git-reset(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-RESET(1)                     Git Manual                     GIT-RESET(1)

NAME         top

       git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state

SYNOPSIS         top

       git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
       git reset [-q] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]] [<tree-ish>]
       git reset (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
       git reset [--soft | --mixed [-N] | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]

DESCRIPTION         top

       In the first three forms, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the index.
       In the last form, set the current branch head (HEAD) to <commit>,
       optionally modifying index and working tree to match. The
       <tree-ish>/<commit> defaults to HEAD in all forms.

       git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>..., git reset [-q]
       [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]] [<tree-ish>]
           These forms reset the index entries for all paths that match the
           <pathspec> to their state at <tree-ish>. (It does not affect the
           working tree or the current branch.)

           This means that git reset <pathspec> is the opposite of git add
           <pathspec>. This command is equivalent to git restore
           [--source=<tree-ish>] --staged <pathspec>....

           After running git reset <pathspec> to update the index entry, you
           can use git-restore(1) to check the contents out of the index to
           the working tree. Alternatively, using git-restore(1) and
           specifying a commit with --source, you can copy the contents of a
           path out of a commit to the index and to the working tree in one

       git reset (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
           Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index
           and <tree-ish> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied
           in reverse to the index.

           This means that git reset -p is the opposite of git add -p, i.e.
           you can use it to selectively reset hunks. See the “Interactive
           Mode” section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate the --patch

       git reset [<mode>] [<commit>]
           This form resets the current branch head to <commit> and possibly
           updates the index (resetting it to the tree of <commit>) and the
           working tree depending on <mode>. If <mode> is omitted, defaults
           to --mixed. The <mode> must be one of the following:

               Does not touch the index file or the working tree at all (but
               resets the head to <commit>, just like all modes do). This
               leaves all your changed files "Changes to be committed", as
               git status would put it.

               Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed
               files are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports
               what has not been updated. This is the default action.

               If -N is specified, removed paths are marked as intent-to-add
               (see git-add(1)).

               Resets the index and working tree. Any changes to tracked
               files in the working tree since <commit> are discarded.

               Resets the index and updates the files in the working tree
               that are different between <commit> and HEAD, but keeps those
               which are different between the index and working tree (i.e.
               which have changes which have not been added). If a file that
               is different between <commit> and the index has unstaged
               changes, reset is aborted.

               In other words, --merge does something like a git read-tree
               -u -m <commit>, but carries forward unmerged index entries.

               Resets index entries and updates files in the working tree
               that are different between <commit> and HEAD. If a file that
               is different between <commit> and HEAD has local changes,
               reset is aborted.

               When the working tree is updated, using --recurse-submodules
               will also recursively reset the working tree of all active
               submodules according to the commit recorded in the
               superproject, also setting the submodules' HEAD to be
               detached at that commit.

       See "Reset, restore and revert" in git(1) for the differences between
       the three commands.

OPTIONS         top

       -q, --quiet, --no-quiet
           Be quiet, only report errors. The default behavior is set by the
           reset.quiet config option.  --quiet and --no-quiet will override
           the default behavior.

           Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline args. If
           <file> is exactly - then standard input is used. Pathspec
           elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
           quoted as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath
           (see git-config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global

           Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements are
           separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
           literally (including newlines and quotes).

           Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

           Limits the paths affected by the operation.

           For more details, see the pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).

EXAMPLES         top

       Undo add

               $ edit                                     (1)
               $ git add frotz.c filfre.c
               $ mailx                                    (2)
               $ git reset                                (3)
               $ git pull git:// nitfol  (4)

           1. You are happily working on something, and find the changes in
           these files are in good order. You do not want to see them when
           you run git diff, because you plan to work on other files and
           changes with these files are distracting.
           2. Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sound worthy of
           3. However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does
           not match the HEAD commit). But you know the pull you are going
           to make does not affect frotz.c or filfre.c, so you revert the
           index changes for these two files. Your changes in working tree
           remain there.
           4. Then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c
           changes still in the working tree.

       Undo a commit and redo

               $ git commit ...
               $ git reset --soft HEAD^      (1)
               $ edit                        (2)
               $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD  (3)

           1. This is most often done when you remembered what you just
           committed is incomplete, or you misspelled your commit message,
           or both. Leaves working tree as it was before "reset".
           2. Make corrections to working tree files.
           3. "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the commit
           by starting with its log message. If you do not need to edit the
           message further, you can give -C option instead.

