rpm(8) — Linux manual page

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RPM(8)                     System Manager's Manual                    RPM(8)

NAME         top

       rpm - RPM Package Manager

SYNOPSIS         top

   QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES:
       rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

       rpm --querytags

       rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

   INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES:
       rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

       rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

       rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

       rpm {--reinstall} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

       rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--justdb] [--nodeps] [--noscripts]
           [--notriggers] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

   MISCELLANEOUS:
       rpm --showrc

       rpm --setperms PACKAGE_NAME ...

       rpm --setugids PACKAGE_NAME ...

       rpm --setcaps PACKAGE_NAME ...

       rpm --restore PACKAGE_NAME ...

   select-options
        [PACKAGE_NAME]
        [-a,--all [SELECTOR]] [-f,--file FILE]
        [-g,--group GROUP] [-p,--package PACKAGE_FILE]
        [--hdrid SHA1] [--pkgid MD5] [--tid TID]
        [--querybynumber HDRNUM] [--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME]
        [--whatprovides CAPABILITY] [--whatrequires CAPABILITY]
        [--whatrecommends CAPABILITY] [--whatsuggests CAPABILITY]
        [--whatsupplements CAPABILITY] [--whatenhances CAPABILITY]
        [--whatobsoletes CAPABILITY] [--whatconflicts CAPABILITY]

   query-options
       General:
        [--changelog] [--changes]  [--dupes] [-i,--info]
        [--last] [--qf,--queryformat QUERYFMT] [--xml]

       Dependencies:
        [--conflicts] [--enhances] [--obsoletes] [--provides]
        [--recommends] [-R,--requires] [--suggests] [--supplements]

       Files:
        [-c,--configfiles] [-d,--docfiles] [--dump] [--fileclass]
        [--filecolor] [--fileprovide][--filerequire] [--filecaps]
        [--filesbypkg] [-l,--list] [-s,--state]
        [--noartifact] [--noghost] [--noconfig]

       Scripts and triggers:
        [--filetriggers] [--scripts] [--triggers,--triggerscripts]

   verify-options
        [--nodeps] [--nofiles] [--noscripts]
        [--nodigest] [--nosignature]
        [--nolinkto] [--nofiledigest] [--nosize] [--nouser]
        [--nogroup] [--nomtime] [--nomode] [--nordev]
        [--nocaps]

   install-options
        [--allfiles] [--badreloc] [--excludepath OLDPATH]
        [--excludedocs] [--force] [-h,--hash]
        [--ignoresize] [--ignorearch] [--ignoreos]
        [--includedocs] [--justdb]
        [--nodeps] [--nodigest] [--noplugins]
        [--nocaps] [--noorder] [--noverify]
        [--nosignature] [--noscripts] [--notriggers]
        [--oldpackage] [--percent] [--prefix NEWPATH]
        [--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH]
        [--replacefiles] [--replacepkgs]
        [--test]

DESCRIPTION         top

       rpm is a powerful Package Manager, which can be used to build,
       install, query, verify, update, and erase individual software
       packages.  A package consists of an archive of files and meta-data
       used to install and erase the archive files. The meta-data includes
       helper scripts, file attributes, and descriptive information about
       the package.  Packages come in two varieties: binary packages, used
       to encapsulate software to be installed, and source packages,
       containing the source code and recipe necessary to produce binary
       packages.

       One of the following basic modes must be selected: Query, Verify,
       Install/Upgrade/Freshen/Reinstall, Uninstall, Set Owners/Groups, Show
       Querytags, and Show Configuration.

   GENERAL OPTIONS
       These options can be used in all the different modes.

       -?, --help
              Print a longer usage message then normal.

       --version
              Print a single line containing the version number of rpm being
              used.

       --quiet
              Print as little as possible - normally only error messages
              will be displayed.

       -v, --verbose
              Print verbose information - normally routine progress messages
              will be displayed.

       -vv    Print lots of ugly debugging information.

       --rcfile FILELIST
              Replace the list of configuration files to be read. Each of
              the files in the colon separated FILELIST is read sequentially
              by rpm for configuration information.  Only the first file in
              the list must exist, and tildes will be expanded to the value
              of $HOME.  The default FILELIST is /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/
              lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.

       --load FILE
              Load an individual macro file.

