tmpfiles.d(5) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | CONFIGURATION DIRECTORIES AND PRECEDENCE | CONFIGURATION FILE FORMAT | SPECIFIERS | EXAMPLES | /RUN/ AND /VAR/RUN/ | SEE ALSO | NOTES | COLOPHON

TMPFILES.D(5)                    tmpfiles.d                    TMPFILES.D(5)

NAME         top

       tmpfiles.d - Configuration for creation, deletion and cleaning of
       volatile and temporary files

SYNOPSIS         top

       /etc/tmpfiles.d/*.conf
       /run/tmpfiles.d/*.conf
       /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/*.conf

       ~/.config/user-tmpfiles.d/*.conf
       $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/user-tmpfiles.d/*.conf
       ~/.local/share/user-tmpfiles.d/*.conf
       ...
       /usr/share/user-tmpfiles.d/*.conf

       #Type Path                                     Mode User Group Age         Argument
       f     /file/to/create                          mode user group -           content
       f+    /file/to/create-or-truncate              mode user group -           content
       w     /file/to/write-to                        -    -    -     -           content
       w+    /file/to/append-to                       -    -    -     -           content
       d     /directory/to/create-and-cleanup         mode user group cleanup-age -
       D     /directory/to/create-and-remove          mode user group cleanup-age -
       e     /directory/to/cleanup                    mode user group cleanup-age -
       v     /subvolume-or-directory/to/create        mode user group -           -
       q     /subvolume-or-directory/to/create        mode user group -           -
       Q     /subvolume-or-directory/to/create        mode user group -           -
       p     /fifo/to/create                          mode user group -           -
       p+    /fifo/to/[re]create                      mode user group -           -
       L     /symlink/to/create                       -    -    -     -           symlink/target/path
       L+    /symlink/to/[re]create                   -    -    -     -           symlink/target/path
       c     /dev/char-device-to-create               mode user group -           major:minor
       c+    /dev/char-device-to-[re]create           mode user group -           major:minor
       b     /dev/block-device-to-create              mode user group -           major:minor
       b+    /dev/block-device-to-[re]create          mode user group -           major:minor
       C     /target/to/create                        -    -    -     -           /source/to/copy
       x     /path-or-glob/to/ignore                  -    -    -     -           -
       X     /path-or-glob/to/ignore/recursively      -    -    -     -           -
       r     /empty/dir/to/remove                     -    -    -     -           -
       R     /dir/to/remove/recursively               -    -    -     -           -
       z     /path-or-glob/to/adjust/mode             mode user group -           -
       Z     /path-or-glob/to/adjust/mode/recursively mode user group -           -
       t     /path-or-glob/to/set/xattrs              -    -    -     -           xattrs
       T     /path-or-glob/to/set/xattrs/recursively  -    -    -     -           xattrs
       h     /path-or-glob/to/set/attrs               -    -    -     -           file attrs
       H     /path-or-glob/to/set/attrs/recursively   -    -    -     -           file attrs
       a     /path-or-glob/to/set/acls                -    -    -     -           POSIX ACLs
       a+    /path-or-glob/to/append/acls             -    -    -     -           POSIX ACLs
       A     /path-or-glob/to/set/acls/recursively    -    -    -     -           POSIX ACLs
       A+    /path-or-glob/to/append/acls/recursively -    -    -     -           POSIX ACLs

DESCRIPTION         top

       tmpfiles.d configuration files provide a generic mechanism to define
       the creation of regular files, directories, pipes, and device nodes,
       adjustments to their access mode, ownership, attributes, quota
       assignments, and contents, and finally their time-based removal. It
       is mostly commonly used for volatile and temporary files and
       directories (such as those located under /run, /tmp, /var/tmp, the
       API file systems such as /sys or /proc, as well as some other
       directories below /var).

       systemd-tmpfiles uses this configuration to create volatile files and
       directories during boot and to do periodic cleanup afterwards. See
       systemd-tmpfiles(5) for the description of
       systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service, systemd-tmpfiles-cleanup.service, and
       associated units.

