screen(1) — Linux manual page


SCREEN(1)                  General Commands Manual                 SCREEN(1)

NAME         top

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

SYNOPSIS         top

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical
       terminal between several processes (typically interactive shells).
       Each virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal
       and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429 (ECMA
       48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and
       support for multiple character sets).  There is a scrollback history
       buffer for each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that
       allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in it
       (or the specified command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you
       can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them
       (including more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of
       windows, turn output logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between
       windows, view the scrollback history, switch between windows in
       whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs continue to run when
       their window is currently not visible and even when the whole screen
       session is detached from the user's terminal.  When a program
       terminates, screen (per default) kills the window that contained it.
       If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the
       previous window; if none are left, screen exits. Shells usually
       distinguish between running as login-shell or sub-shell.  Screen runs
       them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise (See "shell" .screenrc

       Everything you type is sent to the program running in the current
       window.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is used
       to initiate a command to the window manager.  By default, each
       command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is
       followed by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the
       key bindings can be fully customized to be anything you like, though
       they are always two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although
       this notation is used in this manual for readability.  Please use the
       caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the
       escape command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This
       creates a new window running a shell and switches to that window
       immediately, regardless of the state of the process running in the
       current window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a custom
       command in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your
       .screenrc file or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just
       like the "C-a c" command.  In addition, new windows can be created by
       running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will
       not run another copy of screen, but will instead supply the command
       name and its arguments to the window manager (specified in the $STY
       environment variable) who will use it to create the new window.  The
       above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and
       switch to its window. - Note that you cannot transport environment
       variables from the invoking shell to the application (emacs in this
       case), because it is forked from the parent screen process, not from
       the invoking shell.

       If "/etc/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be
       written to this file for each window, and removed when the window is
       terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk", "script",
       "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs that use the
       utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on
       your terminal, the terminal's own record is removed from the utmp
       file. See also "C-a L".


       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have
       correctly selected your terminal type, just as you would for any
       other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading, you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing
       these two characters will display a list of the available screen
       commands and their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the
       section "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION"
       deals with the contents of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow
       the last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the
       screen) consider using a version of your terminal's termcap that has
       automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal update of the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals
       nowadays have "magic" margins (automatic margins plus usable last
       column). This is the VT100 style type and perfectly suited for
       screen.  If all you've got is a "true" auto-margin terminal screen
       will be content to use it, but updating a character put into the last
       position on the screen may not be possible until the screen scrolls
       or the character is moved into a safe position in some other way.
       This delay can be shortened by using a terminal with insert-character


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each
            window's termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the
            display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the current
            terminal.  By default, screen tries to restore its old window
            sizes when attaching to resizable terminals (those with "WS" in
            its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"
            to file.

       -d|-D []
            does not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen
            session. It has the same effect as typing "C-a d" from screen's
            controlling terminal. -D is the equivalent to the power detach
            key.  If no session can be detached, this option is ignored. In
            combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is
               running, then reattach. If necessary detach and logout
               remotely first.  If it was not running create it and notify
               the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status of your
            sessions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character
            generating a literal command character to y (when typed after
            the command character).  The default is "C-a" and `a', which can
            be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this
            option sets the default command character. In a multiuser
            session all users added will start off with this command
            character. But when attaching to an already running session,
            this option changes only the command character of the attaching
            user.  This option is equivalent to either the commands
            "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the
            display immediately when flow-control is on.  See the "defflow"
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /etc/utmp updating).  This can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but prints a list of strings
            identifying your screen sessions.  Sessions marked `detached'
            can be resumed with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are
            running and have a controlling terminal. If the session runs in
            multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions marked as
            `unreachable' either live on a different host or are `dead'.  An
            unreachable session is considered dead, when its name matches
            either the name of the local host, or the specified parameter,
            if any.  See the -r flag for a description how to construct
            matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked
            and removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are not sure.
            Remove sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the

       -Logfile file
            By default logfile name is "screenlog.0". You can set new
            logfile name with the "-Logfile" option.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With
            "screen -m" creation of a new session is enforced, regardless
            whether screen is called from within another screen session or
            not. This flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session
               but doesn't attach to it. This is useful for system startup

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork
               a new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects an optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
            true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals without
            `LP').  This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying
            `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to
            a specific window or you want to send a command via the "-X"
            option to a specific window. As with screen's select command,
            "-" selects the blank window. As a special case for reattach,
            "=" brings up the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+"
            will create a new window. The command will not be executed if
            the specified window could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls"
            the exit value is as follows: 9 indicates a directory without
            sessions. 10 indicates a directory with running but not
            attachable sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable
            sessions.  In combination with "-r" the exit value is as
            follows: 10 indicates that there is no session to resume. 12 (or
            more) indicates that there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume
            and you should specify which one to choose.  In all other cases
            "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some commands now can be queried from a remote session using
            this flag, e.g. "screen -Q windows". The commands will send the
            response to the stdout of the querying process. If there was an
            error in the command, then the querying process will exit with a
            non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except
            combinations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional
            prefix of [pid.] may be needed to distinguish between
            multiple detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to
            connect to another user's screen session which runs in multiuser
            mode. This indicates that screen should look for sessions in
            another user's directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes screen only when it's unambiguous which one to attach,
            usually when only one screen is detached. Otherwise lists
            available sessions.  -RR attempts to resume the first detached
            screen session it finds.  If successful, all other command-line
            options are ignored.  If no detached session exists, starts a
            new session using the specified options, just as if -R had not
            been specified. The option is set by default if screen is run as
            a login-shell (actually screen uses "-xRR" in that case).  For
            combinations with the -d/-D option see there.

       -s program
            sets the default shell to the program specified, instead of the
            value in the environment variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not
            defined).  This can also be defined through the "shell"
            .screenrc command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify
            a meaningful name for the session. This name identifies the
            session for "screen -list" and "screen -r" actions. It
            substitutes the default [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified
            program.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment variable using the specified term as
            opposed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your
            terminal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also
            sets the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions
            instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is
            considered dead, when its name matches either the name of the
            local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the
            -r flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display mode).
            Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But when cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen session. You may
            use the -S option to specify the screen session if you have
            several screen sessions running. You can use the -d or -r option
            to tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen
            sessions. Note that this command doesn't work if the session is
            password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed by one
       other character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound
       to lower-case letters are also bound to their control character
       counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a
       c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window. See section
       "CUSTOMIZATION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings. The trailing
       commas in boxes with multiple keystroke entries are separators, not
       part of the bindings.

       C-a '              (select)          Prompt for a window
                                            name or number to
                                            switch to.
       C-a "              (windowlist -b)   Present a list of
                                            all windows for
       C-a digit          (select 0-9)      Switch to window
                                            number 0 - 9
       C-a -              (select -)        Switch to window
                                            number 0 - 9, or to
                                            the blank window.
       C-a tab            (focus)           Switch the input
                                            focus to the next
                                            region.  See also
                                            split, remove,
       C-a C-a            (other)           Toggle to the
                                            window displayed
                                            previously.  Note
                                            that this binding
                                            defaults to the
                                            command character
                                            typed twice, unless
                                            overridden.  For
                                            instance, if you
                                            use the option
                                            "-e]x", this
                                            command becomes
       C-a a              (meta)            Send the command
                                            character (C-a) to
                                            window. See escape
       C-a A              (title)           Allow the user to
                                            enter a name for
                                            the current window.
       C-a b,             (break)           Send a break to
       C-a C-b                              window.
       C-a B              (pow_break)       Reopen the terminal
                                            line and send a
       C-a c,             (screen)          Create a new window
       C-a C-c                              with a shell and
                                            switch to that
       C-a C              (clear)           Clear the screen.
       C-a d,             (detach)          Detach screen from
       C-a C-d                              this terminal.

