git-add(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-ADD(1)                       Git Manual                       GIT-ADD(1)

NAME         top

       git-add - Add file contents to the index

SYNOPSIS         top

       git add [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
                 [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
                 [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
                 [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
                 [--] [<pathspec>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       This command updates the index using the current content found in the
       working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit. It
       typically adds the current content of existing paths as a whole, but
       with some options it can also be used to add content with only part
       of the changes made to the working tree files applied, or remove
       paths that do not exist in the working tree anymore.

       The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and
       it is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the next commit.
       Thus after making any changes to the working tree, and before running
       the commit command, you must use the add command to add any new or
       modified files to the index.

       This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only
       adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command
       is run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit,
       then you must run git add again to add the new content to the index.

       The git status command can be used to obtain a summary of which files
       have changes that are staged for the next commit.

       The git add command will not add ignored files by default. If any
       ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, git add
       will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by
       directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your
       globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The git add command
       can be used to add ignored files with the -f (force) option.

       Please see git-commit(1) for alternative ways to add content to a

OPTIONS         top

           Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g.  *.c) can be given to
           add all matching files. Also a leading directory name (e.g.  dir
           to add dir/file1 and dir/file2) can be given to update the index
           to match the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
           specifying dir will record not just a file dir/file1 modified in
           the working tree, a file dir/file2 added to the working tree, but
           also a file dir/file3 removed from the working tree). Note that
           older versions of Git used to ignore removed files; use --no-all
           option if you want to add modified or new files but ignore
           removed ones.

           For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the pathspec
           entry in gitglossary(7).

       -n, --dry-run
           Don’t actually add the file(s), just show if they exist and/or
           will be ignored.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       -f, --force
           Allow adding otherwise ignored files.

       -i, --interactive
           Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to the
           index. Optional path arguments may be supplied to limit operation
           to a subset of the working tree. See “Interactive mode” for

       -p, --patch
           Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the
           work tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance
           to review the difference before adding modified contents to the

           This effectively runs add --interactive, but bypasses the initial
           command menu and directly jumps to the patch subcommand. See
           “Interactive mode” for details.

       -e, --edit
           Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user edit
           it. After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers and
           apply the patch to the index.

           The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the
           patch to apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be
           staged. This can be quicker and more flexible than using the
           interactive hunk selector. However, it is easy to confuse oneself
           and create a patch that does not apply to the index. See EDITING
           PATCHES below.

       -u, --update
           Update the index just where it already has an entry matching
           <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
           match the working tree, but adds no new files.

           If no <pathspec> is given when -u option is used, all tracked
           files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions of Git
           used to limit the update to the current directory and its

       -A, --all, --no-ignore-removal
           Update the index not only where the working tree has a file
           matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an
           entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to match
           the working tree.

           If no <pathspec> is given when -A option is used, all files in
           the entire working tree are updated (old versions of Git used to
           limit the update to the current directory and its

       --no-all, --ignore-removal
           Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the
           index and files modified in the working tree, but ignore files
           that have been removed from the working tree. This option is a
           no-op when no <pathspec> is used.

           This option is primarily to help users who are used to older
           versions of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym for
           "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.

       -N, --intent-to-add
           Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
           for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is
           useful for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of
           such files with git diff and committing them with git commit -a.

           Don’t add the file(s), but only refresh their stat() information
           in the index.

           If some files could not be added because of errors indexing them,
           do not abort the operation, but continue adding the others. The
           command shall still exit with non-zero status. The configuration
           variable add.ignoreErrors can be set to true to make this the
           default behaviour.

           This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By using
           this option the user can check if any of the given files would be
           ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work tree
           or not.

           By default, git add will warn when adding an embedded repository
           to the index without using git submodule add to create an entry
           in .gitmodules. This option will suppress the warning (e.g., if
           you are manually performing operations on submodules).

           Apply the "clean" process freshly to all tracked files to
           forcibly add them again to the index. This is useful after
           changing core.autocrlf configuration or the text attribute in
           order to correct files added with wrong CRLF/LF line endings.
           This option implies -u.

           Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable
           bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left

           Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline args. If
           <file> is exactly - then standard input is used. Pathspec
           elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
           quoted as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath
           (see git-config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global

           Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements are
           separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
           literally (including newlines and quotes).