       System daemons frequently require private runtime directories below
       /run to store communication sockets and similar. For these, it is
       better to use RuntimeDirectory= in their unit files (see
       systemd.exec(5) for details), if the flexibility provided by
       tmpfiles.d is not required. The advantages are that the configuration
       required by the unit is centralized in one place, and that the
       lifetime of the directory is tied to the lifetime of the service
       itself. Similarly, StateDirectory=, CacheDirectory=, LogsDirectory=,
       and ConfigurationDirectory= should be used to create directories
       under /var/lib/, /var/cache/, /var/log/, and /etc/.  tmpfiles.d
       should be used for files whose lifetime is independent of any service
       or requires more complicated configuration.

CONFIGURATION DIRECTORIES AND PRECEDENCE         top

       Each configuration file shall be named in the style of package.conf
       or package-part.conf. The second variant should be used when it is
       desirable to make it easy to override just this part of
       configuration.

       Files in /etc/tmpfiles.d override files with the same name in
       /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d and /run/tmpfiles.d. Files in /run/tmpfiles.d
       override files with the same name in /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d. Packages
       should install their configuration files in /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d.
       Files in /etc/tmpfiles.d are reserved for the local administrator,
       who may use this logic to override the configuration files installed
       by vendor packages. All configuration files are sorted by their
       filename in lexicographic order, regardless of which of the
       directories they reside in. If multiple files specify the same path,
       the entry in the file with the lexicographically earliest name will
       be applied (note that lines suppressed due to the "!"  are filtered
       before application, meaning that if an early line carries the
       exclamation mark and is suppressed because of that, a later line
       matching in path will be applied). All other conflicting entries will
       be logged as errors. When two lines are prefix path and suffix path
       of each other, then the prefix line is always created first, the
       suffix later (and if removal applies to the line, the order is
       reversed: the suffix is removed first, the prefix later). Lines that
       take globs are applied after those accepting no globs. If multiple
       operations shall be applied on the same file (such as ACL, xattr,
       file attribute adjustments), these are always done in the same fixed
       order. Except for those cases, the files/directories are processed in
       the order they are listed.

       If the administrator wants to disable a configuration file supplied
       by the vendor, the recommended way is to place a symlink to /dev/null
       in /etc/tmpfiles.d/ bearing the same filename.

CONFIGURATION FILE FORMAT         top

       The configuration format is one line per path containing type, path,
       mode, ownership, age, and argument fields:

           #Type Path        Mode User Group Age Argument
           d     /run/user   0755 root root  10d -
           L     /tmp/foobar -    -    -     -   /dev/null

       Fields may be enclosed within quotes and contain C-style escapes.

   Type
       The type consists of a single letter and optionally an exclamation
       mark ("!") and/or minus sign ("-").

       The following line types are understood:

       f, f+
           f will create a file if it does not exist yet. If the argument
           parameter is given and the file did not exist yet, it will be
           written to the file.  f+ will create or truncate the file. If the
           argument parameter is given, it will be written to the file. Does
           not follow symlinks.

       w, w+
           Write the argument parameter to a file, if the file exists. If
           suffixed with +, the line will be appended to the file. If your
           configuration writes multiple lines to the same file, use w+.
           Lines of this type accept shell-style globs in place of normal
           path names. The argument parameter will be written without a
           trailing newline. C-style backslash escapes are interpreted.
           Follows symlinks.

       d
           Create a directory. The mode and ownership will be adjusted if
           specified. Contents of this directory are subject to time based
           cleanup if the age argument is specified.

       D
           Similar to d, but in addition the contents of the directory will
           be removed when --remove is used.

       e
           Adjust the mode and ownership of existing directories and remove
           their contents based on age. Lines of this type accept
           shell-style globs in place of normal path names. Contents of the
           directories are subject to time based cleanup if the age argument
           is specified. If the age argument is "0", contents will be
           unconditionally deleted every time systemd-tmpfiles --clean is
           run.

           For this entry to be useful, at least one of the mode, user,
           group, or age arguments must be specified, since otherwise this
           entry has no effect. As an exception, an entry with no effect may
           be useful when combined with !, see the examples.

       v
           Create a subvolume if the path does not exist yet, the file
           system supports subvolumes (btrfs), and the system itself is
           installed into a subvolume (specifically: the root directory / is
           itself a subvolume). Otherwise, create a normal directory, in the
           same way as d.

