git-svn(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-SVN(1)                     Git Manual                     GIT-SVN(1)

NAME         top

       git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository
       and Git

SYNOPSIS         top

       git svn <command> [<options>] [<arguments>]

DESCRIPTION         top

       git svn is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and
       Git. It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a
       Subversion and a Git repository.

       git svn can track a standard Subversion repository, following the
       common "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option.
       It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the
       -T/-t/-b options (see options to init below, and also the clone

       Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above
       methods), the Git repository can be updated from Subversion by
       the fetch command and Subversion updated from Git by the dcommit

COMMANDS         top

           Initializes an empty Git repository with additional metadata
           directories for git svn. The Subversion URL may be specified
           as a command-line argument, or as full URL arguments to
           -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target directory to operate on can
           be specified as a second argument. Normally this command
           initializes the current directory.

           -T<trunk_subdir>, --trunk=<trunk_subdir>, -t<tags_subdir>,
           --tags=<tags_subdir>, -b<branches_subdir>,
           --branches=<branches_subdir>, -s, --stdlayout
               These are optional command-line options for init. Each of
               these flags can point to a relative repository path
               (--tags=project/tags) or a full url
               (--tags= You can specify
               more than one --tags and/or --branches options, in case
               your Subversion repository places tags or branches under
               multiple paths. The option --stdlayout is a shorthand way
               of setting trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths,
               which is the Subversion default. If any of the other
               options are given as well, they take precedence.

               Set the noMetadata option in the [svn-remote] config.
               This option is not recommended, please read the
               svn.noMetadata section of this manpage before using this

               Set the useSvmProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

               Set the useSvnsyncProps option in the [svn-remote]

               Set the rewriteRoot option in the [svn-remote] config.

               Set the rewriteUUID option in the [svn-remote] config.

               For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http,
               https, and plain svn), specify the username. For other
               transports (e.g.  svn+ssh://), you must include the
               username in the URL, e.g.

               This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended to
               the names of remotes if trunk/branches/tags are
               specified. The prefix does not automatically include a
               trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the
               argument if that is what you want. If --branches/-b is
               specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash.
               Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is strongly
               encouraged in any case, as your SVN-tracking refs will
               then be located at "refs/remotes/$prefix/", which is
               compatible with Git’s own remote-tracking ref layout
               (refs/remotes/$remote/). Setting a prefix is also useful
               if you wish to track multiple projects that share a
               common repository. By default, the prefix is set to

                   Before Git v2.0, the default prefix was "" (no
                   prefix). This meant that SVN-tracking refs were put
                   at "refs/remotes/*", which is incompatible with how
                   Git’s own remote-tracking refs are organized. If you
                   still want the old default, you can get it by passing
                   --prefix "" on the command line (--prefix="" may not
                   work if your Perl’s Getopt::Long is < v2.37).

               When passed to init or clone this regular expression will
               be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description
               of --ignore-refs.

               When passed to init or clone this regular expression will
               be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description
               of --ignore-paths.

               When passed to init or clone this regular expression will
               be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description
               of --include-paths.

               When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout,
               --branches, or --tags options), git svn will attempt to
               connect to the root (or highest allowed level) of the
               Subversion repository. This default allows better
               tracking of history if entire projects are moved within a
               repository, but may cause issues on repositories where
               read access restrictions are in place. Passing
               --no-minimize-url will allow git svn to accept URLs as-is
               without attempting to connect to a higher level
               directory. This option is off by default when only one
               URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).

           Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are
           tracking. The name of the [svn-remote "..."] section in the
           $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional
           command-line argument.

           This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
           $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in the FILES section below for

               Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of
               UTC. This makes git log (even without --date=local) show
               the same times that svn log would in the local time zone.

               This doesn’t interfere with interoperating with the
               Subversion repository you cloned from, but if you wish
               for your local Git repository to be able to interoperate
               with someone else’s local Git repository, either don’t
               use this option or you should both use it in the same
               local time zone.

               Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.

               Ignore refs for branches or tags matching the Perl
               regular expression. A "negative look-ahead assertion"
               can be used to allow only certain refs.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-refs

               If the ignore-refs configuration key is set, and the
               command-line option is also given, both regular
               expressions will be used.