       --macros FILELIST
              Replace the list of macro files to be loaded. Each of the
              files in the colon separated FILELIST is read sequentially by
              rpm for macro definitions.  Only the first file in the list
              must exist, and tildes will be expanded to the value of $HOME.
              The default FILELIST is /usr/lib/rpm/macros:/usr/lib/rpm/
              macros.d/macros.*:/usr/lib/rpm/platform/%{_target}/macros:
              /usr/lib/rpm/fileattrs/*.attr:/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros:/etc/
              rpm/macros.*:/etc/rpm/macros:/etc/rpm/%{_target}/macros:
              ~/.rpmmacros

       --pipe CMD
              Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.

       --dbpath DIRECTORY
              Use the database in DIRECTORY rather than the default path
              /var/lib/rpm

       --root DIRECTORY
              Use the file system tree rooted at DIRECTORY for all
              operations.  Note that this means the database within
              DIRECTORY will be used for dependency checks and any
              scriptlet(s) (e.g.  %post if installing, or %prep if building,
              a package) will be run after a chroot(2) to DIRECTORY.

       -D, --define='MACRO EXPR'
              Defines MACRO with value EXPR.

       --undefine='MACRO'
              Undefines MACRO.

       -E, --eval='EXPR'
              Prints macro expansion of EXPR.

       More - less often needed - options can be found on the rpm-misc(8)
       man page.

   INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS
       In these options, PACKAGE_FILE can be either rpm binary file or ASCII
       package manifest (see PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS), and may be
       specified as an ftp or http URL, in which case the package will be
       downloaded before being installed. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for
       information on rpm's ftp and http client support.

       The general form of an rpm install command is

       rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

       This installs a new package.

       The general form of an rpm upgrade command is

       rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

       This upgrades or installs the package currently installed to a newer
       version.  This is the same as install, except all other version(s) of
       the package are removed after the new package is installed.

       rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

       This will upgrade packages, but only ones for which an earlier
       version is installed.

       The general form of an rpm reinstall command is

       rpm {--reinstall} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

       This reinstalls a previously installed package.

       --allfiles
              Installs or upgrades all the missingok files in the package,
              regardless if they exist.

       --badreloc
              Used with --relocate, permit relocations on all file paths,
              not just those OLDPATH's included in the binary package
              relocation hint(s).

       --excludepath OLDPATH
              Don't install files whose name begins with OLDPATH.

       --excludeartifacts
              Don't install any files which are marked as artifacts, such as
              build-id links.

       --excludedocs
              Don't install any files which are marked as documentation
              (which includes man pages and texinfo documents).

       --force
              Same as using --replacepkgs, --replacefiles, and --oldpackage.

       -h, --hash
              Print 50 hash marks as the package archive is unpacked.  Use
              with -v|--verbose for a nicer display.

       --ignoresize
              Don't check mount file systems for sufficient disk space
              before installing this package.

       --ignorearch
              Allow installation or upgrading even if the architectures of
              the binary package and host don't match.

       --ignoreos
              Allow installation or upgrading even if the operating systems
              of the binary package and host don't match.

       --includedocs
              Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.

       --justdb
              Update only the database, not the filesystem.

       --nodigest
              Don't verify package or header digests when reading.

       --nomanifest
              Don't process non-package files as manifests.

       --nosignature
              Don't verify package or header signatures when reading.

       --nodeps
              Don't do a dependency check before installing or upgrading a
              package.

       --nocaps
              Don't set file capabilities.

       --noorder
              Don't reorder the packages for an install. The list of
              packages would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.

       --noverify
              Don't perform verify package files prior to installation.

       --noplugins
              Do not load and execute plugins.

       --noscripts, --nopre, --nopost, --nopreun, --nopostun, --nopretrans,
       --noposttrans
              Don't execute the scriptlet of the same name.  The --noscripts
              option is equivalent to

              --nopre --nopost --nopreun --nopostun --nopretrans
              --noposttrans

              and turns off the execution of the corresponding %pre, %post,
              %preun, %postun %pretrans, and %posttrans scriptlet(s).

       --notriggers, --notriggerin, --notriggerun, --notriggerprein,
       --notriggerpostun
              Don't execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type.  The
              --notriggers option is equivalent to

              --notriggerprein --notriggerin --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

              and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerprein,
              %triggerin, %triggerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

       --oldpackage
              Allow an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.

       --percent
              Print percentages as files are unpacked from the package
              archive.  This is intended to make rpm easy to run from other
              tools.

       --prefix NEWPATH
              For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that
              start with the installation prefix in the package relocation
              hint(s) to NEWPATH.

       --relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH
              For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that
              start with OLDPATH in the package relocation hint(s) to
              NEWPATH.  This option can be used repeatedly if several
              OLDPATH's in the package are to be relocated.