           A subvolume created with this line type is not assigned to any
           higher-level quota group. For that, use q or Q, which allow
           creating simple quota group hierarchies, see below.

       q
           Create a subvolume or directory the same as v, but assign the
           subvolume to the same higher-level quota groups as the parent.
           This ensures that higher-level limits and accounting applied to
           the parent subvolume also include the specified subvolume. On
           non-btrfs file systems, this line type is identical to d.

           If the subvolume already exists, no change to the quota hierarchy
           is made, regardless of whether the subvolume is already attached
           to a quota group or not. Also see Q below. See btrfs-qgroup(8)
           for details about the btrfs quota group concept.

       Q
           Create the subvolume or directory the same as v, but assign the
           new subvolume to a new leaf quota group. Instead of copying the
           higher-level quota group assignments from the parent as is done
           with q, the lowest quota group of the parent subvolume is
           determined that is not the leaf quota group. Then, an
           "intermediary" quota group is inserted that is one level below
           this level, and shares the same ID part as the specified
           subvolume. If no higher-level quota group exists for the parent
           subvolume, a new quota group at level 255 sharing the same ID as
           the specified subvolume is inserted instead. This new
           intermediary quota group is then assigned to the parent
           subvolume's higher-level quota groups, and the specified
           subvolume's leaf quota group is assigned to it.

           Effectively, this has a similar effect as q, however introduces a
           new higher-level quota group for the specified subvolume that may
           be used to enforce limits and accounting to the specified
           subvolume and children subvolume created within it. Thus, by
           creating subvolumes only via q and Q, a concept of "subtree
           quotas" is implemented. Each subvolume for which Q is set will
           get a "subtree" quota group created, and all child subvolumes
           created within it will be assigned to it. Each subvolume for
           which q is set will not get such a "subtree" quota group, but it
           is ensured that they are added to the same "subtree" quota group
           as their immediate parents.

           It is recommended to use Q for subvolumes that typically contain
           further subvolumes, and where it is desirable to have accounting
           and quota limits on all child subvolumes together. Examples for Q
           are typically /home or /var/lib/machines. In contrast, q should
           be used for subvolumes that either usually do not include further
           subvolumes or where no accounting and quota limits are needed
           that apply to all child subvolumes together. Examples for q are
           typically /var or /var/tmp.

           As with q, Q has no effect on the quota group hierarchy if the
           subvolume already exists, regardless of whether the subvolume
           already belong to a quota group or not.

       p, p+
           Create a named pipe (FIFO) if it does not exist yet. If suffixed
           with + and a file already exists where the pipe is to be created,
           it will be removed and be replaced by the pipe.

       L, L+
           Create a symlink if it does not exist yet. If suffixed with + and
           a file or directory already exists where the symlink is to be
           created, it will be removed and be replaced by the symlink. If
           the argument is omitted, symlinks to files with the same name
           residing in the directory /usr/share/factory/ are created. Note
           that permissions and ownership on symlinks are ignored.

       c, c+
           Create a character device node if it does not exist yet. If
           suffixed with + and a file already exists where the device node
           is to be created, it will be removed and be replaced by the
           device node. It is recommended to suffix this entry with an
           exclamation mark to only create static device nodes at boot, as
           udev will not manage static device nodes that are created at
           runtime.

       b, b+
           Create a block device node if it does not exist yet. If suffixed
           with + and a file already exists where the device node is to be
           created, it will be removed and be replaced by the device node.
           It is recommended to suffix this entry with an exclamation mark
           to only create static device nodes at boot, as udev will not
           manage static device nodes that are created at runtime.

       C
           Recursively copy a file or directory, if the destination files or
           directories do not exist yet or the destination directory is
           empty. Note that this command will not descend into
           subdirectories if the destination directory already exists and is
           not empty. Instead, the entire copy operation is skipped. If the
           argument is omitted, files from the source directory
           /usr/share/factory/ with the same name are copied. Does not
           follow symlinks.

       x
           Ignore a path during cleaning. Use this type to exclude paths
           from clean-up as controlled with the Age parameter. Note that
           lines of this type do not influence the effect of r or R lines.
           Lines of this type accept shell-style globs in place of normal
           path names.