               This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that
               will cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout
               from SVN. The --ignore-paths option should match for
               every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone,
               dcommit, rebase, etc) on a given repository.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-paths

               If the ignore-paths configuration key is set, and the
               command-line option is also given, both regular
               expressions will be used.


               Skip "doc*" directory for every fetch


               Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories


               This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that
               will cause the inclusion of only matching paths from
               checkout from SVN. The --include-paths option should
               match for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to
               clone, dcommit, rebase, etc) on a given repository.
               --ignore-paths takes precedence over --include-paths.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.include-paths

               Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning
               Subversion history. The default is 100. For very large
               Subversion repositories, larger values may be needed for
               clone/fetch to complete in reasonable time. But overly
               large values may lead to higher memory usage and request

           Runs init and fetch. It will automatically create a directory
           based on the basename of the URL passed to it; or if a second
           argument is passed; it will create a directory and work
           within that. It accepts all arguments that the init and fetch
           commands accept; with the exception of --fetch-all and
           --parent. After a repository is cloned, the fetch command
           will be able to update revisions without affecting the
           working tree; and the rebase command will be able to update
           the working tree with the latest changes.

               Create a placeholder file in the local Git repository for
               each empty directory fetched from Subversion. This
               includes directories that become empty by removing all
               entries in the Subversion repository (but not the
               directory itself). The placeholder files are also tracked
               and removed when no longer necessary.

               Set the name of placeholder files created by
               --preserve-empty-dirs. Default: ".gitignore"

           This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current
           HEAD and rebases the current (uncommitted to SVN) work
           against it.

           This works similarly to svn update or git pull except that it
           preserves linear history with git rebase instead of git merge
           for ease of dcommitting with git svn.

           This accepts all options that git svn fetch and git rebase
           accept. However, --fetch-all only fetches from the current
           [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote] definitions.

           Like git rebase; this requires that the working tree be clean
           and have no uncommitted changes.

           This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
           $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in the FILES section below for

           -l, --local
               Do not fetch remotely; only run git rebase against the
               last fetched commit from the upstream SVN.

           Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN
           repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
           not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create a
           revision in SVN for each commit in Git.

           When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object
           name) is specified as an argument, the subcommand works on
           the specified branch, not on the current branch.

           Use of dcommit is preferred to set-tree (below).

               After committing, do not rebase or reset.

           --commit-url <URL>
               Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended
               to allow existing git svn repositories created with one
               transport method (e.g.  svn:// or http:// for anonymous
               read) to be reused if a user is later given access to an
               alternate transport method (e.g.  svn+ssh:// or https:// )
               for commit.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
                   config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl options)

               Note that the SVN URL of the commiturl config key
               includes the SVN branch. If you rather want to set the
               commit URL for an entire SVN repository use
               svn-remote.<name>.pushurl instead.

               Using this option for any other purpose (don’t ask) is
               very strongly discouraged.

               Add the given merge information during the dcommit (e.g.
               --mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10"). All svn server
               versions can store this information (as a property), and
               svn clients starting from version 1.5 can make use of it.
               To specify merge information from multiple branches, use
               a single space character between the branches
               (--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10 /branches/bar:3,5-6,8")

                   config key: svn.pushmergeinfo

               This option will cause git-svn to attempt to
               automatically populate the svn:mergeinfo property in the
               SVN repository when possible. Currently, this can only be
               done when dcommitting non-fast-forward merges where all
               parents but the first have already been pushed into SVN.

               Ask the user to confirm that a patch set should actually
               be sent to SVN. For each patch, one may answer "yes"
               (accept this patch), "no" (discard this patch), "all"
               (accept all patches), or "quit".

               git svn dcommit returns immediately if answer is "no" or
               "quit", without committing anything to SVN.

           Create a branch in the SVN repository.

           -m, --message
               Allows to specify the commit message.

           -t, --tag
               Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the
               branches_subdir specified during git svn init.

           -d<path>, --destination=<path>
               If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given
               to the init or clone command, you must provide the
               location of the branch (or tag) you wish to create in the
               SVN repository. <path> specifies which path to use to
               create the branch or tag and should match the pattern on
               the left-hand side of one of the configured branches or
               tags refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the

                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags

               where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as
               specified by the -R option to init (or "svn" by default).

               Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This
               option overrides the username configuration property.

               Use the specified URL to connect to the destination
               Subversion repository. This is useful in cases where the
               source SVN repository is read-only. This option overrides
               configuration property commiturl.

                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl

               Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to
               the parameter --parents on svn cp commands and is useful
               for non-standard repository layouts.

           Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
           branch -t.

           This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn
           users refer to -r/--revision numbers.

           The following features from ‘svn log’ are supported:

           -r <n>[:<n>], --revision=<n>[:<n>]
               is supported, non-numeric args are not: HEAD, NEXT, BASE,
               PREV, etc ...

           -v, --verbose
               it’s not completely compatible with the --verbose output
               in svn log, but reasonably close.

               is NOT the same as --max-count, doesn’t count
               merged/excluded commits


           New features:

               shows the Git commit sha1, as well

               our version of --pretty=oneline

               SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The
               regular svn client converts the UTC time to the local
               time (or based on the TZ= environment). This command has
               the same behaviour.
           Any other arguments are passed directly to git log

           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a
           file. The output of this mode is format-compatible with the
           output of ‘svn blame’ by default. Like the SVN blame command,
           local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored;
           the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated.
           Unknown arguments are passed directly to git blame.

               Produce output in the same format as git blame, but with
               SVN revision numbers instead of Git commit hashes. In
               this mode, changes that haven’t been committed to SVN
               (including local working-copy edits) are shown as
               revision 0.

           When given an SVN revision number of the form rN, returns the
           corresponding Git commit hash (this can optionally be
           followed by a tree-ish to specify which branch should be
           searched). When given a tree-ish, returns the corresponding
           SVN revision number.

           -B, --before
               Don’t require an exact match if given an SVN revision,
               instead find the commit corresponding to the state of the
               SVN repository (on the current branch) at the specified

           -A, --after
               Don’t require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if
               there is not an exact match return the closest match
               searching forward in the history.

           You should consider using dcommit instead of this command.
           Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies
           on your imported fetch data being up to date. This makes
           absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN,
           it simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree
           or commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place
           independently of git svn functions.

           Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and
           creates matching .gitignore files. The resulting files are
           staged to be committed, but are not committed. Use
           -r/--revision to refer to a specific revision.

           Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on
           directories. The output is suitable for appending to the
           $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.

           Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot
           track based on information in
           $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files. Empty directories
           are automatically recreated when using "git svn clone" and
           "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended for use after
           commands like "git checkout" or "git reset". (See the
           svn-remote.<name>.automkdirs config file option for more

           Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
           command-line. This command does not rely on being inside a
           git svn init-ed repository. This command takes three
           arguments, (a) the original tree to diff against, (b) the new
           tree result, (c) the URL of the target Subversion repository.
           The final argument (URL) may be omitted if you are working
           from a git svn-aware repository (that has been init-ed with
           git svn). The -r<revision> option is required for this.

           The commit message is supplied either directly with the -m or
           -F option, or indirectly from the tag or commit when the
           second tree-ish denotes such an object, or it is requested by
           invoking an editor (see --edit option below).

           -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
               Use the given msg as the commit message. This option
               disables the --edit option.

           -F <filename>, --file=<filename>
               Take the commit message from the given file. This option
               disables the --edit option.

           Shows information about a file or directory similar to what
           ‘svn info’ provides. Does not currently support a
           -r/--revision argument. Use the --url option to output only
           the value of the URL: field.

           Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository
           about a given file or directory. Use -r/--revision to refer
           to a specific Subversion revision.

           Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for
           a file. A specific revision can be specified with

           Sets the Subversion property given as the first argument, to
           the value given as the second argument for the file given as
           the third argument.


               git svn propset svn:keywords "FreeBSD=%H" devel/py-tipper/Makefile

           This will set the property svn:keywords to FreeBSD=%H for the
           file devel/py-tipper/Makefile.

           Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/--revision to specify
           a specific revision.

           Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files and
           remove $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/index files.