       C-a D D            (pow_detach)      Detach and logout.
       C-a f,             (flow)            Toggle flow on, off
       C-a C-f                              or auto.
       C-a F              (fit)             Resize the window
                                            to the current
                                            region size.
       C-a C-g            (vbell)           Toggles screen's
                                            visual bell mode.
       C-a h              (hardcopy)        Write a hardcopy of
                                            the current window
                                            to the file
       C-a H              (log)             Begins/ends logging
                                            of the current
                                            window to the file
       C-a i,             (info)            Show info about
       C-a C-i                              this window.
       C-a k,             (kill)            Destroy current
       C-a C-k                              window.
       C-a l,             (redisplay)       Fully refresh
       C-a C-l                              current window.
       C-a L              (login)           Toggle this windows
                                            login slot.
                                            Available only if
                                            screen is
                                            configured to
                                            update the utmp
       C-a m,             (lastmsg)         Repeat the last
       C-a C-m                              message displayed
                                            in the message
       C-a M              (monitor)         Toggles monitoring
                                            of the current
       C-a space,         (next)            Switch to the next
       C-a n,                               window.
       C-a C-n
       C-a N              (number)          Show the number
                                            (and title) of the
                                            current window.
       C-a backspace,     (prev)            Switch to the
       C-a C-h,                             previous window
       C-a p,                               (opposite of C-a
       C-a C-p                              n).
       C-a q,             (xon)             Send a control-q to
       C-a C-q                              the current window.

       C-a Q              (only)            Delete all regions
                                            but the current
                                            one.  See also
                                            split, remove,
       C-a r,             (wrap)            Toggle the current
       C-a C-r                              window's line-wrap
                                            setting (turn the
                                            current window's
                                            automatic margins
                                            on and off).
       C-a s,             (xoff)            Send a control-s to
       C-a C-s;                             the current window.
       C-a S              (split)           Split the current
                                            region horizontally
                                            into two new ones.
                                            See also only,
                                            remove, focus.
       C-a t,             (time)            Show system
       C-a C-t                              information.
       C-a u,             (parent)          Switch to the
       C-a C-u                              parent window.
       C-a v              (version)         Display the version
                                            and compilation
       C-a C-v            (digraph)         Enter digraph.
       C-a w,             (windows)         Show a list of
       C-a C-w                              window.
       C-a W              (width)           Toggle 80/132
       C-a x or C-a C-x   (lockscreen)      Lock this terminal.
       C-a X              (remove)          Kill the current
                                            region.  See also
                                            split, only, focus.
       C-a z,             (suspend)         Suspend screen.
       C-a C-z                              Your system must
                                            support BSD-style
       C-a Z              (reset)           Reset the virtual
                                            terminal to its
                                            "power-on" values.
       C-a .              (dumptermcap)     Write out a
                                            ".termcap" file.
       C-a ?              (help)            Show key bindings.
       C-a \              (quit)            Kill all windows
                                            and terminate
       C-a :              (colon)           Enter command line

       C-a [,             (copy)            Enter
       C-a C-[,                             copy/scrollback
       C-a esc                              mode.
       C-a C-],           (paste .)         Write the contents
       C-a ]                                of the paste buffer
                                            to the stdin queue
                                            of the current
       C-a {,             (history)         Copy and paste a
       C-a }                                previous (command)
       C-a >              (writebuf)        Write paste buffer
                                            to a file.
       C-a <              (readbuf)         Reads the screen-
                                            exchange file into
                                            the paste buffer.
       C-a =              (removebuf)       Removes the file
                                            used by C-a < and
                                            C-a >.
       C-a ,              (license)         Shows where screen
                                            comes from, where
                                            it went to and why
                                            you can use it.
       C-a _              (silence)         Start/stop
                                            monitoring the
                                            current window for
       C-a |              (split -v)        Split the current
                                            region vertically
                                            into two new ones.
       C-a *              (displays)        Show a listing of
                                            all currently
                                            attached displays.


       The "socket directory" defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to /usr/local/screens chosen at compile-
       time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator
       should compile screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket
       directory. If screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify
       any mode 700 directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the
       files "/usr/local/etc/screenrc" and ".screenrc" in the user's home
       directory. These are the "programmer's defaults" that can be
       overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen
       searches for the environment variable $SYSTEM_SCREENRC (this override
       feature may be disabled at compile-time). The user specific screenrc
       file is searched in $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The command
       line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files are used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the
       beginning of your screen session.  Commands are listed one per line,
       with empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated
       by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.
       A `#' turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.
       Unintelligible lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may
       contain references to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-
       like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with
       previous screen versions, as now the '$'-character has to be
       protected with '\' if no variable substitution shall be performed. A
       string in single-quotes is also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your screen
       distribution: "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a
       number of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode
       type `C-a :'. Note that commands starting with "def" change default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be
       one user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to
       attach to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg
       usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted
       access, use the `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second
       parameter is supplied, it should be a crypted password for the named
       user(s). `Addacl' is a synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission
       bits are represented as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the
       permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated
       list of commands and/or windows (specified either by number or
       title). The special list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all
       commands. if usernames consists of a single `*', all known users are

       A command can be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The
       user can type input to a window when he has its `w' bit set and no
       other user obtains a writelock for this window.  Other bits are
       currently ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in
       window 2: `aclchg username -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the
       session: `aclchg username -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known
       to screen he can attach to the session and (per default) has full
       permissions for all command and windows. Execution permission for the
       acl commands, `at' and others should also be removed or the user may
       be able to regain write permission.  Rights of the special username
       nobody cannot be changed (see the "su" command).  `Chacl' is a
       synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently
       attached, all the user's displays are detached from the session. He
       cannot attach again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights. The name of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the
       group inherits the permissions that are granted to the group leader.
       That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is made
       for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special
       value "none" is used for groupname.  If the second parameter is
       omitted all groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be
       created by the caller of the command.  Users may be no, one or a
       comma separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a
       list of all currently known users is assumed.  Bits is any
       combination of access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg"
       command. The special username "?" predefines the access that not yet
       known users will be granted to any window initially.  The special
       username "??" predefines the access that not yet known users are
       granted to any command.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot
       be changed (see the "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being
       monitored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The
       notification message can be re-defined by means of the "activity"
       command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number
       of the window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of
       `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually
       an audible bell).  The default message is

                       'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window
       change.  This affects all windows and is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window
       is restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that
       immediately takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial"
       settings. It does not change the default redraw behavior of newly
       created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual
       terminals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays or windows as if it had been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or
       `current display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter
       describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple
       times. If the first parameter is of the form `identifier*' then
       identifier is matched against user names.  The command is executed
       once for each display of the selected user(s). If the first parameter
       is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against displays.
       Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or
       `/dev/tty' may be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a
       `#' or nothing appended it is matched against window numbers and
       titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*' or
       `%'-character selects all users, displays or windows because a
       prefix-match is performed. Note that on the affected display(s) a
       short message will describe what happened. Permission is checked for
       initiator of the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected
       display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment
       introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped by
       prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of the "at"
       command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at
       least once per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement
       of windows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the
       command will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when
       issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process")
       require that a display is associated with the target windows.  These
       commands may not work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the
       color of the text. If the attribute attrib is in use, the specified
       attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given,
       the current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the
       syntax of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i"
       stands for high-intensity foreground color and "I" for high-intensity
       background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which
       saves all your running programs until they are resumed with a screen
       -r command.  When turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen
       and all the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...

       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape.
       The specified lifespan is the number of seconds the output is
       considered valid. After this time, the command is run again if a
       corresponding string escape is encountered.  The autorefresh
       parameter triggers an automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus
       strings after the specified number of seconds. Only the last line of
       output is used for substitution.

       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the
       backtick program is expected to stay in the background and generate
       output once in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right
       away and screen stores the last line of output. If a new line gets
       printed screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all
       characters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will be
       displayed in the current background color. Otherwise the default
       background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays
       a notification in the message line.  The notification message can be
       re-defined by this command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is
       replaced by the number of the window to which a bell has been sent,
       and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in
       your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                              'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to
       suppress output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter,
       the current message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided
       by screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT
       KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to create a new window is
       bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be used to redefine
       the key bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is
       either a single character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"
       (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying
       the ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed by a second
       character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if
       you like.  If no further argument is given, any previously
       established binding for this key is removed.  The command argument
       can be any command listed in this section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a
       class. Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys or
       multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

                       bind ' ' windows
                       bind ^k
                       bind k
                       bind K kill
                       bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                       bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of
       windows (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also
       be available as "C-a space"). The next three lines remove the default
       kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to
       the kill command. Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create a window
       with a TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape" to the command
       that creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with
       a superuser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                       bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                       bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                       bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                       bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry
       in one of the tables tells screen how to react if a certain sequence
       of characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should
       contain actions programmed by the user, one for the default actions
       used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do
       cursor movement. See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a list of
       default key bindings.

