git-shortlog(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-SHORTLOG(1)                Git Manual                GIT-SHORTLOG(1)

NAME         top

       git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output

SYNOPSIS         top

       git shortlog [<options>] [<revision-range>] [[--] <path>...]
       git log --pretty=short | git shortlog [<options>]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Summarizes git log output in a format suitable for inclusion in
       release announcements. Each commit will be grouped by author and

       Additionally, "[PATCH]" will be stripped from the commit

       If no revisions are passed on the command line and either
       standard input is not a terminal or there is no current branch,
       git shortlog will output a summary of the log read from standard
       input, without reference to the current repository.

OPTIONS         top

       -n, --numbered
           Sort output according to the number of commits per author
           instead of author alphabetic order.

       -s, --summary
           Suppress commit description and provide a commit count
           summary only.

       -e, --email
           Show the email address of each author.

           Instead of the commit subject, use some other information to
           describe each commit.  <format> can be any string accepted by
           the --format option of git log, such as * [%h] %s. (See the
           "PRETTY FORMATS" section of git-log(1).)

               Each pretty-printed commit will be rewrapped before it is shown.

           Show dates formatted according to the given date string. (See
           the --date option in the "Commit Formatting" section of
           git-log(1)). Useful with --group=format:<format>.

           Group commits based on <type>. If no --group option is
           specified, the default is author.  <type> is one of:

           •   author, commits are grouped by author

           •   committer, commits are grouped by committer (the same as

           •   trailer:<field>, the <field> is interpreted as a
               case-insensitive commit message trailer (see
               git-interpret-trailers(1)). For example, if your project
               uses Reviewed-by trailers, you might want to see who has
               been reviewing with git shortlog -ns

           •   format:<format>, any string accepted by the --format
               option of git log. (See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section of

               Note that commits that do not include the trailer will
               not be counted. Likewise, commits with multiple trailers
               (e.g., multiple signoffs) may be counted more than once
               (but only once per unique trailer value in that commit).

               Shortlog will attempt to parse each trailer value as a
               name <email> identity. If successful, the mailmap is
               applied and the email is omitted unless the --email
               option is specified. If the value cannot be parsed as an
               identity, it will be taken literally and completely.

           If --group is specified multiple times, commits are counted
           under each value (but again, only once per unique value in
           that commit). For example, git shortlog --group=author
           --group=trailer:co-authored-by counts both authors and

       -c, --committer
           This is an alias for --group=committer.

           Linewrap the output by wrapping each line at width. The first
           line of each entry is indented by indent1 spaces, and the
           second and subsequent lines are indented by indent2 spaces.
           width, indent1, and indent2 default to 76, 6 and 9

           If width is 0 (zero) then indent the lines of the output
           without wrapping them.

           Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
           <revision-range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the
           whole history leading to the current commit).  origin..HEAD
           specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit
           (i.e.  HEAD), but not from origin. For a complete list of
           ways to spell <revision-range>, see the "Specifying Ranges"
           section of gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
           Consider only commits that are enough to explain how the
           files that match the specified paths came to be.

           Paths may need to be prefixed with -- to separate them from
           options or the revision range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using
       the special notations explained in the description, additional
       commit limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using
       it with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log
       message has a line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

           Show all commits more recent than a specific date. This
           visits all commits in the range, rather than stopping at the
           first commit which is older than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header
           lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
           With more than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author
           matches any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for
           multiple --committer=<pattern>).

           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
           match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
           than one --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches
           any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use
           this option unless --walk-reflogs is in use.

           Limit the commits output to ones with a log message that
           matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
           than one --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any
           of the given patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           When --notes is in effect, the message from the notes is
           matched as if it were part of the log message.

           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
           instead of ones that match at least one.

           Limit the commits output to ones with a log message that do
           not match the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard
           to letter case.

           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular
           expressions; this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular
           expressions instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t
           interpret pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
           compile-time dependency. If Git wasn’t compiled with support
           for them providing this option will cause it to die.

           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
           exactly the same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many
           parent commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as
           --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
           --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3
           all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to
           no limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any
           commit has 0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative
           numbers denote no upper limit).

           When finding commits to include, follow only the first parent
           commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a
           better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular
           topic branch, because merges into a topic branch tend to be
           only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time,
           and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
           brought in to your history by such a merge.

           When finding commits to exclude (with a ^), follow only the
           first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This can be
           used to find the set of changes in a topic branch from the
           point where it diverged from the remote branch, given that
           arbitrary merges can be valid topic branch changes.

           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for
           all following revision specifiers, up to the next --not. When
           used on the command line before --stdin, the revisions passed
           through stdin will not be affected by it. Conversely, when
           passed via standard input, the revisions passed on the
           command line will not be affected by it.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are
           listed on the command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks
           ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags
           to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or
           [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
           If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern>
           are listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or
           [, /* at the end is implied.