           Undoes the effects of fetch back to the specified revision.
           This allows you to re-fetch an SVN revision. Normally the
           contents of an SVN revision should never change and reset
           should not be necessary. However, if SVN permissions change,
           or if you alter your --ignore-paths option, a fetch may fail
           with "not found in commit" (file not previously visible) or
           "checksum mismatch" (missed a modification). If the problem
           file cannot be ignored forever (with --ignore-paths) the only
           way to repair the repo is to use reset.

           Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see
           $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in the FILES section below for
           details). Follow reset with a fetch and then git reset or git
           rebase to move local branches onto the new tree.

           -r <n>, --revision=<n>
               Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later
               revisions are discarded.

           -p, --parent
               Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the
               nearest parent instead.

               Assume you have local changes in "master", but you need
               to refetch "r2".

                       r1---r2---r3 remotes/git-svn
                                    A---B master

               Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that
               caused "r2" to be incomplete in the first place. Then:

                   git svn reset -r2 -p
                   git svn fetch

                       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
                          r2---r3---A---B master

               Then fixup "master" with git rebase. Do NOT use git merge
               or your history will not be compatible with a future

                   git rebase --onto remotes/git-svn A^ master

                       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
                                    A'--B' master

OPTIONS         top

           Only used with the init command. These are passed directly to
           git init.

       -r <arg>, --revision <arg>
           Used with the fetch command.

           This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history to
           be supported. $NUMBER, $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges),
           $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.

           This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running
           fetch; but is generally not recommended because history will
           be skipped and lost.

       -, --stdin
           Only used with the set-tree command.

           Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse
           order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so git
           rev-list --pretty=oneline output can be used.

           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff

           Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files
           left behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are
           not removed by default if there are no files left in them.
           Git cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will
           make the commit to SVN act like Git.

               config key: svn.rmdir

       -e, --edit
           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff

           Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off
           by default for objects that are commits, and forced on when
           committing tree objects.

               config key: svn.edit

       -l<num>, --find-copies-harder
           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff

           They are both passed directly to git diff-tree; see
           git-diff-tree(1) for more information.

               config key: svn.l
               config key: svn.findcopiesharder

       -A<filename>, --authors-file=<filename>
           Syntax is compatible with the file used by git cvsimport but
           an empty email address can be supplied with <>:

                       loginname = Joe User <>

           If this option is specified and git svn encounters an SVN
           committer name that does not exist in the authors-file, git
           svn will abort operation. The user will then have to add the
           appropriate entry. Re-running the previous git svn command
           after the authors-file is modified should continue operation.

               config key: svn.authorsfile

           If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that
           does not exist in the authors file, the given file is
           executed with the committer name as the first argument. The
           program is expected to return a single line of the form "Name
           <email>" or "Name <>", which will be treated as if included
           in the authors file.

           Due to historical reasons a relative filename is first
           searched relative to the current directory for init and clone
           and relative to the root of the working tree for fetch. If
           filename is not found, it is searched like any other command
           in $PATH.

               config key: svn.authorsProg

       -q, --quiet
           Make git svn less verbose. Specify a second time to make it
           even less verbose.

       -m, --merge, -s<strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>, -p,
           These are only used with the dcommit and rebase commands.

           Passed directly to git rebase when using dcommit if a git
           reset cannot be used (see dcommit).

       -n, --dry-run
           This can be used with the dcommit, rebase, branch and tag

           For dcommit, print out the series of Git arguments that would
           show which diffs would be committed to SVN.

           For rebase, display the local branch associated with the
           upstream svn repository associated with the current branch
           and the URL of svn repository that will be fetched from.

           For branch and tag, display the urls that will be used for
           copying when creating the branch or tag.

           When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of fetch,
           rebase, or dcommit operations), look for the first From: line
           or Signed-off-by trailer in the log message and use that as
           the author string.

               config key: svn.useLogAuthor

           When committing to svn from Git (as part of set-tree or
           dcommit operations), if the existing log message doesn’t
           already have a From: or Signed-off-by trailer, append a From:
           line based on the Git commit’s author string. If you use
           this, then --use-log-author will retrieve a valid author
           string for all commits.

               config key: svn.addAuthorFrom


       -i<GIT_SVN_ID>, --id <GIT_SVN_ID>
           This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This
           allows the user to override the default refname to fetch from
           when tracking a single URL. The log and dcommit commands no
           longer require this switch as an argument.