       --replacefiles
              Install the packages even if they replace files from other,
              already installed, packages.

       --replacepkgs
              Install the packages even if some of them are already
              installed on this system.

       --test Do not install the package, simply check for and report
              potential conflicts.

   ERASE OPTIONS
       The general form of an rpm erase command is

       rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--justdb] [--nodeps] [--noscripts]
       [--notriggers] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

       The following options may also be used:

       --allmatches
              Remove all versions of the package which match PACKAGE_NAME.
              Normally an error is issued if PACKAGE_NAME matches multiple
              packages.

       --justdb
              Update only the database, not the filesystem.

       --nodeps
              Don't check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.

       --noscripts, --nopreun, --nopostun
              Don't execute the scriptlet of the same name.  The --noscripts
              option during package erase is equivalent to

              --nopreun --nopostun

              and turns off the execution of the corresponding %preun, and
              %postun scriptlet(s).

       --notriggers, --notriggerun, --notriggerpostun
              Don't execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type.  The
              --notriggers option is equivalent to

              --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

              and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerun, and
              %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

       --test Don't really uninstall anything, just go through the motions.
              Useful in conjunction with the -vv option for debugging.

   QUERY OPTIONS
       The general form of an rpm query command is

       rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

       You may specify the format that package information should be printed
       in. To do this, you use the

        --qf|--queryformat QUERYFMT

       option, followed by the QUERYFMT format string.  Query formats are
       modified versions of the standard printf(3) formatting. The format is
       made up of static strings (which may include standard C character
       escapes for newlines, tabs, and other special characters) and
       printf(3) type formatters.  As rpm already knows the type to print,
       the type specifier must be omitted however, and replaced by the name
       of the header tag to be printed, enclosed by {} characters. Tag names
       are case insensitive, and the leading RPMTAG_ portion of the tag name
       may be omitted as well.

       Alternate output formats may be requested by following the tag with
       :typetag.  Currently, the following types are supported:

       :armor Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.

       :arraysize
              Display number of elements in array tags.

       :base64
              Encode binary data using base64.

       :date  Use strftime(3) "%c" format.

       :day   Use strftime(3) "%a %b %d %Y" format.

       :depflags
              Format dependency comparison operator.

       :deptype
              Format dependency type.

       :expand
              Perform macro expansion.

       :fflags
              Format file flags.

       :fstate
              Format file state.

       :fstatus
              Format file verify status.

       :hex   Format in hexadecimal.

       :octal Format in octal.

       :humaniec
              Human readable number (in IEC 80000). The suffix K = 1024, M =
              1048576, ...

       :humansi
              Human readable number (in SI). The suffix K = 1000, M =
              1000000, ...

       :perms Format file permissions.

       :pgpsig
              Display signature fingerprint and time.

       :shescape
              Escape single quotes for use in a script.

       :string
              Display string format. (default)

       :triggertype
              Display trigger suffix.

       :vflags
              File verification flags.

       :xml   Wrap data in simple xml markup.

       For example, to print only the names of the packages queried, you
       could use %{NAME} as the format string.  To print the packages name
       and distribution information in two columns, you could use
       %-30{NAME}%{DISTRIBUTION}.  rpm will print a list of all of the tags
       it knows about when it is invoked with the --querytags argument.

       There are three subsets of options for querying: package selection,
       file selection and information selection.

   PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS:
       PACKAGE_NAME
              Query installed package named PACKAGE_NAME. To specify the
              package more precisely the package name may be followed by the
              version or version and release both separated by a dash or an
              architecture name separated by a dot. See the output of rpm
              -qa or rpm -qp PACKAGE_FILE as an example.

       -a, --all [SELECTOR]
              Query all installed packages.

              An optional SELECTOR in the form of tag=pattern can be
              provided to narrow the selection, for example name="b*" to
              query packages whose name starts with "b".

       --dupes
              List duplicated packages.

       -f, --file FILE
              Query package owning FILE.

       --filecaps
              List file names with POSIX1.e capabilities.

       --fileclass
              List file names with their classes (libmagic classification).

       --filecolor
              List file names with their colors (0 for noarch, 1 for 32bit,
              2 for 64 bit).

       --fileprovide
              List file names with their provides.

       --filerequire
              List file names with their requires.

       -g, --group GROUP
              Query packages with the group of GROUP.

       --hdrid SHA1
              Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e.
              the SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.