           See also the --amend option to git-commit(1).

       Undo a commit, making it a topic branch

               $ git branch topic/wip          (1)
               $ git reset --hard HEAD~3       (2)
               $ git switch topic/wip          (3)

           1. You have made some commits, but realize they were premature to
           be in the master branch. You want to continue polishing them in a
           topic branch, so create topic/wip branch off of the current HEAD.
           2. Rewind the master branch to get rid of those three commits.
           3. Switch to topic/wip branch and keep working.

       Undo commits permanently

               $ git commit ...
               $ git reset --hard HEAD~3   (1)

           1. The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad and
           you do not want to ever see them again. Do not do this if you
           have already given these commits to somebody else. (See the
           "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1) for
           the implications of doing so.)

       Undo a merge or pull

               $ git pull                         (1)
               Auto-merging nitfol
               CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
               Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
               $ git reset --hard                 (2)
               $ git pull . topic/branch          (3)
               Updating from 41223... to 13134...
               $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD       (4)

           1. Try to update from the upstream resulted in a lot of
           conflicts; you were not ready to spend a lot of time merging
           right now, so you decide to do that later.
           2. "pull" has not made merge commit, so git reset --hard which is
           a synonym for git reset --hard HEAD clears the mess from the
           index file and the working tree.
           3. Merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted
           in a fast-forward.
           4. But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
           consumption yet. "pull" or "merge" always leaves the original tip
           of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it
           brings your index file and the working tree back to that state,
           and resets the tip of the branch to that commit.

       Undo a merge or pull inside a dirty working tree

               $ git pull                         (1)
               Auto-merging nitfol
               Merge made by recursive.
                nitfol                |   20 +++++----
               $ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD      (2)

           1. Even if you may have local modifications in your working tree,
           you can safely say git pull when you know that the change in the
           other branch does not overlap with them.
           2. After inspecting the result of the merge, you may find that
           the change in the other branch is unsatisfactory. Running git
           reset --hard ORIG_HEAD will let you go back to where you were,
           but it will discard your local changes, which you do not want.
           git reset --merge keeps your local changes.

       Interrupted workflow
           Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix request while you
           are in the middle of a large change. The files in your working
           tree are not in any shape to be committed yet, but you need to
           get to the other branch for a quick bugfix.

               $ git switch feature  ;# you were working in "feature" branch and
               $ work work work      ;# got interrupted
               $ git commit -a -m "snapshot WIP"                 (1)
               $ git switch master
               $ fix fix fix
               $ git commit ;# commit with real log
               $ git switch feature
               $ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state  (2)
               $ git reset                                       (3)

           1. This commit will get blown away so a throw-away log message is
           2. This removes the WIP commit from the commit history, and sets
           your working tree to the state just before you made that
           3. At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you
           committed as snapshot WIP. This updates the index to show your
           WIP files as uncommitted.

           See also git-stash(1).

       Reset a single file in the index
           Suppose you have added a file to your index, but later decide you
           do not want to add it to your commit. You can remove the file
           from the index while keeping your changes with git reset.

               $ git reset -- frotz.c                      (1)
               $ git commit -m "Commit files in index"     (2)
               $ git add frotz.c                           (3)

           1. This removes the file from the index while keeping it in the
           working directory.
           2. This commits all other changes in the index.
           3. Adds the file to the index again.

       Keep changes in working tree while discarding some previous commits
           Suppose you are working on something and you commit it, and then
           you continue working a bit more, but now you think that what you
           have in your working tree should be in another branch that has
           nothing to do with what you committed previously. You can start a
           new branch and reset it while keeping the changes in your working

               $ git tag start
               $ git switch -c branch1
               $ edit
               $ git commit ...                            (1)
               $ edit
               $ git switch -c branch2                     (2)
               $ git reset --keep start                    (3)

           1. This commits your first edits in branch1.
           2. In the ideal world, you could have realized that the earlier
           commit did not belong to the new topic when you created and
           switched to branch2 (i.e.  git switch -c branch2 start), but
           nobody is perfect.
           3. But you can use reset --keep to remove the unwanted commit
           after you switched to branch2.

       Split a commit apart into a sequence of commits
           Suppose that you have created lots of logically separate changes
           and committed them together. Then, later you decide that it might
           be better to have each logical chunk associated with its own
           commit. You can use git reset to rewind history without changing
           the contents of your local files, and then successively use git
           add -p to interactively select which hunks to include into each
           commit, using git commit -c to pre-populate the commit message.