       -R<remote name>, --svn-remote <remote name>
           Specify the [svn-remote "<remote name>"] section to use, this
           allows SVN multiple repositories to be tracked. Default:

           This option is only relevant if we are tracking branches
           (using one of the repository layout options --trunk, --tags,
           --branches, --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to
           find out where its revision was copied from, and set a
           suitable parent in the first Git commit for the branch. This
           is especially helpful when we’re tracking a directory that
           has been moved around within the repository. If this feature
           is disabled, the branches created by git svn will all be
           linear and not share any history, meaning that there will be
           no information on where branches were branched off or merged.
           However, following long/convoluted histories can take a long
           time, so disabling this feature may speed up the cloning
           process. This feature is enabled by default, use
           --no-follow-parent to disable it.

               config key: svn.followparent


       svn.noMetadata, svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata
           This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every

           This option can only be used for one-shot imports as git svn
           will not be able to fetch again without metadata.
           Additionally, if you lose your $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*
           files, git svn will not be able to rebuild them.

           The git svn log command will not work on repositories using
           this, either. Using this conflicts with the useSvmProps
           option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.

           This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to
           track down old references to SVN revision numbers in existing
           documentation, bug reports, and archives. If you plan to
           eventually migrate from SVN to Git and are certain about
           dropping SVN history, consider git-filter-repo[1] instead.
           filter-repo also allows reformatting of metadata for
           ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship info for
           non-"svn.authorsFile" users.

       svn.useSvmProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvmProps
           This allows git svn to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from
           mirrors created using SVN::Mirror (or svk) for metadata.

           If an SVN revision has a property, "svm:headrev", it is
           likely that the revision was created by SVN::Mirror (also
           used by SVK). The property contains a repository UUID and a
           revision. We want to make it look like we are mirroring the
           original URL, so introduce a helper function that returns the
           original identity URL and UUID, and use it when generating
           metadata in commit messages.

       svn.useSvnsyncProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvnsyncprops
           Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users of the
           svnsync(1) command distributed with SVN 1.4.x and later.

           This allows users to create repositories from alternate URLs.
           For example, an administrator could run git svn on the server
           locally (accessing via file://) but wish to distribute the
           repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the
           metadata so users of it will see the public URL.

           Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need
           to remap the UUID manually. This may be useful in situations
           where the original UUID is not available via either
           useSvmProps or useSvnsyncProps.

           Similar to Git’s remote.<name>.pushurl, this key is designed
           to be used in cases where url points to an SVN repository via
           a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write
           transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same
           repository. Unlike commiturl, pushurl is a base path. If
           either commiturl or pushurl could be used, commiturl takes

           This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround
           broken symlinks checked into SVN by broken clients. Set this
           option to "false" if you track a SVN repository with many
           empty blobs that are not symlinks. This option may be changed
           while git svn is running and take effect on the next revision
           fetched. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be "true".

           This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given
           encoding. It can be used by windows users and by those who
           work in non-utf8 locales to avoid corrupted file names with
           non-ASCII characters. Valid encodings are the ones supported
           by Perl’s Encode module.

           Normally, the "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase" commands
           attempt to recreate empty directories that are in the
           Subversion repository. If this option is set to "false", then
           empty directories will only be created if the "git svn
           mkdirs" command is run explicitly. If unset, git svn assumes
           this option to be "true".

       Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps
       and useSvmProps options all affect the metadata generated and
       used by git svn; they must be set in the configuration file
       before any history is imported and these settings should never be
       changed once they are set.

       Additionally, only one of these options can be used per
       svn-remote section because they affect the git-svn-id: metadata
       line, except for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be used

BASIC EXAMPLES         top

       Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed
       project (ignoring tags and branches):

           # Clone a repo (like git clone):
                   git svn clone
           # Enter the newly cloned directory:
                   cd trunk
           # You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
                   git branch
           # Do some work and commit locally to Git:
                   git commit ...
           # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
           # latest changes in SVN:
                   git svn rebase
           # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
           # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
                   git svn dcommit
           # Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
                   git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude

       Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project
       (complete with a trunk, tags and branches):

           # Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone):
                   git svn clone --stdlayout --prefix svn/
           # Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout:
                   git svn clone -T tr -b branch -t tag --prefix svn/
           # View all branches and tags you have cloned:
                   git branch -r
           # Create a new branch in SVN
                   git svn branch waldo
           # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
           # with the appropriate name):
                   git reset --hard svn/trunk
           # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time.  The usage
           # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.

