modprobe.d(5) — Linux manual page


MODPROBE.D(5)                  modprobe.d                  MODPROBE.D(5)

NAME         top

       modprobe.d - Configuration directory for modprobe

SYNOPSIS         top






DESCRIPTION         top

       Because the modprobe command can add or remove more than one
       module, due to modules having dependencies, we need a method of
       specifying what options are to be used with those modules. All
       files underneath the /etc/modprobe.d directory which end with the
       .conf extension specify those options as required. They can also
       be used to create convenient aliases: alternate names for a
       module, or they can override the normal modprobe behavior
       altogether for those with special requirements (such as inserting
       more than one module).

       Note that module and alias names (like other module names) can
       have - or _ in them: both are interchangeable throughout all the
       module commands as underscore conversion happens automatically.

       The format of files under modprobe.d is simple: one command per
       line, with blank lines and lines starting with '#' ignored
       (useful for adding comments). A '\' at the end of a line causes
       it to continue on the next line, which makes the file a bit

COMMANDS         top

       alias wildcard modulename
           This allows you to give alternate names for a module. For
           example: "alias my-mod really_long_modulename" means you can
           use "modprobe my-mod" instead of "modprobe
           really_long_modulename". You can also use shell-style
           wildcards, so "alias my-mod* really_long_modulename" means
           that "modprobe my-mod-something" has the same effect. You
           can't have aliases to other aliases (that way lies madness),
           but aliases can have options, which will be added to any
           other options.

           Note that modules can also contain their own aliases, which
           you can see using modinfo. These aliases are used as a last
           resort (ie. if there is no real module, install, remove, or
           alias command in the configuration).

       blacklist modulename
           Modules can contain their own aliases: usually these are
           aliases describing the devices they support, such as
           "pci:123...". These "internal" aliases can be overridden by
           normal "alias" keywords, but there are cases where two or
           more modules both support the same devices, or a module
           invalidly claims to support a device that it does not: the
           blacklist keyword indicates that all of that particular
           module's internal aliases are to be ignored.

       install modulename command...
           This command instructs modprobe to run your command instead
           of inserting the module in the kernel as normal. The command
           can be any shell command: this allows you to do any kind of
           complex processing you might wish. For example, if the module
           "fred" works better with the module "barney" already
           installed (but it doesn't depend on it, so modprobe won't
           automatically load it), you could say "install fred
           /sbin/modprobe barney; /sbin/modprobe --ignore-install fred",
           which would do what you wanted. Note the --ignore-install,
           which stops the second modprobe from running the same install
           command again. See also remove below.

           The long term future of this command as a solution to the
           problem of providing additional module dependencies is not
           assured and it is intended to replace this command with a
           warning about its eventual removal or deprecation at some
           point in a future release. Its use complicates the automated
           determination of module dependencies by distribution
           utilities, such as mkinitrd (because these now need to
           somehow interpret what the install commands might be doing.
           In a perfect world, modules would provide all dependency
           information without the use of this command and work is
           underway to implement soft dependency support within the
           Linux kernel.

           If you use the string "$CMDLINE_OPTS" in the command, it will
           be replaced by any options specified on the modprobe command
           line. This can be useful because users expect "modprobe fred
           opt=1" to pass the "opt=1" arg to the module, even if there's
           an install command in the configuration file. So our above
           example becomes "install fred /sbin/modprobe barney;
           /sbin/modprobe --ignore-install fred $CMDLINE_OPTS"

       options modulename option...
           This command allows you to add options to the module
           modulename (which might be an alias) every time it is
           inserted into the kernel: whether directly (using modprobe
           modulename) or because the module being inserted depends on
           this module.

           All options are added together: they can come from an option
           for the module itself, for an alias, and on the command line.

       remove modulename command...
           This is similar to the install command above, except it is
           invoked when "modprobe -r" is run.

       softdep modulename pre: modules... post: modules...
           The softdep command allows you to specify soft, or optional,
           module dependencies.  modulename can be used without these
           optional modules installed, but usually with some features
           missing. For example, a driver for a storage HBA might
           require another module be loaded in order to use management

           pre-deps and post-deps modules are lists of names and/or
           aliases of other modules that modprobe will attempt to
           install (or remove) in order before and after the main module
           given in the modulename argument.

           Example: Assume "softdep c pre: a b post: d e" is provided in
           the configuration. Running "modprobe c" is now equivalent to
           "modprobe a b c d e" without the softdep. Flags such as
           --use-blacklist are applied to all the specified modules,
           while module parameters only apply to module c.

           Note: if there are install or remove commands with the same
           modulename argument, softdep takes precedence.

       weakdep modulename modules...
           The weakdep command allows you to specify weak module
           dependencies. Those are similar to pre softdep, with the
           difference that userspace doesn't attempt to load that
           dependency before the specified module. Instead the kernel
           may request one or multiple of them during module probe,
           depending on the hardware it's binding to. The purpose of
           weak module is to allow a driver to specify that a certain
           dependency may be needed, so it should be present in the
           filesystem (e.g. in initramfs) when that module is probed.

           Example: Assume "weakdep c a b". A program creating an
           initramfs knows it should add a, b, and c to the filesystem
           since a and b may be required/desired at runtime. When c is
           loaded and is being probed, it may issue calls to
           request_module() causing a or b to also be loaded.


       A future version of kmod will come with a strong warning to avoid
       use of the install as explained above. This will happen once
       support for soft dependencies in the kernel is complete. That
       support will complement the existing softdep support within this
       utility by providing such dependencies directly within the

COPYRIGHT         top

       This manual page originally Copyright 2004, Rusty Russell, IBM
       Corporation. Maintained by Jon Masters and others.

SEE ALSO         top

       modprobe(8), modules.dep(5)

AUTHORS         top

       Jon Masters <>

       Robby Workman <>

       Lucas De Marchi <>

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the kmod (userspace tools for managing
       kernel modules) project.  Information about the project can be
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       send it to  This page was obtained
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       2024-06-14.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit
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kmod                           06/14/2024                  MODPROBE.D(5)

Pages that refer to this page: modprobe(8)