       X
           Ignore a path during cleaning. Use this type to exclude paths
           from clean-up as controlled with the Age parameter. Unlike x,
           this parameter will not exclude the content if path is a
           directory, but only directory itself. Note that lines of this
           type do not influence the effect of r or R lines. Lines of this
           type accept shell-style globs in place of normal path names.

       r
           Remove a file or directory if it exists. This may not be used to
           remove non-empty directories, use R for that. Lines of this type
           accept shell-style globs in place of normal path names. Does not
           follow symlinks.

       R
           Recursively remove a path and all its subdirectories (if it is a
           directory). Lines of this type accept shell-style globs in place
           of normal path names. Does not follow symlinks.

       z
           Adjust the access mode, user and group ownership, and restore the
           SELinux security context of a file or directory, if it exists.
           Lines of this type accept shell-style globs in place of normal
           path names. Does not follow symlinks.

       Z
           Recursively set the access mode, user and group ownership, and
           restore the SELinux security context of a file or directory if it
           exists, as well as of its subdirectories and the files contained
           therein (if applicable). Lines of this type accept shell-style
           globs in place of normal path names. Does not follow symlinks.

       t
           Set extended attributes, see attr(5) for details. The argument
           field should take one or more assignment expressions in the form
           namespace.attribute=value, for examples see below. Lines of this
           type accept shell-style globs in place of normal path names. This
           can be useful for setting SMACK labels. Does not follow symlinks.

           Please note that extended attributes settable with this line type
           are a different concept from the Linux file attributes settable
           with h/H, see below.

       T
           Same as t, but operates recursively.

       h
           Set Linux file/directory attributes. Lines of this type accept
           shell-style globs in place of normal path names.

           The format of the argument field is [+-=][aAcCdDeijPsStTu]. The
           prefix + (the default one) causes the attribute(s) to be added; -
           causes the attribute(s) to be removed; = causes the attributes to
           be set exactly as the following letters. The letters
           "aAcCdDeijPsStTu" select the new attributes for the files, see
           chattr(1) for further information.

           Passing only = as argument resets all the file attributes listed
           above. It has to be pointed out that the = prefix limits itself
           to the attributes corresponding to the letters listed here. All
           other attributes will be left untouched. Does not follow
           symlinks.

           Please note that the Linux file attributes settable with this
           line type are a different concept from the extended attributes
           settable with t/T, see above.

       H
           Sames as h, but operates recursively.

       a, a+
           Set POSIX ACLs (access control lists), see acl(5). If suffixed
           with +, the specified entries will be added to the existing set.
           systemd-tmpfiles will automatically add the required base entries
           for user and group based on the access mode of the file, unless
           base entries already exist or are explicitly specified. The mask
           will be added if not specified explicitly or already present.
           Lines of this type accept shell-style globs in place of normal
           path names. This can be useful for allowing additional access to
           certain files. Does not follow symlinks.

       A, A+
           Same as a and a+, but recursive. Does not follow symlinks.

       If the exclamation mark ("!") is used, this line is only safe to
       execute during boot, and can break a running system. Lines without
       the exclamation mark are presumed to be safe to execute at any time,
       e.g. on package upgrades.  systemd-tmpfiles will take lines with an
       exclamation mark only into consideration, if the --boot option is
       given.

       For example:

           # Make sure these are created by default so that nobody else can
           d /tmp/.X11-unix 1777 root root 10d

           # Unlink the X11 lock files
           r! /tmp/.X[0-9]*-lock

       The second line in contrast to the first one would break a running
       system, and will only be executed with --boot.

       If the minus sign ("-") is used, this line failing to run
       successfully during create (and only create) will not cause the
       execution of systemd-tmpfiles to return an error.

       For example:

           # Modify sysfs but don't fail if we are in a container with a read-only /proc
           w- /proc/sys/vm/swappiness - - - - 10

       Note that for all line types that result in creation of any kind of
       file node (i.e.  f/F, d/D/v/q/Q, p, L, c/b and C) leading directories
       are implicitly created if needed, owned by root with an access mode
       of 0755. In order to create them with different modes or ownership
       make sure to add appropriate d lines.

   Path
       The file system path specification supports simple specifier
       expansion, see below. The path (after expansion) must be absolute.