       The initial git svn clone can be quite time-consuming (especially
       for large Subversion repositories). If multiple people (or one
       person with multiple machines) want to use git svn to interact
       with the same Subversion repository, you can do the initial git
       svn clone to a repository on a server and have each person clone
       that repository with git clone:

           # Do the initial import on a server
                   ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone [options...]"
           # Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
                   mkdir project
                   cd project
                   git init
                   git remote add origin server:/pub/project
                   git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
                   git fetch
           # Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
           # we only want to use git svn for future updates
                   git config --remove-section remote.origin
           # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
                   git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
           # Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and
           # --stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/--prefix options as were used on server)
                   git svn init [options...]
           # Pull the latest changes from Subversion
                   git svn rebase


       Prefer to use git svn rebase or git rebase, rather than git pull
       or git merge to synchronize unintegrated commits with a git svn
       branch. Doing so will keep the history of unintegrated commits
       linear with respect to the upstream SVN repository and allow the
       use of the preferred git svn dcommit subcommand to push
       unintegrated commits back into SVN.

       Originally, git svn recommended that developers pulled or merged
       from the git svn branch. This was because the author favored git
       svn set-tree B to commit a single head rather than the git svn
       set-tree A..B notation to commit multiple commits. Use of git
       pull or git merge with git svn set-tree A..B will cause
       non-linear history to be flattened when committing into SVN and
       this can lead to merge commits unexpectedly reversing previous
       commits in SVN.

MERGE TRACKING         top

       While git svn can track copy history (including branches and
       tags) for repositories adopting a standard layout, it cannot yet
       represent merge history that happened inside git back upstream to
       SVN users. Therefore it is advised that users keep history as
       linear as possible inside Git to ease compatibility with SVN (see
       the CAVEATS section below).


       If git svn is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches
       is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one
       SVN branch, where the additional branches have names of the form
       branchname@nnn (with nnn an SVN revision number). These
       additional branches are created if git svn cannot find a parent
       commit for the first commit in an SVN branch, to connect the
       branch to the history of the other branches.

       Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists of a copy
       operation. git svn will read this commit to get the SVN revision
       the branch was created from. It will then try to find the Git
       commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
       parent of the branch. However, it is possible that there is no
       suitable Git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among
       other reasons, if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was
       not fetched by git svn (e.g. because it is an old revision that
       was skipped with --revision), or if in SVN a directory was copied
       that is not tracked by git svn (such as a branch that is not
       tracked at all, or a subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these
       cases, git svn will still create a Git branch, but instead of
       using an existing Git commit as the parent of the branch, it will
       read the SVN history of the directory the branch was copied from
       and create appropriate Git commits. This is indicated by the
       message "Initializing parent: <branchname>".

       Additionally, it will create a special branch named
       <branchname>@<SVN-Revision>, where <SVN-Revision> is the SVN
       revision number the branch was copied from. This branch will
       point to the newly created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN
       the branch was deleted and later recreated from a different
       version, there will be multiple such branches with an @.

       Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for
       a single SVN revision.

       An example: in an SVN repository with a standard
       trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory trunk/sub is created in
       r.100. In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to
       branches/. git svn clone -s will then create a branch sub. It
       will also create new Git commits for r.100 through r.199 and use
       these as the history of branch sub. Thus there will be two Git
       commits for each revision from r.100 to r.199 (one containing
       trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally, it will create a
       branch sub@200 pointing to the new parent commit of branch sub
       (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).

CAVEATS         top

       For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion, it
       is recommended that all git svn users clone, fetch and dcommit
       directly from the SVN server, and avoid all git
       clone/pull/merge/push operations between Git repositories and
       branches. The recommended method of exchanging code between Git
       branches and users is git format-patch and git am, or just
       'dcommit’ing to the SVN repository.

       Running git merge or git pull is NOT recommended on a branch you
       plan to dcommit from because Subversion users cannot see any
       merges you’ve made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git
       branch that is a mirror of an SVN branch, dcommit may commit to
       the wrong branch.