       -p, --package PACKAGE_FILE
              Query an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE.  The PACKAGE_FILE
              may be specified as an ftp or http style URL, in which case
              the package header will be downloaded and queried.  See
              FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpm's ftp and http client
              support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s), if not a binary
              package, will be interpreted as an ASCII package manifest
              unless --nomanifest option is used.  In manifests, comments
              are permitted, starting with a '#', and each line of a package
              manifest file may include white space separated glob
              expressions, including URL's, that will be expanded to paths
              that are substituted in place of the package manifest as
              additional PACKAGE_FILE arguments to the query.

       --pkgid MD5
              Query package that contains a given package identifier, i.e.
              the MD5 digest of the combined header and payload contents.

       --querybynumber HDRNUM
              Query the HDRNUMth database entry directly; this is useful
              only for debugging.

       --specfile SPECFILE
              Parse and query SPECFILE as if it were a package. Although not
              all the information (e.g. file lists) is available, this type
              of query permits rpm to be used to extract information from
              spec files without having to write a specfile parser.

       --tid TID
              Query package(s) that have a given TID transaction identifier.
              A unix time stamp is currently used as a transaction
              identifier. All package(s) installed or erased within a single
              transaction have a common identifier.

       --triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME
              Query packages that are triggered by package(s) PACKAGE_NAME.

       --whatobsoletes CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that obsolete CAPABILITY for proper
              functioning.

       --whatprovides CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.

       --whatrequires CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that require CAPABILITY for proper
              functioning.

       --whatconflicts CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that conflict with CAPABILITY.

       --whatrecommends CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that recommend CAPABILITY.

       --whatsuggests CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that suggest CAPABILITY.

       --whatsupplements CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that supplement CAPABILITY.

       --whatenhances CAPABILITY
              Query all packages that enhance CAPABILITY.

   PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS:
       --changelog
              Display change information for the package.

       --changes
              Display change information for the package with full time
              stamps.

       --conflicts
              List capabilities this package conflicts with.

       --dump Dump file information as follows (implies -l):

              path size mtime digest mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink

       --enhances
              List capabilities enhanced by package(s)

       --filesbypkg
              List all the files in each selected package.

       --filetriggers
              List filetrigger scriptlets from package(s).

       -i, --info
              Display package information, including name, version, and
              description.  This uses the --queryformat if one was
              specified.

       --last Orders the package listing by install time such that the
              latest packages are at the top.

       -l, --list
              List files in package.

       --obsoletes
              List packages this package obsoletes.

       --provides
              List capabilities this package provides.

       --recommends
              List capabilities recommended by package(s)

       -R, --requires
              List capabilities on which this package depends.

       --suggests
              List capabilities suggested by package(s)

       --supplements
              List capabilities supplemented by package(s)

       --scripts
              List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part
              of the installation and uninstallation processes.

       -s, --state
              Display the states of files in the package (implies -l).  The
              state of each file is one of normal, not installed, or
              replaced.

       --triggers, --triggerscripts
              Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in
              the package.  --xml Format package headers as XML.

   FILE SELECTION OPTIONS:
       -A, --artifactfiles
              Only include artifact files (implies -l).

       -c, --configfiles
              Only include configuration files (implies -l).

       -d, --docfiles
              Only include documentation files (implies -l).

       -L, --licensefiles
              Only include license files (implies -l).

       --noartifact
              Exclude artifact files.

       --noconfig
              Exclude config files.

       --noghost
              Exclude ghost files.

   VERIFY OPTIONS
       The general form of an rpm verify command is

       rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

       Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in
       the package with information about the files taken from the package
       metadata stored in the rpm database.  Among other things, verifying
       compares the size, digest, permissions, type, owner and group of each
       file.  Any discrepancies are displayed.  Files that were not
       installed from the package, for example, documentation files excluded
       on installation using the "--excludedocs" option, will be silently
       ignored.

       The package and file selection options are the same as for package
       querying (including package manifest files as arguments).  Other
       options unique to verify mode are:

       --nodeps
              Don't verify dependencies of packages.

       --nodigest
              Don't verify package or header digests when reading.

       --nofiles
              Don't verify any attributes of package files.

       --noscripts
              Don't execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).

       --nosignature
              Don't verify package or header signatures when reading.

       --nolinkto

       --nofiledigest (formerly --nomd5)

       --nosize

       --nouser

       --nogroup

       --nomtime

       --nomode

       --nordev
              Don't verify the corresponding file attribute.

       --nocaps
              Don't verify file capabilities.