               $ git reset -N HEAD^                        (1)
               $ git add -p                                (2)
               $ git diff --cached                         (3)
               $ git commit -c HEAD@{1}                    (4)
               ...                                         (5)
               $ git add ...                               (6)
               $ git diff --cached                         (7)
               $ git commit ...                            (8)

           1. First, reset the history back one commit so that we remove the
           original commit, but leave the working tree with all the changes.
           The -N ensures that any new files added with HEAD are still
           marked so that git add -p will find them.
           2. Next, we interactively select diff hunks to add using the git
           add -p facility. This will ask you about each diff hunk in
           sequence and you can use simple commands such as "yes, include
           this", "No don’t include this" or even the very powerful "edit"
           3. Once satisfied with the hunks you want to include, you should
           verify what has been prepared for the first commit by using git
           diff --cached. This shows all the changes that have been moved
           into the index and are about to be committed.
           4. Next, commit the changes stored in the index. The -c option
           specifies to pre-populate the commit message from the original
           message that you started with in the first commit. This is
           helpful to avoid retyping it. The HEAD@{1} is a special notation
           for the commit that HEAD used to be at prior to the original
           reset commit (1 change ago). See git-reflog(1) for more details.
           You may also use any other valid commit reference.
           5. You can repeat steps 2-4 multiple times to break the original
           code into any number of commits.
           6. Now you’ve split out many of the changes into their own
           commits, and might no longer use the patch mode of git add, in
           order to select all remaining uncommitted changes.
           7. Once again, check to verify that you’ve included what you want
           to. You may also wish to verify that git diff doesn’t show any
           remaining changes to be committed later.
           8. And finally create the final commit.

DISCUSSION         top

       The tables below show what happens when running:

           git reset --option target

       to reset the HEAD to another commit (target) with the different reset
       options depending on the state of the files.

       In these tables, A, B, C and D are some different states of a file.
       For example, the first line of the first table means that if a file
       is in state A in the working tree, in state B in the index, in state
       C in HEAD and in state D in the target, then git reset --soft target
       will leave the file in the working tree in state A and in the index
       in state B. It resets (i.e. moves) the HEAD (i.e. the tip of the
       current branch, if you are on one) to target (which has the file in
       state D).

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
            A       B     C    D     --soft   A       B     D
                                     --mixed  A       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
            A       B     C    C     --soft   A       B     C
                                     --mixed  A       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep   A       C     C

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
            B       B     C    D     --soft   B       B     D
                                     --mixed  B       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge  D       D     D
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
            B       B     C    C     --soft   B       B     C
                                     --mixed  B       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge  C       C     C
                                     --keep   B       C     C

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
            B       C     C    D     --soft   B       C     D
                                     --mixed  B       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
            B       C     C    C     --soft   B       C     C
                                     --mixed  B       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge  B       C     C
                                     --keep   B       C     C

       reset --merge is meant to be used when resetting out of a conflicted
       merge. Any mergy operation guarantees that the working tree file that
       is involved in the merge does not have a local change with respect to
       the index before it starts, and that it writes the result out to the
       working tree. So if we see some difference between the index and the
       target and also between the index and the working tree, then it means
       that we are not resetting out from a state that a mergy operation
       left after failing with a conflict. That is why we disallow --merge
       option in this case.

       reset --keep is meant to be used when removing some of the last
       commits in the current branch while keeping changes in the working
       tree. If there could be conflicts between the changes in the commit
       we want to remove and the changes in the working tree we want to
       keep, the reset is disallowed. That’s why it is disallowed if there
       are both changes between the working tree and HEAD, and between HEAD
       and the target. To be safe, it is also disallowed when there are
       unmerged entries.

       The following tables show what happens when there are unmerged

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
            X       U     A    B     --soft  (disallowed)
                                     --mixed  X       B     B
                                     --hard   B       B     B
                                     --merge  B       B     B
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
            X       U     A    A     --soft  (disallowed)
                                     --mixed  X       A     A
                                     --hard   A       A     A
                                     --merge  A       A     A
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

       X means any state and U means an unmerged index.

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2020-07-14.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2020-07-09.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git 2.28.0.rc0                   07/14/2020                     GIT-RESET(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-add(1)git-config(1)git-merge(1)git-restore(1)git-revert(1)git-stash(1)