       If the -d option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m
       changes the copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters to which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap
       keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if
       application mode is turned on (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys have
       two entries in the translation table. You can select the application
       mode entry by specifying the -a option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One
       cannot turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d

       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries
       are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1

       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo

       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled
       so that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault

       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word
       "foo" by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to
       press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command

       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).


       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For
       non-Posix systems the time interval may be rounded up to full
       seconds.  Most useful if a character device is attached to the window
       rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no
       blanker program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the
       program is started and it's output is written to the screen.  The
       screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read key is

       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an empty
       argument is given. Shows the currently set blanker program if no
       arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. This command should affect the current window only.
       But it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be
       changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste
       buffer.  If the optional argument to the "bufferfile" command is
       omitted, the default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.
       The following example will paste the system's password file into the
       screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                       C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                       C-a < C-a ]
                       C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the input
       characters between 128 and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit
       code is normally the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit
       code. The default setting is to process c1 codes and can be changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable
       characters in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a
       caption is only used if more than one window is shown on the display
       (split screen mode). But if the type is set to always screen shows a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use
       all escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default
       of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional

       You can have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom of the
       window.  The default is bottom.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset
       mapping.  The first four character of set are treated as charset
       designators while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0'
       to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be used to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not
       be changed (set is padded to six characters internally by appending
       '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a
       "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of
       the environment variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by
       means of the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or by means of
       "C-a : screen ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.
       Without a chdir command, this would be the directory from which
       screen was invoked.

       Hardcopy and log files are always written to the window's default
       directory, not the current directory of the process running in the
       window.  You can use this command multiple times in your .screenrc to
       start various windows in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly
       modification of key bindings, specific window creation and changing
       settings. Note that the "set" keyword no longer exists! Usually
       commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may
       regard "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape
       character (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the
       "-c" option is given, select the specified command class.  See also
       "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note:
       Only the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This
       command is only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the
       current window and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a
       vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       h, C-h,        move the cursor left.
       left arrow
       j, C-n,        move the cursor down.
       down arrow
       k, C-p,        move the cursor up.
       up arrow
       l ('el'),      move the cursor right.
       right arrow
       0 (zero) C-a   move to the leftmost column.
       + and -        positions one line up and down.
       H, M and L     move the cursor to the leftmost column of the
                      top, center or bottom line of the window.
       |              moves to the specified absolute column.
       g or home      moves to the beginning of the buffer.
       G or end       moves to the specified absolute line (default:
                      end of buffer).

       %              jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
       ^ or $         move to the leftmost column, to the first or
                      last non-whitespace character on the line.
       w, b, and e    move the cursor word by word.
       B, E           move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
       f/F, t/T       move the cursor forward/backward to the next
                      occurence of the target. (eg, '3fy' will move
                      the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)
       ; and ,        Repeat the last f/F/t/T command in the
                      same/opposite direction.
       C-e and C-y    scroll the display up/down by one line while
                      preserving the cursor position.
       C-u and C-d    scroll the display up/down by the specified
                      amount of lines while preserving the cursor
                      position. (Default: half screen-full).
       C-b and C-f    scroll the display up/down a full screen.

       Note: Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc
       command.  (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple method
       for a full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between
       these marks will be highlighted. Press:

              space or enter to set the first or second mark respectively.
              If mousetrack is set to `on', marks can also be set using left
              mouse click.

              Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
       pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste

       The folllowing search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does
       not allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen does.
       Press: c or C to set the left or right margin respectively. If no
       repeat count is given, both default to the current cursor position.

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

       This moves one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns
       left, marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column,
       moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks the end
       of the paste buffer. Now try:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a
       newline character (012), lines glued seamless, lines separated by a
       single whitespace and comma separated lines. Note that you can
       prepend the newline character with a carriage return character, by
       issuing a "crlf on".

       v or V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the
       left margin between column 9 and 1. Press

       a before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the
       contents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer
       to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once
       copy-mode is finished.

       This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to
       that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x or o exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You
       can use this to adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If
       it is set to `on', lines will be separated by the two character
       sequence `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When
       no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use
       the special `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.
       The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the
       duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate long
       breaks.  Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks
       with spikes (e.g. 4 per second). This is not only system-dependent,
       this also differs between serial board drivers.  Calling
       "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should
       change window title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also
       "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the
       "escape" except that it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a
       multiuser session "escape" changes the command character of the
       calling user, where "defescape" changes the default command
       characters for users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same as the flow command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying "defflow
       auto interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is set to status.
       This command is useful to make the hardstatus of every window display
       the window number or title or the like.  Status may contain the same
       directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape
       character is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make
       a misinterpretation of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.
       If the parameter status is omitted, the current default string is
       displayed.  Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is
       an octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default setting for
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can
       use the special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to have a
       dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `on' if screen was started
       with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with
       the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and put it
       into the background).  This returns you to the shell where you
       invoked screen.  A detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen
       with the -r option (see also section "COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS"). The -h
       option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the
       terminal ("hangup").


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to
       know why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.  The
       following keys can be used in displays list:

       k, C-p, or up           Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down         Move down one line.
       C-a or home             Move to the first line.
       C-e or end              Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d              Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f              Move one full page up or down.
       mouseclick              Move to the selected line.
                               Available when "mousetrack" is
                               set to on.
       space                   Refresh the list
       d                       Detach that display
       D                       Power detach that display
       C-g, enter, or escape   Exit the list

       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

              (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

              (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

              (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

              (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode.  The available
              modes are "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

              (F) Number of the window

              (G) Name/title of window

              (H) Whether the window is shared

              (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters.

              │             Window permissions indicators              │
              │ 1st character   │  2nd character   │   3rd character   │
              │-   │no read     │ -   │no write    │ -   │no execute   │
              │r   │read        │ w   │write       │ x   │execute      │
              │    │            │ W   │own wlock   │     │             │
              │Indicators of permissions suppressed by a foreign wlock │
              │R   │read only   │ .   │no write    │     │             │
              "displays" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide
              and 5 characters high in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next two
       characters typed are looked up in a builtin table and the resulting
       character is inserted in the input stream. For example, if the user
       enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character
       entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters (up
       to three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset
       is treated as user input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For
       example the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user to
       generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-
       value is specified, a new digraph is created with the specified
       preset. The digraph is unset if a zero value is provided for the


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the
       currently active window to the file ".termcap" in the user's
       "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores its sockets. See
       the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is identical to the
       value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen
       for each window. For terminfo based systems you will need to run a
       converter like captoinfo and then compile the entry with tic.

       dynamictitle on|off

       Change behaviour for windows regarding if screen should change window
       title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming
       windows)" section.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of
       the day'. Typically installed in a global /local/etc/screenrc.  The
       option "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also "sleep".
       Echo is also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument
       sets the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a
       different encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the
       encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed as
       screen uses the locale setting to detect the encoding.  There is also
       a way to select a terminal encoding depending on the terminal type by
       using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R,
       KOI8-U, CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5,
       ISO8859-6, ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15,

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating a literal
       command character (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to
       the -e option).  Each argument is either a single character, a two-
       character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash
       followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the
       character), or a backslash followed by a second character, such as
       "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1[command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data
       between newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally
       started in the window (let us call it "application-process") and
       screen itself (window) is controlled by the file descriptor pattern
       fdpat.  This pattern is basically a three character sequence
       representing stdin, stdout and stderr of newcommand. A dot (.)
       connects the file descriptor to screen.  An exclamation mark (!)
       causes the file descriptor to be connected to the application-
       process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go to newcommand
       unless newcommand receives the application-process' output (fdpats
       first character is `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol (|) is added (as a
       fourth character) to the end of fdpat.

       Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the
       currently running subprocess in this window. Only one subprocess a
       time can be running in each window.

       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it
       instead of the windows process.

       Refer to the postscript file `doc/' for a confusing
       illustration of all 21 possible combinations. Each drawing shows the
       digits 2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of newcommand.
       The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the application-process
       on its slave side.  The box marked `P' is the secondary pty that now
       has screen at its master side.