   Mode
       The file access mode to use when creating this file or directory. If
       omitted or when set to "-", the default is used: 0755 for
       directories, 0644 for all other file objects. For z, Z lines, if
       omitted or when set to "-", the file access mode will not be
       modified. This parameter is ignored for x, r, R, L, t, and a lines.

       Optionally, if prefixed with "~", the access mode is masked based on
       the already set access bits for existing file or directories: if the
       existing file has all executable bits unset, all executable bits are
       removed from the new access mode, too. Similarly, if all read bits
       are removed from the old access mode, they will be removed from the
       new access mode too, and if all write bits are removed, they will be
       removed from the new access mode too. In addition, the
       sticky/SUID/SGID bit is removed unless applied to a directory. This
       functionality is particularly useful in conjunction with Z.

   User, Group
       The user and group to use for this file or directory. This may either
       be a numeric ID or a user/group name. If omitted or when set to "-",
       the user and group of the user who invokes systemd-tmpfiles is used.
       For z and Z lines, when omitted or when set to "-", the file
       ownership will not be modified. These parameters are ignored for x,
       r, R, L, t, and a lines.

       This field should generally only reference system users/groups, i.e.
       users/groups that are guaranteed to be resolvable during early boot.
       If this field references users/groups that only become resolveable
       during later boot (i.e. after NIS, LDAP or a similar networked
       directory service become available), execution of the operations
       declared by the line will likely fail. Also see Notes on
       Resolvability of User and Group Names[1] for more information on
       requirements on system user/group definitions.

   Age
       The date field, when set, is used to decide what files to delete when
       cleaning. If a file or directory is older than the current time minus
       the age field, it is deleted. The field format is a series of
       integers each followed by one of the following suffixes for the
       respective time units: s, m or min, h, d, w, ms, and us, meaning
       seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, milliseconds, and microseconds,
       respectively. Full names of the time units can be used too.

       If multiple integers and units are specified, the time values are
       summed. If an integer is given without a unit, s is assumed.

       When the age is set to zero, the files are cleaned unconditionally.

       The age field only applies to lines starting with d, D, e, v, q, Q,
       C, x and X. If omitted or set to "-", no automatic clean-up is done.

       If the age field starts with a tilde character "~", the clean-up is
       only applied to files and directories one level inside the directory
       specified, but not the files and directories immediately inside it.

       The age of a file system entry is determined from its last
       modification timestamp (mtime), its last access timestamp (atime),
       and (except for directories) its last status change timestamp
       (ctime). Any of these three (or two) values will prevent cleanup if
       it is more recent than the current time minus the age field.

       Note that while the aging algorithm is run a 'shared' BSD file lock
       (see flock(2)) is taken on each directory the algorithm descends into
       (and each directory below that, and so on). If the aging algorithm
       finds a lock is already taken on some directory, it (and everything
       below it) is skipped. Applications may use this to temporarily
       exclude certain directory subtrees from the aging algorithm: the
       applications can take a BSD file lock themselves, and as long as they
       keep it aging of the directory and everything below it is disabled.

   Argument
       For L lines determines the destination path of the symlink. For c and
       b, determines the major/minor of the device node, with major and
       minor formatted as integers, separated by ":", e.g.  "1:3". For f, F,
       and w, the argument may be used to specify a short string that is
       written to the file, suffixed by a newline. For C, specifies the
       source file or directory. For t and T, determines extended attributes
       to be set. For a and A, determines ACL attributes to be set. For h
       and H, determines the file attributes to set. Ignored for all other
       lines.

       This field can contain specifiers, see below.

SPECIFIERS         top

       Specifiers can be used in the "path" and "argument" fields. An
       unknown or unresolvable specifier is treated as invalid
       configuration. The following expansions are understood:

       Table 1. Specifiers available
       ┌──────────┬─────────────────────┬────────────────────────┐
       │Specifier Meaning             Details                │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%a"      │ Architecture        │ A short string         │
       │          │                     │ identifying the        │
       │          │                     │ architecture of the    │
       │          │                     │ local system. A        │
       │          │                     │ string such as x86,    │
       │          │                     │ x86-64 or arm64.       │
       │          │                     │ See the                │
       │          │                     │ architectures          │
       │          │                     │ defined for            │
       │          │                     │ ConditionArchitecture= │
       │          │                     │ in systemd.unit(5)     │
       │          │                     │ for a full list.       │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%b"      │ Boot ID             │ The boot ID of the     │
       │          │                     │ running system,        │
       │          │                     │ formatted as string.   │
       │          │                     │ See random(4) for more │
       │          │                     │ information.           │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%B"      │ Operating system    │ The operating system   │
       │          │ build ID            │ build identifier of    │
       │          │                     │ the running system, as │
       │          │                     │ read from the          │
       │          │                     │ BUILD_ID= field of     │
       │          │                     │ /etc/os-release. If    │
       │          │                     │ not set, resolves to   │
       │          │                     │ an empty string. See   │
       │          │                     │ os-release(5) for more │
       │          │                     │ information.           │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%C"      │ System or user      │ In --user mode, this   │
       │          │ cache directory     │ is the same as         │
       │          │                     │ $XDG_CACHE_HOME, and   │
       │          │                     │ /var/cache otherwise.  │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%h"      │ User home directory │ This is the home       │
       │          │                     │ directory of the user  │
       │          │                     │ running the command.   │
       │          │                     │ In case of the system  │
       │          │                     │ instance this resolves │
       │          │                     │ to "/root".            │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%H"      │ Host name           │ The hostname of the    │
       │          │                     │ running system.        │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%l"      │ Short host name     │ The hostname of the    │
       │          │                     │ running system,        │
       │          │                     │ truncated at the first │
       │          │                     │ dot to remove any      │
       │          │                     │ domain component.      │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%L"      │ System or user log  │ In --user mode, this   │
       │          │ directory           │ is the same as         │
       │          │                     │ $XDG_CONFIG_HOME with  │
       │          │                     │ /log appended, and     │
       │          │                     │ /var/log otherwise.    │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%m"      │ Machine ID          │ The machine ID of the  │
       │          │                     │ running system,        │
       │          │                     │ formatted as string.   │
       │          │                     │ See machine-id(5) for  │
       │          │                     │ more information.      │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%o"      │ Operating system ID │ The operating system   │
       │          │                     │ identifier of the      │
       │          │                     │ running system, as     │
       │          │                     │ read from the ID=      │
       │          │                     │ field of               │
       │          │                     │ /etc/os-release. See   │
       │          │                     │ os-release(5) for more │
       │          │                     │ information.           │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%S"      │ System or user      │ In --user mode, this   │
       │          │ state directory     │ is the same as         │
       │          │                     │ $XDG_CONFIG_HOME, and  │
       │          │                     │ /var/lib otherwise.    │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%t"      │ System or user      │ In --user mode, this   │
       │          │ runtime directory   │ is the same            │
       │          │                     │ $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR, and  │
       │          │                     │ /run otherwise.        │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%T"      │ Directory for       │ This is either /tmp or │
       │          │ temporary files     │ the path "$TMPDIR",    │
       │          │                     │ "$TEMP" or "$TMP" are  │
       │          │                     │ set to.                │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%g"      │ User group          │ This is the name of    │
       │          │                     │ the group running the  │
       │          │                     │ command. In case of    │
       │          │                     │ the system instance    │
       │          │                     │ this resolves to       │
       │          │                     │ "root".                │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%G"      │ User GID            │ This is the numeric    │
       │          │                     │ GID of the group       │
       │          │                     │ running the command.   │
       │          │                     │ In case of the system  │
       │          │                     │ instance this resolves │
       │          │                     │ to 0.                  │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%u"      │ User name           │ This is the name of    │
       │          │                     │ the user running the   │
       │          │                     │ command. In case of    │
       │          │                     │ the system instance    │
       │          │                     │ this resolves to       │
       │          │                     │ "root".                │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%U"      │ User UID            │ This is the numeric    │
       │          │                     │ UID of the user        │
       │          │                     │ running the command.   │
       │          │                     │ In case of the system  │
       │          │                     │ instance this resolves │
       │          │                     │ to 0.                  │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%v"      │ Kernel release      │ Identical to uname -r  │
       │          │                     │ output.                │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%V"      │ Directory for       │ This is either         │
       │          │ larger and          │ /var/tmp or the path   │
       │          │ persistent          │ "$TMPDIR", "$TEMP" or  │
       │          │ temporary files     │ "$TMP" are set to.     │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%w"      │ Operating system    │ The operating system   │
       │          │ version ID          │ version identifier of  │
       │          │                     │ the running system, as │
       │          │                     │ read from the          │
       │          │                     │ VERSION_ID= field of   │
       │          │                     │ /etc/os-release. If    │
       │          │                     │ not set, resolves to   │
       │          │                     │ an empty string. See   │
       │          │                     │ os-release(5) for more │
       │          │                     │ information.           │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%W"      │ Operating system    │ The operating system   │
       │          │ variant ID          │ variant identifier of  │
       │          │                     │ the running system, as │
       │          │                     │ read from the          │
       │          │                     │ VARIANT_ID= field of   │
       │          │                     │ /etc/os-release. If    │
       │          │                     │ not set, resolves to   │
       │          │                     │ an empty string. See   │
       │          │                     │ os-release(5) for more │
       │          │                     │ information.           │
       ├──────────┼─────────────────────┼────────────────────────┤
       │"%%"      │ Single percent sign │ Use "%%" in place of   │
       │          │                     │ "%" to specify a       │
       │          │                     │ single percent sign.   │
       └──────────┴─────────────────────┴────────────────────────┘