       The format of the output is a string of 9 characters, a possible
       attribute marker:

       c %config configuration file.
       d %doc documentation file.
       g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload).
       l %license license file.
       r %readme readme file.

       from the package header, followed by the file name.  Each of the 9
       characters denotes the result of a comparison of attribute(s) of the
       file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded in the database.  A
       single "." (period) means the test passed, while a single "?"
       (question mark) indicates the test could not be performed (e.g. file
       permissions prevent reading). Otherwise, the (mnemonically
       emBoldened) character denotes failure of the corresponding --verify
       test:

       S file Size differs
       M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type)
       5 digest (formerly MD5 sum) differs
       D Device major/minor number mismatch
       L readLink(2) path mismatch
       U User ownership differs
       G Group ownership differs
       T mTime differs
       P caPabilities differ

   MISCELLANEOUS COMMANDS
       rpm --showrc
              shows the values rpm will use for all of the options are
              currently set in rpmrc and macros configuration file(s).

       rpm --setperms PACKAGE_NAME
              sets permissions of files in the given package. Consider using
              --restore instead.

       rpm --setugids PACKAGE_NAME
              sets user/group ownership of files in the given package. This
              command can change permissions and capabilities of files in
              that package. In most cases it is better to use --restore
              instead.

       rpm --setcaps PACKAGE_NAME
              sets capabilities of files in the given package. Consider
              using --restore instead.

       rpm --restore PACKAGE_NAME
              The option restores owner, group, permissions and capabilities
              of files in the given package.

       Options --setperms, --setugids, --setcaps and
              --restore are mutually exclusive.

   FTP/HTTP OPTIONS
       rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP client so that packages can be
       queried or installed from the internet.  Package files for install,
       upgrade, and query operations may be specified as an ftp or http
       style URL:

       http://HOST[:PORT]/path/to/package.rpm

       ftp://[USER:PASSWORD]@HOST[:PORT]/path/to/package.rpm

       If both the user and password are omitted, anonymous ftp is used.

       rpm allows the following options to be used with ftp URLs:

       rpm allows the following options to be used with
              http and ftp URLs:

       --httpproxy HOST
              The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all http and
              ftp transfers. This option may also be specified by
              configuring the macro %_httpproxy.

       --httpport PORT
              The TCP PORT number to use for the http connection on the
              proxy http server instead of the default port. This option may
              also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpport.

LEGACY ISSUES         top

   Executing rpmbuild
       The build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild
       executable.  Install the package containing rpmbuild (usually rpm-
       build) and see rpmbuild(8) for documentation of all the rpm build
       modes.

FILES         top

   rpmrc Configuration
       /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc
       /usr/lib/rpm/<vendor>/rpmrc
       /etc/rpmrc
       ~/.rpmrc

   Macro Configuration
       /usr/lib/rpm/macros
       /usr/lib/rpm/<vendor>/macros
       /etc/rpm/macros
       ~/.rpmmacros

   Database
       /var/lib/rpm/Basenames
       /var/lib/rpm/Conflictname
       /var/lib/rpm/Dirnames
       /var/lib/rpm/Group
       /var/lib/rpm/Installtid
       /var/lib/rpm/Name
       /var/lib/rpm/Obsoletename
       /var/lib/rpm/Packages
       /var/lib/rpm/Providename
       /var/lib/rpm/Requirename
       /var/lib/rpm/Sha1header
       /var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5
       /var/lib/rpm/Triggername

   Temporary
       /var/tmp/rpm*

SEE ALSO         top

       rpm-misc(8),
       popt(3),
       rpm2cpio(8),
       rpmbuild(8),
       rpmdb(8),
       rpmkeys(8),
       rpmsign(8),
       rpmspec(8),

       rpm --help - as rpm supports customizing the options via popt aliases
       it's impossible to guarantee that what's described in the manual
       matches what's available.

       http://www.rpm.org/ <URL:http://www.rpm.org/>

AUTHORS         top

       Marc Ewing <marc@redhat.com>
       Jeff Johnson <jbj@redhat.com>
       Erik Troan <ewt@redhat.com>

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the rpm (RPM Package Manager) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://github.com/rpm-software-management/rpm⟩.  It is not known how
       to report bugs for this man page; if you know, please send a mail to
       man-pages@man7.org.  This page was obtained from the project's
       upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/rpm-software-management/rpm.git⟩ on 2020-07-14.
       (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in
       the repository was 2020-07-10.)  If you discover any rendering prob‐
       lems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a bet‐
       ter or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections
       or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not
       part of the original manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

Red Hat, Inc.                   09 June 2002                          RPM(8)

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