       Abbreviations: Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and the
       command can be omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of
       dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern
       `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced
       by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh

              exec /bin/sh


                     Creates another shell in the same window, while the
                     original shell is still running. Output of both shells
                     is displayed and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200

              exec ! stty 19200

              !!stty 19200

                     Set the speed of the window's tty. If your stty command
                     operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less


                     This adds a pager to the window output. The special
                     character `|' is needed to give the user control over
                     the pager although it gets its input from the window's
                     process. This works, because less listens on stderr (a
                     behavior that screen would not expect without the `|')
                     when its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than
                     177 fail miserably here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                     Sends window output to both, the user and the sed
                     command. The sed inserts an additional bell character
                     (oct. 007) to the window output seen by screen.  This
                     will cause "Bell in window x" messages, whenever the
                     string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This
       command is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size
       automatically if the window is displayed more than once.

       flow   [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without parameters it
       cycles the current window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to
       "on" to "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this
       document for full details and note, that this is subject to change in
       future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [next|prev|up|down|left|right|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way
       so that the top left region is selected after the bottom right one.
       If no option is given it defaults to `next'. The next region to be
       selected is determined by how the regions are layered.  Normally, the
       next region in the same layer would be selected.  However, if that
       next region contains one or more layers, the first region in the
       highest layer is selected first. If you are at the last region of the
       current layer, `next' will move the focus to the next region in the
       lower layer (if there is a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles in the
       opposite order. See "split" for more information about layers.

       The rest of the options (`up', `down', `left', `right', `top', and
       `bottom') are more indifferent to layers. The option `up' will move
       the focus upward to the region that is touching the upper left corner
       of the current region.  `Down' will move downward to the region that
       is touching the lower left corner of the current region. The option
       `left' will move the focus leftward to the region that is touching
       the upper left corner of the current region, while `right' will move
       rightward to the region that is touching the upper right corner of
       the current region. Moving left from a left most region or moving
       right from a right most region will result in no action.

       The option `top' will move the focus to the very first region in the
       upper list corner of the screen, and `bottom' will move to the region
       in the bottom right corner of the screen. Moving up from a top most
       region or moving down from a bottom most region will result in no

       Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
           bind h focus left
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind l focus right
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This forces any currently selected region to be automatically resized
       at least a certain width and height. All other surrounding regions
       will be resized in order to accommodate.  This constraint follows
       everytime the "focus" command is used. The "resize" command can be
       used to increase either dimension of a region, but never below what
       is set with "focusminsize". The underscore `_' is a synonym for max.
       Setting a width and height of `0 0' (zero zero) will undo any
       constraints and allow for manual resizing.  Without any parameters,
       the minimum width and height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input
       character with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the
       GR slot and print the character with the 8th bit stripped. The
       default (see also "defgr") is not to process GR switching because
       otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows can
       be moved around between different groups by specifying the name of
       the destination group. Without specifying a group, the title of the
       current group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no
       filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where
       n is the number of the current window.  This either appends or
       overwrites the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is
       specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created
       by the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten each
       time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]

       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore[string]

       hardstatus string[string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's
       hardstatus line. The first form toggles whether screen will use the
       hardware status line to display messages. If the flag is set to
       `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the
       display line. The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have
       a hardstatus line (i.e. the termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts",
       "fs" and "ds" are not set).  When "firstline/lastline" is used,
       screen will reserve the first/last line of the display for the
       hardstatus. "message" uses screen's message mechanism and "ignore"
       tells screen never to display the hardstatus.  If you prepend the
       word "always" to the type (e.g., "alwayslastline"), screen will use
       the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h'
       is used as default string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current
       window (settable via "ESC]0;<string>^G" or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is
       displayed.  You can customize this to any string you like including
       the escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out the
       argument string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as
       additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no
       argument is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can
       also specify a width if you want to change both values.  The -w
       option tells screen to leave the display size unchanged and just set
       the window size, -d vice versa.


       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands
       followed by their current bindings.  Subsequent pages will display
       the custom commands, one command per key.  Press space when you're
       done reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other
       characters are ignored. If the "-c" option is given, display all
       bound commands for the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT
       KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last
       command executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-
       calling "the command that started ...": You just type the first
       letter of that command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a
       previous line that matches with the `prompt character' to the left of
       the cursor. This line is pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus
       you have a crude command history (made up by the visible window and
       its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

       Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds
       inactivity is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker"
       command to create a screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.
       If no command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout of
       zero (or the special timeout off) disables the timer.  If no
       arguments are given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is
       `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses the message line to display some information about the current
       window: the cursor position in the form "(column,row)" starting with
       "(1,1)", the terminal width and height plus the size of the
       scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50", the current state
       of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also section

       │+flow    │ automatic flow control, currently on.                    │
       │-flow    │ automatic flow control, currently off.                   │
       │+(+)flow │ flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.     │
       │-(+)flow │ flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control. │
       │+(-)flow │ flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.  │
       │-(-)flow │ flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.    │
       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap'
       not) is also shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or
       `nored' are displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin mode,
       application-keypad mode, has output logging, activity monitoring or
       partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square
       brackets the terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is in UTF-8 mode, the string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").

       If the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default
       state, the info line is started with a string identifying the current

       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.

       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise
       the process (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP
       condition, the window structure is removed and screen (your display)
       switches to another window.  When the last window is destroyed,
       screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the previously
       displayed window.

       Note: Emacs users should keep this command in mind, when killing a
       line.  It is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.  Useful if
       you're typing when a message appears, because  the message goes away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status
       line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine

       layout new [title]

       Create a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and
       be switched to the blank window. From here, you build the regions and
       the windows they show as you desire. The new layout will be numbered
       with the smallest available integer, starting with zero. You can
       optionally give a title to your new layout.  Otherwise, it will have
       a default title of "layout". You can always change the title later by
       using the command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the
       number or the title can be specified. Without either specification,
       screen will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be
       specified. Without either specification, screen will prompt and ask
       which screen is desired. To see which layouts are available, use the
       layout show command.

       layout show

       List on the message line the number(s) and title(s) of the available
       layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given
       will be used to name the layout. Without any options, the current
       title and number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change or display the number of the current layout. An integer given
       will be used to number the layout. Without any options, the current
       number and title is displayed on the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change or display which layout to reattach back to. The default is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout
       just before detachment. By supplying a title, You can instruct screen
       to reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was used at
       the time of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach
       to will be shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the current arrangement of regions. When used, screen will
       remember the arrangement of vertically and horizontally split
       regions. This arrangement is restored when a screen session is
       reattached or switched back from a different layout. If the session
       ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrangements are lost.
       The layout dump command should help in this siutation. If a number or
       title is supplied, screen will remember the arrangement of that
       particular layout. Without any options, screen will remember the
       current layout.

       Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the layout
       autosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change or display the status of automatcally saving layouts. The
       default is on, meaning when screen is detached or changed to a
       different layout, the arrangement of regions and windows will be
       remembered at the time of change and restored upon return.  If
       autosave is set to off, that arrangement will only be restored to
       either to the last manual save, using layout save, or to when the
       layout was first created, to a single region with a single window.
       Without either an on or off, the current status is displayed on the
       message line.

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This
       is useful to recreate the order of your regions used in your current
       layout. Only the current layout is recorded. While the order of the
       regions are recorded, the sizes of those regions and which windows
       correspond to which regions are not. If no filename is specified, the
       default is layout-dump, saved in the directory that the screen
       process was started in. If the file already exists, layout dump will
       append to that file. As an example:

                C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever screen is started
       without options, which should be often enough. See also the
       "startup_message" command.


       Lock this display.  Call a screenlock program (/local/bin/lck or
       /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no other is available). Screen does not
       accept any command keys until this program terminates. Meanwhile
       processes in the windows may continue, as the windows are in the
       `detached' state. The screenlock program may be changed through the
       environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be set in the shell from
       which screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.