EXAMPLES         top

       Example 1. Create directories with specific mode and ownership

       screen(1), needs two directories created at boot with specific modes
       and ownership:

           # /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/screen.conf
           d /run/screens  1777 root screen 10d
           d /run/uscreens 0755 root screen 10d12h

       Contents of /run/screens and /run/uscreens will be cleaned up after
       10 and 10½ days, respectively.

       Example 2. Create a directory with a SMACK attribute

           D /run/cups - - - -
           t /run/cups - - - - security.SMACK64=printing user.attr-with-spaces="foo bar"

       The directory will be owned by root and have default mode. Its
       contents are not subject to time based cleanup, but will be
       obliterated when systemd-tmpfiles --remove runs.

       Example 3. Create a directory and prevent its contents from cleanup

       abrt(1), needs a directory created at boot with specific mode and
       ownership and its content should be preserved from the automatic
       cleanup applied to the contents of /var/tmp:

           # /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/tmp.conf
           d /var/tmp 1777 root root 30d

           # /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/abrt.conf
           d /var/tmp/abrt 0755 abrt abrt -

       Example 4. Apply clean up during boot and based on time

           # /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/dnf.conf
           r! /var/cache/dnf/*/*/download_lock.pid
           r! /var/cache/dnf/*/*/metadata_lock.pid
           r! /var/lib/dnf/rpmdb_lock.pid
           e  /var/cache/dnf/ - - - 30d

       The lock files will be removed during boot. Any files and directories
       in /var/cache/dnf/ will be removed after they have not been accessed
       in 30 days.

       Example 5. Empty the contents of a cache directory on boot

           # /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/krb5rcache.conf
           e! /var/cache/krb5rcache - - - 0

       Any files and subdirectories in /var/cache/krb5rcache/ will be
       removed on boot. The directory will not be created.

/RUN/ AND /VAR/RUN/         top

       /var/run/ is a deprecated symlink to /run/, and applications should
       use the latter.  systemd-tmpfiles will warn if /var/run/ is used.

SEE ALSO         top

       systemd(1), systemd-tmpfiles(8), systemd-delta(1), systemd.exec(5),
       attr(5), getfattr(1), setfattr(1), setfacl(1), getfacl(1), chattr(1),
       btrfs-subvolume(8), btrfs-qgroup(8)

NOTES         top

        1. Notes on Resolvability of User and Group Names
           https://systemd.io/UIDS-GIDS/#notes-on-resolvability-of-user-and-group-names

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service manager)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd⟩.  If you have a bug
       report for this manual page, see
       ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/#bugreports⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/systemd/systemd.git⟩ on 2020-07-14.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2020-07-14.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

systemd 246                                                    TMPFILES.D(5)

Pages that refer to this page: systemd.exec(5)30-systemd-environment-d-generator(7)file-hierarchy(7)systemd.directives(7)systemd.index(7)systemd-pstore(8)systemd-pstore.service(8)systemd-tmpfiles(8)systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service(8)systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer(8)systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service(8)systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service(8)