       If you do merge, note the following rule: git svn dcommit will
       attempt to commit on top of the SVN commit named in

           git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1

       You must therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the
       branch you want to dcommit to is the first parent of the merge.
       Chaos will ensue otherwise, especially if the first parent is an
       older commit on the same SVN branch.

       git clone does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/
       hierarchy or any git svn metadata, or config. So repositories
       created and managed with using git svn should use rsync for
       cloning, if cloning is to be done at all.

       Since dcommit uses rebase internally, any Git branches you git
       push to before dcommit on will require forcing an overwrite of
       the existing ref on the remote repository. This is generally
       considered bad practice, see the git-push(1) documentation for

       Do not use the --amend option of git-commit(1) on a change you’ve
       already dcommitted. It is considered bad practice to --amend
       commits you’ve already pushed to a remote repository for other
       users, and dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.

       When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for
       describing the repository layout is used (--trunk, --tags,
       --branches, --stdlayout), git svn clone will create a Git
       repository with completely linear history, where branches and
       tags appear as separate directories in the working copy. While
       this is the easiest way to get a copy of a complete repository,
       for projects with many branches it will lead to a working copy
       many times larger than just the trunk. Thus for projects using
       the standard directory structure (trunk/branches/tags), it is
       recommended to clone with option --stdlayout. If the project uses
       a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not
       required, it is easiest to only clone one directory (typically
       trunk), without giving any repository layout options. If the full
       history with branches and tags is required, the options --trunk /
       --branches / --tags must be used.

       When using multiple --branches or --tags, git svn does not
       automatically handle name collisions (for example, if two
       branches from different paths have the same name, or if a branch
       and a tag have the same name). In these cases, use init to set up
       your Git repository then, before your first fetch, edit the
       $GIT_DIR/config file so that the branches and tags are associated
       with different name spaces. For example:

           branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
           branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*


       git svn stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the
       repository $GIT_DIR/config file. It is similar the core Git
       [remote] sections except fetch keys do not accept glob arguments;
       but they are instead handled by the branches and tags keys. Since
       some SVN repositories are oddly configured with multiple projects
       glob expansions such those listed below are allowed:

           [svn-remote "project-a"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
                   branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   branches = branches/release_*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/release_*
                   branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Keep in mind that the * (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref
       (right of the :) must be the farthest right path component;
       however the remote wildcard may be anywhere as long as it’s an
       independent path component (surrounded by / or EOL). This type of
       configuration is not automatically created by init and should be
       manually entered with a text-editor or using git config.

       Also note that only one asterisk is allowed per word. For

           branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*

       will match branches release, rese, re123se, however

           branches = branches/re*s*e:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*

       will produce an error.

       It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by
       using a comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:

           [svn-remote "huge-project"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
                   branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:

           [svn-remote "messy-repo"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
                   fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
                   branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
                   tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating
       which location to use using the -d or --destination flag:

           $ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0

       Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a
       branch or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is
       changed after fetching, then $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be
       manually edited to remove (or reset) branches-maxRev and/or
       tags-maxRev as appropriate.

FILES         top

           Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit
           names. In a repository where the noMetadata option is not
           set, this can be rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines that are
           at the end of every commit (see the svn.noMetadata section
           above for details).

           git svn fetch and git svn rebase automatically update the
           rev_map if it is missing or not up to date.  git svn reset
           automatically rewinds it.

BUGS         top

       We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled
       properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log

       Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence
       not tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding
       support for this as it’s quite difficult and time-consuming to
       get working for all the possible corner cases (Git doesn’t do it,
       either). Committing renamed and copied files is fully supported
       if they’re similar enough for Git to detect them.

       In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to
       a tag (because a tag is just a directory copy, thus technically
       the same as a branch). When cloning an SVN repository, git svn
       cannot know if such a commit to a tag will happen in the future.
       Thus it acts conservatively and imports all SVN tags as branches,
       prefixing the tag name with tags/.

SEE ALSO         top


GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES         top

        1. git-filter-repo

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control
       system) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2023-12-22.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2023-12-20.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git         2023-12-20                     GIT-SVN(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)