       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no
       password set on screen, the lock is void: One could easily re-attach
       from an unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file
       "screenlog.n" in the window's default directory, where n is the
       number of the current window. This filename can be changed with the
       `logfile' command. If no parameter is given, the state of logging is
       toggled. The session log is appended to the previous contents of the
       file if it already exists. The current contents and the contents of
       the scrollback history are not included in the session log.  Default
       is `off'.

       logfile filename

       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is
       "screenlog.%n". The second form changes the number of seconds screen
       will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The
       default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current
       window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no
       parameter is given, the login state of the window is toggled.
       Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in' and a
       `log out' key. E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map
       these keys to be C-a I and C-a O.  The default setting (in should be "on" for a screen that runs under suid-root.
       Use the "deflogin" command to change the default login state for new
       windows. Both commands are only present when screen has been compiled
       with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]

       logtstamp after [secs]

       logtstamp string

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If
       time-stamps are turned "on", screen adds a string containing the
       current time to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When
       output continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a
       second time-stamp is added to document the restart of the output. You
       can change this timeout with the second form of the command. The
       third form is used for customizing the time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t
       -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell screen that the next input character should only be looked up in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a
       timeout of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with
       no arguments shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.
       The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by
       `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and
       `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This
       happens to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The command
       "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style
       binding.  If your terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort
       copy mode, then this command may help by binding these characters to
       do nothing.  The no-op character is `@' and is used like this:
       "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not want to use the `H' or `L' commands
       any longer.  As shown in this example, multiple keys can be assigned
       to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect
       already existing windows. The number can be increased only when there
       are no existing windows.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on
       and an affected window is switched into the background, you will
       receive the activity notification message in the status line at the
       first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@'
       in the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This command determines whether screen will watch for mouse clicks.
       When this command is enabled, regions that have been split in various
       ways can be selected by pointing to them with a mouse and left-
       clicking them. Without specifying on or off, the current state is
       displayed. The default state is determined by the "defmousetrack"

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is
       currently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen
       operation is singleuser. In multiuser mode the commands `acladd',
       `aclchg', `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable)
       other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are
       familiar with the game "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style
       messages which will often blur the facts a little, but are much
       funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear
       as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence
       of the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc
       - if either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem
       connection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off
       (this is the default) screen waits until the display restarts to
       accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout
       is reached (on is treated as 1s). If the display still doesn't
       receive characters, screen will consider it "blocked" and stop
       sending characters to it. If at some time it restarts to accept
       characters, screen will unblock the display and redisplay the updated
       window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change the current window's number. If the given number n is already
       used by another window, both windows exchange their numbers. If no
       argument is specified, the current window number (and title) is
       shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by the
       relative amount specified.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no
       more data will be read from the windows. The default value is 256. If
       you have a fast display (like xterm), you can set it to some higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch to the window displayed previously. If this window does no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay)
       after switching to the current window. This command only affects the
       current window.  To immediately affect all windows use the allpartial
       command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as
       there is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will
       ask for it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is
       useful if you have privileged programs running under screen and you
       want to protect your session from reattach attempts by another user
       masquerading as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted
       password is specified, screen prompts twice for typing a password and
       places its encryption in the paste buffer.  Default is `none', this
       disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to the
       stdin queue of the current window. The register '.' is treated as the
       paste buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a
       single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with the
       copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled
       with the register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called
       with a second argument, the contents of the specified registers is
       pasted into the named destination register rather than the window. If
       '.' is used as the second argument, the displays paste buffer is the
       destination.  Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources:
       Whenever a second argument is specified no current window is needed.
       When the source specification only contains registers (not the paste
       buffer) then there need not be a current display (terminal attached),
       as the registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists once
       for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The
       default is not to do so. This command is especially useful for multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP
       signal to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in
       a logout, when screen was started from your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was
       performed. It may be used as a replacement for a logout message or to
       reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command can be
       used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal
       capabilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i,
       but pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like
       "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command
       displays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing
       and closes the pipe.

       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write
       access to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input
       queue. If no argument is given you are prompted for a register name.
       The text is parsed as if it had been typed in from the user's
       keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple actions to a
       single key.


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style
       terminals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default
       bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4 when selecting
       window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to
       remove a key binding.

       readbuf [encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no
       file is specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also
       "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero
       or one arguments it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the
       register specified or entered at the prompt. With two arguments it
       reads the contents of the named file into the register, just as
       readbuf reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  The
       following example will paste the system's password file into the
       screen window (using register p, where a copy remains):

                C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-eencoding]key-string

       Save the specified string to the register key.  The encoding of the
       string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste"


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf" and

       rendition bell | monitor | silence | so  attr  [ color ]

       Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor
       or bell flags set in caption or hardstatus or windowlist. See the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modifiers.  The
       default for monitor is currently "=b " (bold, active colors), for
       bell "=ub " (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u " for


       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when
       strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics character set) are
       left over from an application.

       resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or added to
       the surrounding regions depending on the order of the splits.  The
       available options for resizing are `-h'(horizontal), `-v'(vertical),
       `-b'(both), `-l'(local to layer), and `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal
       resizes will add or remove width to a region, vertical will add or
       remove height, and both will add or remove size from both dimensions.
       Local and perpendicular are similar to horizontal and vertical, but
       they take in account of how a region was split.  If a region's last
       split was horizontal, a local resize will work like a vertical
       resize. If a region's last split was vertical, a local resize will
       work like a horizontal resize. Perpendicular resizes work in opposite
       of local resizes. If no option is specified, local is the default.

       The amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed a couple of
       different ways. By specifying a number n by itself will resize the
       region by that absolute amount. You can specify a relative amount by
       prefixing a plus `+' or minus `-' to the amount, such as adding +n
       lines or removing -n lines. Resizing can also be expressed as an
       absolute or relative percentage by postfixing a percent sign `%'.
       Using zero `0' is a synonym for `min' and using an underscore `_' is
       a synonym for `max'.

       Some examples are:

       resize +N
              increase current region by N

       resize -N
              decrease current region by N

       resize  N
              set current region to N

       resize 20%
              set current region to 20% of original size

       resize +20%
              increase current region by 20%

       resize -b =
              make all windows equally

       resize  max
              maximize current region

       resize  min
              minimize current region

       Without any arguments, screen will prompt for how you would like to
       resize the current region.

       See "focusminsize" if you want to restrict the minimun size a region
       can have.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal
       type option (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback
       option (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M) turns monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns
       output logging on for this window.  If an optional number n in the
       range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window number n is assigned to the
       newly created window (or, if this number is already in-use, the next
       available number).  If a command is specified after "screen", this
       command (with the given arguments) is started in the window;
       otherwise, a shell is created.  If //group is supplied, a container-
       type window is created in which other windows may be created inside

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                # example for .screenrc:
                screen 1
                screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a
       TELNET connection to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using
       the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write a logfile
       ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous
       versions of screen no additional default window is created when
       "screen" commands are included in your ".screenrc" file. When the
       initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window

       Screen has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See
       also chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num
       lines. The default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the
       "defscrollback" command and use "info" to view the current setting.
       To access and use the contents in the scrollback buffer, use the
       "copy" command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of
       a window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The
       parameter is optional and if omitted, you get prompted for an
       identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be
       activated by "select 0".  The number of windows is limited at
       compile-time by the MAXWIN configuration parameter (which defaults to
       40).  There are two special WindowIDs, "-" selects the internal blank
       window and "." selects the current window. The latter is useful if
       used with screen's "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that for "screen -list" the name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is
       omitted, the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY
       environment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-existing
       shells. This may result in confusion. Use of this command is
       generally discouraged. Use the "-S" command-line option if you want
       to name a new session.  The default is constructed from the tty and
       host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is
       specified, the user will be prompted to enter a value.  If no
       parameters are specified, the user will be prompted for both variable
       and value. The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the
       windows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all
       windows will be in the same process group as the screen backend
       process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd
       like to run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program
       specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-' character, the
       shell will be started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only
       minimal initialization when not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash
       will not read your "~/.bashrc" unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the C-A C-c
       command.  For details about what a title is, see the discussion
       entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and
       an affected window is switched into the background, you will receive
       the silence notification message in the status line after a specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed
       with the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds
       instead of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows monitored for silence should wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num
       seconds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be used to
       give users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text
       is written character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec
       milliseconds after each single character write to allow the
       application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your
       underlying system exposes flow control problems while pasting large
       amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be
       nested to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not an
       absolute path and screen is already processing a source command, the
       parent directory of the running source command file is used to search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup
       and reattach time, so they must be reached via the default screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the
       display are resized to make room for the new region. The blank window
       is displayed in the new region. The default is to create a horizontal
       split, putting the new regions on the top and bottom of each other.
       Using `-v' will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to
       appear side by side of each other.  Use the "remove" or the "only"
       command to delete regions.  Use "focus" to toggle between regions.

