of parents in
           the merge commit:

               --- a/file
               --- a/file
               --- a/file
               +++ b/file

           This extended format can be useful if rename or copy
           detection is active, to allow you to see the original name of
           the file in different parents.

        4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
           accidentally feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format
           was created for review of merge commit changes, and was not
           meant to be applied. The change is similar to the change in
           the extended index header:

               @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

           There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk
           header for combined diff format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files
       A and B with a single column that has - (minus — appears in A but
       removed in B), + (plus — missing in A but added to B), or " "
       (space — unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more
       files file1, file2,... with one file X, and shows how X differs
       from each of fileN. One column for each of fileN is prepended to
       the output line to note how X’s line is different from it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in
       fileN but it does not appear in the result. A + character in the
       column N means that the line appears in the result, and fileN
       does not have that line (in other words, the line was added, from
       the point of view of that parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed
       from both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2,
       plus ++ to mean one line that was added does not appear in either
       file1 or file2). Also, eight other lines are the same from file1
       but do not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a
       merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the
       parents). When shown by git diff-files -c, it compares the two
       unresolved merge parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1
       is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their


       The --summary option describes newly added, deleted, renamed and
       copied files. The --stat option adds diffstat(1) graph to the
       output. These options can be combined with other options, such as
       -p, and are meant for human consumption.

       When showing a change that involves a rename or a copy, --stat
       output formats the pathnames compactly by combining common prefix
       and suffix of the pathnames. For example, a change that moves
       arch/i386/Makefile to arch/x86/Makefile while modifying 4 lines
       will be shown like this:

           arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile    |   4 +--

       The --numstat option gives the diffstat(1) information but is
       designed for easier machine consumption. An entry in --numstat
       output looks like this:

           1       2       README
           3       1       arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile

       That is, from left to right:

        1. the number of added lines;

        2. a tab;

        3. the number of deleted lines;

        4. a tab;

        5. pathname (possibly with rename/copy information);

        6. a newline.

       When -z output option is in effect, the output is formatted this

           1       2       README NUL
           3       1       NUL arch/i386/Makefile NUL arch/x86/Makefile NUL

       That is:

        1. the number of added lines;

        2. a tab;

        3. the number of deleted lines;

        4. a tab;

        5. a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);

        6. pathname in preimage;

        7. a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);

        8. pathname in postimage (only exists if renamed/copied);

        9. a NUL.

       The extra NUL before the preimage path in renamed case is to
       allow scripts that read the output to tell if the current record
       being read is a single-path record or a rename/copy record
       without reading ahead. After reading added and deleted lines,
       reading up to NUL would yield the pathname, but if that is NUL,
       the record will show two paths.

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control
       system) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2024-06-14.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2024-06-12.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git         2024-06-12               GIT-DIFF-TREE(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-diff(1)git-diff-files(1)git-diff-index(1)git-diff-tree(1)git-log(1)git-show(1)git-svn(1)stg(1)gitdiffcore(7)