           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next
           --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would
           otherwise consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate
           exclusion patterns up to the next --all, --branches, --tags,
           --remotes, or --glob option (other options or arguments do
           not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads,
           refs/tags, or refs/remotes when applied to --branches,
           --tags, or --remotes, respectively, and they must begin with
           refs/ when applied to --glob or --all. If a trailing /* is
           intended, it must be given explicitly.

           Do not include refs that would be hidden by git-fetch,
           git-receive-pack or git-upload-pack by consulting the
           appropriate fetch.hideRefs, receive.hideRefs or
           uploadpack.hideRefs configuration along with
           transfer.hideRefs (see git-config(1)). This option affects
           the next pseudo-ref option --all or --glob and is cleared
           after processing them.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on
           the command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
           repositories were listed on the command line. An alternate
           repository is any repository whose object directory is
           specified in objects/info/alternates. The set of included
           objects may be modified by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc.
           See git-config(1).

           By default, all working trees will be examined by the
           following options when there are more than one (see
           git-worktree(1)): --all, --reflog and --indexed-objects. This
           option forces them to examine the current working tree only.

           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as
           if the bad input was not given.

           Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was
           listed and as if it was followed by --not and the good
           bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

           In addition to getting arguments from the command line, read
           them from standard input as well. This accepts commits and
           pseudo-options like --all and --glob=. When a -- separator is
           seen, the following input is treated as paths and used to
           limit the result. Flags like --not which are read via
           standard input are only respected for arguments passed in the
           same way and will not influence any subsequent command line

           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits
           with = rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with

           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another
           commit on the “other side” when the set of commits are
           limited with symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way
           to list all commits on only one side of them is with
           --left-right (see the example below in the description of the
           --left-right option). However, it shows the commits that were
           cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, “3rd on b”
           may be cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such
           pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric
           difference, i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  >
           by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those
           commits from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a
           commit in A. In other words, this lists the + commits from
           git cherry A B. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only
           --no-merges gives the exact list.

           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful
           to limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those
           that have been applied to the other side of a forked history
           with git log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git
           cherry upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog
           entries from the most recent one to older ones. When this
           option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude (that
           is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2
           notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for
           obvious reasons), this causes the output to have two extra
           lines of information taken from the reflog. The reflog
           designator in the output may be shown as ref@{<Nth>} (where
           <Nth> is the reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as
           ref@{<timestamp>} (with the <timestamp> for that entry),
           depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{<Nth>}, show
               the index format.

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show
               the timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command
               line, show the timestamp in the format requested by

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with
           this information on the same line. This option cannot be
           combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown
           at all.

           Show commits touching conflicted paths in the range
           HEAD...<other>, where <other> is the first existing pseudoref
           Only works when the index has unmerged entries. This option
           can be used to show relevant commits when resolving conflicts
           from a 3-way merge.

           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
           prefixed with -.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for
       example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are
       two parts of History Simplification, one part is selecting the
       commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various
       strategies to simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful

       The following options affect the way the simplification is

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
           final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
           branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
           with the same content)

           Include all commits from the default mode, but also any merge
           commits that are not TREESAME to the first parent but are
           TREESAME to a later parent. This mode is helpful for showing
           the merge commits that "first introduced" a change to a

           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
           meaningful history.

           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless
           merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
           commits contributing to this merge.

           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.
           commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1), only display commits
           in that range that are ancestors of <commit>, descendants of
           <commit>, or <commit> itself. If no commit is specified, use
           commit1 (the excluded part of the range) as <commit>. Can be
           passed multiple times; if so, a commit is included if it is
           any of the commits given or if it is an ancestor or
           descendant of one of them.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits
       that modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
       filtered for foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example
       history to illustrate the differences between simplification
       settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file foo in this
       commit graph:

                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first
       parent of each merge. The commits are:

       •   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents
           “asdf”, and a file quux exists with contents “quux”. Initial
           commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       •   In A, foo contains just “foo”.

       •   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and
           hence TREESAME to all parents.

       •   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to
           “foobar”, so it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N
           and D to “foobarbaz”; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the
           strings to “quux xyzzy”.  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       •   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side,
           and Y modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added
           side to P, and Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
       commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting
       (via --parents or --children) are used. The following settings
       are available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
           (though this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the
           commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
           only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
           parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all

           This results in:

                        /     /   /

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one
           is available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was
           considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared
           to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but
           that does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so
           we have shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always
           follow all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one
           of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has commits
           that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself
           is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C
           and B were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the
           others do not appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible
           to talk about the parent/child relationships between the
           commits, so we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
           (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
           rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
           included themselves. This results in

                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that
           E was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list
           of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened
           for C and N, and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether
       TREESAME affects inclusion:

           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
           to any parent.

           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies
           merges: if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only
           that one, so the other sides of the merge are never walked.