       When a region is split opposite of how it was previously split (that
       is, vertical then horizontal or horizontal then vertical), a new
       layer is created. The layer is used to group together the regions
       that are split the same. Normally, as a user, you should not see nor
       have to worry about layers, but they will affect how some commands
       ("focus" and "resize") behave.

       With this current implementation of screen, scrolling data will
       appear much slower in a vertically split region than one that is not.
       This should be taken into consideration if you need to use system
       commands such as "cat" or "tail -f".

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the copyright notice during startup.
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       status [top|up|down|bottom] [left|right]

       The status window by default is in bottom-left corner. This command
       can move status messages to any corner of the screen. top is the same
       as up, down is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff the string string in the input buffer of the current window.
       This is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.
       Without a parameter, screen will prompt for a string to stuff.  You
       cannot paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most
       useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all
       parameters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as
       parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The first password
       is matched against the systems passwd database, the second password
       is matched against the screen password as set with the commands
       "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may be useful for the screen
       administrator to test multiuser setups.  When the identification
       fails, the user has access to the commands available for user nobody.
       These are "detach", "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while
       screen is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being able to
       do job control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set
       to "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is
       installed in the local termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM
       to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is VT100/ANSI
       compatible.  The use of the "term" command is discouraged for non-
       default purpose.  That is, one may want to specify special $TERM
       settings (e.g. vt100) for the next "screen rlogin othermachine"
       command. Use the command "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather
       than setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without
       going through all the hassles involved in creating a custom termcap
       entry.  Plus, you can optionally customize the termcap generated for
       the windows.  You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc
       startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is

       If your system uses the terminfo database rather than termcap, screen
       will understand the `terminfo' command, which has the same effects as
       the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are provided, as there
       are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpolation
       (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabilities
       have to be used with the `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and
       termcap syntax, you can use the command `termcapinfo', which is just
       a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands with
       identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by
       separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*'
       to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated
       by `:'s) to be inserted at the start of the appropriate termcap
       entry, enhancing it or overriding existing values.  The first tweak
       modifies your terminal's termcap, and contains definitions that your
       terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to
       leave this unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies
       all the window termcaps, and should contain definitions that screen
       understands (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with `xterm' have firm
       auto-margins that allow the last position on the screen to be updated
       (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no 'hs' - append `@'
       to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP' for all terminal
       names that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap
       command for that terminal.
              termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all terminals that
       begin with `vt', and the second line will also add the escape-
       sequences to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-
       line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and
       enables the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the
       `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the
       string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions put into your
       terminal's termcap will cause screen to automatically advertise the
       character-insert capability in each window's termcap.  Each window
       will also get the delete-character capability (dc) added to its
       termcap, which screen will translate into a line-update for the
       terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.
       See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is
       specified, screen prompts for one. This command was known as `aka' in
       previous releases.

       truecolor [on|off]

       Enables truecolor support. Currently autodetection of truecolor
       support cannot be done reliably, as such it's left to user to enable.
       Default is off.  Known terminals that may support it are: iTerm2,
       Konsole, st.  Xterm includes support for truecolor escapes but
       converts them back to indexed 256 color space.


       Unbind all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used
       solely for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console
       application run as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is necessary to
       bind commands after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off[on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled,
       the strings sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa.
       Omitting the parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is
       given, the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be
       done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes
       the default setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter
       toggles the setting. If vbell is switched on, but your terminal does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the
       status line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell
       support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb'
       (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line
       if the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on",
       but the terminal does not support a visual bell.  The default message
       is "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a
       window is created (or resurrected from zombie state). Default is off.
       Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the
       terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols
       columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable
       terminal and the termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap"
       command for more information. You can also specify a new height if
       you want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave
       the display size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If
       screen was in a window group, screen will back out of the group and
       then display the windows in that group.  If the -b option is given,
       screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the list, so
       that the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes
       the order of the windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen
       uses its internal most-recently-used list.  The -g option will show
       the windows inside any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":

       k, C-p, or up      Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down    Move down one line.
       C-g or escape      Exit windowlist.
       C-a or home        Move to the first line.
       C-e or end         Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d         Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f         Move one full page up or down.
       0..9               Using the number keys, move to the selected line.
       mouseclick         Move to the selected line. Available when
                          "mousetrack" is set to "on"
       /                  Search.
       n                  Repeat search in the forward direction.
       N                  Repeat search in the backward direction.
       m                  Toggle MRU.
       g                  Toggle group nesting.
       a                  All window view.
       C-h or backspace   Back out the group.

       ,                  Switch numbers with the previous window.
       .                  Switch numbers with the next window.
       K                  Kill that window.
       space or enter     Select that window.

       The table format can be changed with the string and title option, the
       title is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by
       using the string setting. The default setting is "Num Name%=Flags"
       for the title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING
       ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 6
       characters high in order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each
       window is listed by number with the name of process that has been
       started in the window (or its title); the current window is marked
       with a `*'; the previous window is marked with a `-'; all the windows
       that are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window that
       has received a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is
       being monitored and has had activity occur is marked with an `@'; a
       window which has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)';
       windows occupied by other users are marked with `&'; windows in the
       zombie state are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on
       the terminal's status line only the portion around the current window
       is displayed.  The optional string parameter follows the "STRING
       ESCAPES" format.  If string parameter is passed, the output size is
       unlimited.  The default command without any parameter is limited to a
       size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive printable character output at the last
       column of a line will wrap to the start of the following line.  As an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin
       to the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the
       state of wrap is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This
       is thought of as a primitive means of communication between screen
       users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste buffer
       is recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set
       with the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to
       write to the same window at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto'
       mode and grants exclusive input permission to the user who is the
       first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window,
       other users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock
       of the current window is disabled by the command "writelock off". If
       the user issues the command "writelock on" he keeps the exclusive
       write permission while switching to other windows.



       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two different
       modes when it detects a zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".  If the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher
       until the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen
       acts as a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz
       commands. If the mode is set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if
       the window is a tty (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use

       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the
       second and the third form.

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon
       as the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of two keys
       is specified to the zombie command, `dead' windows will remain in the
       list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a window. Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing
       the second key, screen will attempt to resurrect the window. The
       process that was initially running in the window will be launched
       again. Calling zombie without parameters will clear the zombie
       setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for all windows, this
       command should probably be called defzombie, but it isn't.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after the keys. This will
       cause screen to monitor exit status of the process running in the
       window. If it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears. Any other
       exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon
       as the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. If zombie keys are defined
       (compare with above zombie command), it is possible to also set a
       timeout when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead screen

THE MESSAGE LINE         top

       Screen displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a
       message line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the bottom
       of the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen
       during compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in
       its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages,
       otherwise a line of the current screen will be temporarily
       overwritten and output will be momentarily interrupted. The message
       line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay, but it can
       also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by
       beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used by an application running in
       the current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message control
       sequence.  For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

WINDOW TYPES         top

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter
       "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines
       which type of window is created. The different window types are all
       special cases of the normal type. They have been added in order to
       allow screen to be used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100
       or more windows.

       ·  The normal window contains a shell (default, if no parameter is
          given) or any other system command that could be executed from a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       ·  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is
          specified as the first parameter, then the window is directly
          connected to this device.  This window type is similar to "screen
          cu -l /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the device
          node, an exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the
          connection line as busy.  An optional parameter is allowed
          consisting of a comma separated list of flags in the notation used
          by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many of these options as applicable.
          Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the
          parameter values of the connection.  These values are system
          dependent and may be in defaults or values saved from a previous

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of the modem control
          lines in the status line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR',
          `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the available ioctl()'s and
          system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities of
          the serial board.  Signals that are logical low (inactive) have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the
          signal is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the
          hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown

          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem signals
          is placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or
          TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in
          parenthesis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission
          line (TxD) to go low for a specified period of time. This is
          expected to be interpreted as break signal on the other side.  No
          data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a break is

       ·  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second parameter is
          expected to be a host name, and an optional third parameter may
          specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will
          connect to a server listening on the remote host and use the
          telnet protocol to communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the
       connection in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default:
                     `line mode').

              t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the
                     remote host.  Screen sends the name "screen" unless
                     instructed otherwise (see also the command `term').

              w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size

              f      LFLOW. The remote host will send flow control
                     information.  (Ignored at the moment.)

              Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC,
              TSPEED and NEWENV).

              For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code
              IAC BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

              This window type is only available if screen was compiled with
              the ENABLE_TELNET option defined.

STRING ESCAPES         top

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the
       current time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%'
       with one exception: inside of a window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is
       used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       C      The count of screen windows. Prefix with '-' to limit to
              current window group.

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags of the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the
              current window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the window
              after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a
              number is specified, pad to the percentage of the window's
              width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat the number as
              absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the
              last absolute pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad
              relative to the right margin by using '-'. The padding
              truncates the string if the specified position lies before the
              current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for the next truncation. When
              screen needs to do truncation, it tries to do it in a way that
              the marked position gets moved to the specified percentage of
              the output area. (The area starts from the last absolute pad
              position and ends with the position specified by the
              truncation operator.) The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark
              the truncated parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier also makes
       the '=' escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes
       understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be
       prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the
       window flags if 'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is used to change the attributes or the
       color settings. Its format is "[attribute modifier] [color
       description]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change
       type indicator if it can be confused with a color description. The
       following change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or
       a combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       The old format of specifying colors by letters (k,r,g,y,b,m,c,w) is
       now deprecated. Colors are coded as 0-7 for basic ANSI, 0-255 for 256
       color mode, or for truecolor, either a hexadecimal code starting with
       x, or HTML notation as either 3 or 6 hexadecimal digits. Foreground
       and background are specified by putting a semicolon between them. Ex:
       "#FFF;#000" or "i7;0" is white on a black background.

       The following numbers are for basic ANSI:

       0      black
       1      red
       2      green
       3      yellow
       4      blue
       5      magenta
       6      cyan
       7      white

       You can also use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and
       leave the color unchanged.
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that
       were set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the
       color-change stack).


       "i2"   set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

              write in bright red color on a pale yellow background.

       %-Lw%{#AAA;#006}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window and
              truncated to the available width. The current window is
              displayed white on blue.  This can be used with "hardstatus

       %?%F%{;2}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if
              one is set.  Also use a red background if this is the active
              focus. Useful for "caption string".

FLOW-CONTROL         top

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen
       deals with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt
       character).  When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON
       and XOFF characters, which allows the user to send them to the
       current program by simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,
       for instance).  The trade-off is that it will take longer for output
       from a "normal" program to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-
       control turned on, XON and XOFF characters are used to immediately
       pause the output of the current window.  You can still send these
       characters to the current program, but you must use the appropriate
       two-character screen commands (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s"
       (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are also useful for typing C-s and C-
       q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with either the -f
       option or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows
       are set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be toggled between
       the three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic'
       interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using the
       TIOCPKT mode (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on the current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control
       is turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate
       flow-control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing
       the interrupt key (usually C-c) does not interrupt the display until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the
       "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command in
       your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the
       output that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be
       flushed.  One disadvantage is that the virtual terminal's memory
       contains the non-flushed version of the output, which in rare cases
       can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you
       switch screens and return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you
       would see the version of the output you would have gotten without
       "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need to turn off flow-control
       (or use auto-flow mode to turn it off automatically) when running a
       program that expects you to type the interrupt character as input, as
       it is possible to interrupt the output of the virtual terminal to
       your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If this
       happens, a simple refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.
       Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode you find more

TITLES (naming windows)         top

       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed
       with the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the
       title commands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual command
       name of the program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes
       useful to distinguish various programs of the same name or to change
       the name on-the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the
       "shelltitle" command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows
       are created with a "screen" command and thus can have their name set
       with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the title-string escape-
       sequence (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a A).  The
       former can be output from an application to control the window's name
       under software control, and the latter will prompt for a name when
       typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys with the "title"
       command to set things quickly without prompting. Changing title by
       this escape sequence can be controlled by defdynamictitle and
       dynamictitle commands.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by
       setting the window's name to "search|name" and arranging to have a
       null title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The
       search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the
       name portion specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the
       name ends in a `:' screen will add what it believes to be the current
       command running in the window to the end of the window's shell name
       (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the current command name supersedes the
       shell name while it is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a part of your prompt.
       The last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you
       specified for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,
       screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous
       command name and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a
       newline is received from the shell, a search is made for the end of
       the prompt.  If found, it will grab the first word after the matched
       string and use it as the command name.  If the command name begins
       with either '!', '%', or '^' screen will use the first word on the
       following line (if found) in preference to the just-found name.  This
       helps csh users get better command names when using job control or
       history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of
       the "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                       shelltitle '> |csh'
                       screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The
       title specified is an auto-title that would expect the prompt and the
       typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).  The window status
       would show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert
       to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-
       a R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".
       For this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like

                       % !em
                       emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the
       previously entered "emacs" command.  The window status would show
       "root:emacs" during the execution of the command, and revert to
       simply "root:" at its completion.

                       bind o title
                       bind E title ""
                       bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you
       for a title when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an
       auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set
       the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to
       your prompt is that some shells (like the csh) count all the non-
       control characters as part of the prompt's length.  If these
       invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a
       tab will result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this
       is to use a prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes the character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible
       characters up to 8.  Bash users will probably want to echo the escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "\134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other
       terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible. But if your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the
       emulation may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the
       applications that some of the features are missing. This is no
       problem on machines using termcap, because screen can use the
       $TERMCAP variable to customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports
       only terminfo this method fails. Because of this, screen offers a way
       to deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first
       looks for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the
       contents of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen
       tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or
       more)).  If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an
       important feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you can build a
       new termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in
       which this capability has been disabled. If this entry is installed
       on your machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the
       correct termcap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is put in the
       $TERM variable of all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP
       variable reflecting the capabilities of the virtual terminal
       emulated. Notice that, however, on machines using the terminfo
       database this variable has no effect.  Furthermore, the variable
       $WINDOW is set to the window number of each window.

       The actual set of capabilities supported by the virtual terminal
       depends on the capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If,
       for instance, the physical terminal does not support underscore mode,
       screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into the window's
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of
       capabilities must be supported by a terminal in order to run screen;
       namely scrolling, clear screen, and direct cursor addressing (in
       addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals
       that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using
       the "termcap" .screenrc command, or by defining the variable
       $SCREENCAP prior to startup.  When the latter is defined, its value
       will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This
       can either be the full terminal definition, or a filename where the
       terminal "screen" (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the
       system uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation
       of screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an
       application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics
       character set or national character sets.  The following control
       functions from ISO 2022 are supported: lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift
       G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and single
       shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII
       character set is designated as G0 through G3.  When the `G0'
       capability is present, screen evaluates the capabilities `S0', `E0',
       and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the terminal uses to enable
       and start the graphics character set rather than SI.  `E0' is the
       corresponding replacement for SO. `C0' gives a character by character
       translation string that is used during semi-graphics mode. This
       string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's
       termcap entry, applications running in a screen window can send
       output to the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to
       have an application in one window sending output to a printer
       connected to the terminal, while all other windows are still active
       (the printer port is enabled and disabled again for each chunk of
       output).  As a side-effect, programs running in different windows can
       send output to the printer simultaneously.  Data sent to the printer
       is not displayed in the window.  The info command displays a line
       starting `PRIN' while the printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets
       selected, the display's hardstatus will be updated to match the
       window's hardstatus line. If the display has no hardstatus the line
       will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line
       can be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\". As a convenience for xterm users the sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the
       virtual terminal if they can be efficiently implemented by the
       physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into
       the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line
       itself or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion,
       when the session is reattached on a different terminal, as the value
       of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is a list of control sequences recognized by screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific
       functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

                                  Pn = 6                     Invisible

                                  Pn = 7                     Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string
                                  directly to the host terminal without

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,
                                  xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only works if
                                  multi-user support is compiled into
                                  screen. The pseudo-user ":window:" is used
                                  to check the access control list. Use
                                  "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to create a user
                                  with no rights and allow only the needed

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

                                  Pn = None or 0             From Cursor to
                                                             End of Screen

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning
                                                             of Screen to

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

                                  Pn = None or 0             From Cursor to
                                                             End of Line

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning
                                                             of Line to

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

                                  Ps = None or 0             Default

                                  Ps = 1                     Bold

                                  Ps = 2                (A)  Faint

                                  Ps = 3                (A)  Standout Mode

                                  Ps = 4                     Underlined

                                  Ps = 5                     Blinking

                                  Ps = 7                     Negative Image

                                  Ps = 22               (A)  Normal

                                  Ps = 23               (A)  Standout Mode
                                                             off (ANSI:
                                                             Italicized off)

                                  Ps = 24               (A)  Not Underlined

                                  Ps = 25               (A)  Not Blinking

                                  Ps = 27               (A)  Positive Image

                                  Ps = 30               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 31               (A)  Foreground Red

                                  Ps = 32               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 33               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 34               (A)  Foreground Blue

                                  Ps = 35               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 36               (A)  Foreground Cyan

                                  Ps = 37               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 39               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 40               (A)  Background

                                  Ps = ...