           First, build a history graph in the same way that
           --full-history with parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the
           final history according to the following rules:

           •   Set C' to C.

           •   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'.
               In the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other
               parents or that are root commits TREESAME to an empty
               tree, and remove duplicates, but take care to never drop
               all parents that we are TREESAME to.

           •   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge
               commit (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or
               !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its
               only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over

           •   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor
               of the other parent M. Still, N remained because it is

           •   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then
               removed completely, because it had one parent and is

           •   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then
               removed, because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then
               removed completely, because it had one parent and is

       There is another simplification mode available:

           Limit the displayed commits to those which are an ancestor of
           <commit>, or which are a descendant of <commit>, or are
           <commit> itself.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit

                          /     \       \
                        /                     \

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors
           of M, but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is
           useful to see what happened to the history leading to M since
           D, in the sense that “what does M have that did not exist in
           D”. The result in this example would be all the commits,
           except A and B (and D itself, of course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated
           with the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we
           might want to view only the subset of D..M that are actually
           descendants of D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly
           what the --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M
           range, it results in:

                                \       \

           We can also use --ancestry-path=D instead of --ancestry-path
           which means the same thing when applied to the D..M range but
           is just more explicit.

           If we instead are interested in a given topic within this
           range, and all commits affected by that topic, we may only
           want to view the subset of D..M which contain that topic in
           their ancestry path. So, using --ancestry-path=H D..M for
           example would result in:


           Whereas --ancestry-path=K D..M would result in


       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create
       a new example history.

       A common problem users face when looking at simplified history is
       that a commit they know changed a file somehow does not appear in
       the file’s simplified history. Let’s demonstrate a new example
       and show how options such as --full-history and --simplify-merges
       works in that case:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`-Z'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `---Y--'

       For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified
       by A, B, and X in different ways. The single-parent commits C, Z,
       and Y do not change file.txt. The merge commit M was created by
       resolving the merge conflict to include both changes from A and B
       and hence is not TREESAME to either. The merge commit R, however,
       was created by ignoring the contents of file.txt at M and taking
       only the contents of file.txt at X. Hence, R is TREESAME to X but
       not M. Finally, the natural merge resolution to create N is to
       take the contents of file.txt at R, so N is TREESAME to R but not
       C. The merge commits O and P are TREESAME to their first parents,
       but not to their second parents, Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME parent,
       so those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The
       resulting history graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will
       discover the commits A and B and the merge M, but also will
       reveal the merge commits O and P. With parent rewriting, the
       resulting graph is:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`--'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as they
       did not actually contribute a change to file.txt. They only
       merged a topic that was based on an older version of file.txt.
       This is a common issue in repositories using a workflow where
       many contributors work in parallel and merge their topic branches
       along a single trunk: many unrelated merges appear in the
       --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P
       disappear from the results. This is because the rewritten second
       parents of O and P are reachable from their first parents. Those
       edges are removed and then the commits look like single-parent
       commits that are TREESAME to their parent. This also happens to
       the commit N, resulting in a history view as follows:

                    /     /    \
                   I     B      R
                    \   /      /
                     \ /      /

       In this view, we see all of the important single-parent changes
       from A, B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and
       the not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough
       information to determine why the commits A and B "disappeared"
       from history in the default view. However, there are a few issues
       with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option requires walking the entire commit
       history before returning a single result. This can make the
       option difficult to use for very large repositories.

       The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors are
       working on the same repository, it is important which merge
       commits introduced a change into an important branch. The
       problematic merge R above is not likely to be the merge commit
       that was used to merge into an important branch. Instead, the
       merge N was used to merge R and X into the important branch. This
       commit may have information about why the change X came to
       override the changes from A and B in its commit message.

           In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show
           each merge commit that is not TREESAME to its first parent
           but is TREESAME to a later parent.

           When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the merge is
           treated as if it "pulled" the change from another branch.
           When using --show-pulls on this example (and no other
           options) the resulting graph is:


           Here, the merge commits R and N are included because they
           pulled the commits X and R into the base branch,
           respectively. These merges are the reason the commits A and B
           do not appear in the default history.

           When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
           includes all of the necessary information:

                         .-A---M--.   N
                        /     /    \ /
                       I     B      R
                        \   /      /
                         \ /      /

           Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N to M
           was simplified away. However, N still appears in the history
           as an important commit because it "pulled" the change R into
           the main branch.

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the
       big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
       that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
       (in other words, kept after history simplification rules
       described above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they
       change the contents of the paths given on the command line. All
       other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified


       See gitmailmap(5).

       Note that if git shortlog is run outside of a repository (to
       process log contents on standard input), it will look for a
       .mailmap file in the current directory.

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control
       system) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2024-06-14.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2024-06-12.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git         2024-06-12                GIT-SHORTLOG(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-cat-file(1)git-config(1)git-diff-tree(1)git-log(1)git-rev-list(1)git-show(1)