                                  Ps = 49               (A)  Background

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

                                  Pn = None or 0             Clear Tab at

                                  Pn = 3                     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

                                  Ps = 4                (A)  Insert Mode

                                  Ps = 20               (A)  Automatic
                                                             Linefeed Mode

                                  Ps = 34                    Normal Cursor

                                  Ps = ?1               (V)  Application
                                                             Cursor Keys

                                  Ps = ?3               (V)  Change Terminal
                                                             Width to 132

                                  Ps = ?5               (V)  Reverse Video

                                  Ps = ?6               (V)  Origin Mode

                                  Ps = ?7               (V)  Wrap Mode

                                  Ps = ?9                    X10 mouse

                                  Ps = ?25              (V)  Visible Cursor

                                  Ps = ?47                   Alternate
                                                             Screen (old
                                                             xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1000            (V)  VT200 mouse

                                  Ps = ?1047                 Alternate
                                                             Screen (new
                                                             xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1049                 Alternate
                                                             Screen (new
                                                             xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to `Ph' lines and `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a
       sequence of characters in the input stream was generated by a
       keypress on the user's keyboard and insert the VT100 style escape
       sequence. Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it
       possible to map arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of
       characters. For standard VT100 emulation the command will always
       insert a string in the input buffer of the window (see also command
       stuff in the command table).  Because the sequences generated by a
       keypress can change after a reattach from a different terminal type,
       it is possible to bind commands to the termcap name of the keys.
       Screen will insert the correct binding after each reattach. See the
       bindkey command for further details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what
       command is executed if the keyboard is switched into application

       │Key name        │ Termcap name │ Command  │ App mode │
       │Cursor up       │ ku           │ \033[A   │ \033OA   │
       │Cursor down     │ kd           │ \033[B   │ \033OB   │
       │Cursor right    │ kr           │ \033[C   │ \033OC   │
       │Cursor left     │ kl           │ \033[D   │ \033OD   │
       │Function key 0  │ k0           │ \033[10~ │          │
       │Function key 1  │ k1           │ \033OP   │          │
       │Function key 2  │ k2           │ \033OQ   │          │
       │Function key 3  │ k3           │ \033OR   │          │
       │Function key 4  │ k4           │ \033OS   │          │
       │Function key 5  │ k5           │ \033[15~ │          │
       │Function key 6  │ k6           │ \033[17~ │          │
       │Function key 7  │ k7           │ \033[18~ │          │
       │Function key 8  │ k8           │ \033[19~ │          │
       │Function key 9  │ k9           │ \033[20~ │          │
       │Function key 10 │ k;           │ \033[21~ │          │
       │Function key 11 │ F1           │ \033[23~ │          │
       │Function key 12 │ F2           │ \033[24~ │          │
       │Home            │ kh           │ \033[1~  │          │
       │End             │ kH           │ \033[4~  │          │
       │Insert          │ kI           │ \033[2~  │          │
       │Delete          │ kD           │ \033[3~  │          │
       │Page up         │ kP           │ \033[5~  │          │
       │Page down       │ kN           │ \033[6~  │          │
       │Keypad 0        │ f0           │ 0        │ \033Op   │
       │Keypad 1        │ f1           │ 1        │ \033Oq   │
       │Keypad 2        │ f2           │ 2        │ \033Or   │
       │Keypad 3        │ f3           │ 3        │ \033Os   │
       │Keypad 4        │ f4           │ 4        │ \033Ot   │
       │Keypad 5        │ f5           │ 5        │ \033Ou   │
       │Keypad 6        │ f6           │ 6        │ \033Ov   │
       │Keypad 7        │ f7           │ 7        │ \033Ow   │
       │Keypad 8        │ f8           │ 8        │ \033Ox   │
       │Keypad 9        │ f9           │ 9        │ \033Oy   │
       │Keypad +        │ f+           │ +        │ \033Ok   │
       │Keypad -        │ f-           │ -        │ \033Om   │
       │Keypad *        │ f*           │ *        │ \033Oj   │
       │Keypad /        │ f/           │ /        │ \033Oo   │
       │Keypad =        │ fq           │ =        │ \033OX   │
       │Keypad .        │ f.           │ .        │ \033On   │
       │Keypad ,        │ f,           │ ,        │ \033Ol   │
       │Keypad enter    │ fe           │ \015     │ \033OM   │


       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are
       recognized by screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You can
       place these capabilities in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap')
       or use them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo'
       in your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these
       capabilities in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note
                    that this capability is obsolete because screen uses the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has the desired width
                    and height as arguments. SunView(tm) example:

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q
                    direct to the application. Same as 'flow off'. The
                    opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See
                    the 'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding'
                    command for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI conform
                    way. This capability will almost always be set to
                    '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings
                    depending on the current font. More details follow in
                    the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors
                    (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set
                    by default).


       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this
       feature if you want to work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual
       characters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font
       <designator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K': German, etc.)  to strings.
       Every <mapping> describes to what string a single character will be
       translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the
       codes have a lot in common (for example strings to switch to and from
       another charset). Each occurrence of '%' in <template> gets
       substituted with the <template-arg> specified together with the
       character. If your strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a
       template and place the full string in <template-arg>. A quoting
       mechanism was added to make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\'
       character quotes the special characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset.
       '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so on.  Note that this line
       gets parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is built,
       therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal
       whenever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this
       special case the template is assumed to be just '%' because the
       charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally haven't
       much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the
       terminal, i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is
       just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\' to
       '\326', and ']' to '\334'.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       COLUMNS        Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default shell program for opening windows (default
                      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
                      Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

FILES         top

       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the screen distribution
                                         package for private and global
                                         initialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc           screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after
       /local/screens/S-<login>          Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen `interprocess communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the
                                         hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by the log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.

SEE ALSO         top

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

AUTHORS         top

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long time maintained and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and
       Sadrul Habib Chowdhury. Since 2015 maintained and developed by
       Amadeusz Slawinski <> and Alexander Naumov

COPYLEFT         top

       Copyright (c) 2018
           Alexander Naumov <>
           Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
            Micah Cowan <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
       it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
       the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option)
       any later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       General Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
       along with this program (see the file COPYING); if not, write to the
       Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston,
       MA  02111-1307, USA

CONTRIBUTORS         top

       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger <>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal <>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W. Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.

VERSION         top

       This is version 4.3.1. Its roots are a merge of a custom version
       2.3PR7 by Wayne Davison and several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's
       version 2.0. Note that all versions numbered 2.x are copyright by
       Oliver Laumann.

AVAILABILITY         top

       The latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp
       from or any other GNU distribution site. The
       home site of screen is If you want
       to help, send a note to

BUGS         top

       ·  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are not handled correctly (they are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       ·  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.
          But this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       ·  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP
          when reattaching under a different terminal type.

       ·  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding
          extra capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       ·  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       ·  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most
          systems in order to be able to correctly change the owner of the
          tty device file for each window.  Special permission may also be
          required to write the file "/etc/utmp".

       ·  Entries in "/etc/utmp" are not removed when screen is killed with
          SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to
          advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       ·  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       ·  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically
          detach (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to send a
          HANGUP signal.  To detach a screen session use the -D or -d
          command line option.

       ·  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still
          detach a session without asking.

       ·  Both "breaktype" and "defbreaktype" change the break generating
          method used by all terminal devices. The first should change a
          window specific setting, where the latter should change only the
          default for new windows.

       ·  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file
          is not sourced. Each user's personal settings have to be included
          in the .screenrc file from which the session is booted, or have to
          be changed manually.

       ·  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all
          the features.

       ·  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer &
          pizza to

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the screen (screen manager) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see
       ⟨⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2020-09-18.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2020-04-27.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to

4th Berkeley Distribution         Feb 2017                         SCREEN(1)

Pages that refer to this page: logind.conf(5)logind.conf.d(5)tmpfiles.d(5)user_caps(5)pty(7)