           This option can be used to separate command-line options from the
           list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken for
           command-line options).

EXAMPLES         top

       ·   Adds content from all *.txt files under Documentation directory
           and its subdirectories:

               $ git add Documentation/\*.txt

           Note that the asterisk * is quoted from the shell in this
           example; this lets the command include the files from
           subdirectories of Documentation/ directory.

       ·   Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:

               $ git add git-*.sh

           Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you
           are listing the files explicitly), it does not consider


       When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the output of
       the status subcommand, and then goes into its interactive command

       The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and gives a
       prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends with a single
       >, you can pick only one of the choices given and type return, like

               *** Commands ***
                 1: status       2: update       3: revert       4: add untracked
                 5: patch        6: diff         7: quit         8: help
               What now> 1

       You also could say s or sta or status above as long as the choice is

       The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).

           This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
           committed if you say git commit), and between index and working
           tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before git commit
           using git add) for each path. A sample output looks like this:

                             staged     unstaged path
                    1:       binary      nothing foo.png
                    2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

           It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is
           binary so line count cannot be shown) and there is no difference
           between indexed copy and the working tree version (if the working
           tree version were also different, binary would have been shown in
           place of nothing). The other file, git-add--interactive.perl, has
           403 lines added and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the
           index, but working tree file has further modifications (one
           addition and one deletion).

           This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>"
           prompt. When the prompt ends with double >>, you can make more
           than one selection, concatenated with whitespace or comma. Also
           you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the
           list. If the second number in a range is omitted, all remaining
           patches are taken. E.g. "7-" to choose 7,8,9 from the list. You
           can say * to choose everything.

           What you chose are then highlighted with *, like this:

                          staged     unstaged path
                 1:       binary      nothing foo.png
               * 2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

           To remove selection, prefix the input with - like this:

               Update>> -2

           After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage
           the contents of working tree files for selected paths in the

           This has a very similar UI to update, and the staged information
           for selected paths are reverted to that of the HEAD version.
           Reverting new paths makes them untracked.

       add untracked
           This has a very similar UI to update and revert, and lets you add
           untracked paths to the index.

           This lets you choose one path out of a status like selection.
           After choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index
           and the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage the
           change of each hunk. You can select one of the following options
           and type return:

               y - stage this hunk
               n - do not stage this hunk
               q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
               a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
               d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
               g - select a hunk to go to
               / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
               j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
               J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
               k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
               K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
               s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
               e - manually edit the current hunk
               ? - print help

           After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk that
           was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.

           You can omit having to type return here, by setting the
           configuration variable interactive.singleKey to true.

           This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between HEAD
           and index).


       Invoking git add -e or selecting e from the interactive hunk selector
       will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the result
       is applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes to
       the patch, but note that some changes may have confusing results, or
       even result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort
       the operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply
       delete all lines of the patch. The list below describes some common
       things you may see in a patch, and which editing operations make
       sense on them.

       added content
           Added content is represented by lines beginning with "+". You can
           prevent staging any addition lines by deleting them.

       removed content
           Removed content is represented by lines beginning with "-". You
           can prevent staging their removal by converting the "-" to a " "

       modified content
           Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing the old
           content) followed by "+" lines (adding the replacement content).
           You can prevent staging the modification by converting "-" lines
           to " ", and removing "+" lines. Beware that modifying only half
           of the pair is likely to introduce confusing changes to the

       There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But
       beware that because the patch is applied only to the index and not
       the working tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change
       in the index. For example, introducing a new line into the index that
       is in neither the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line
       for commit, but the line will appear to be reverted in the working

       Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.

       removing untouched content
           Content which does not differ between the index and working tree
           may be shown on context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You
           can stage context lines for removal by converting the space to a
           "-". The resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the

       modifying existing content
           One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by
           converting " " to "-") and adding a "+" line with the new
           content. Similarly, one can modify "+" lines for existing
           additions or modifications. In all cases, the new modification
           will appear reverted in the working tree.

       new content
           You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch;
           simply add new lines, each starting with "+". The addition will
           appear reverted in the working tree.

       There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely,
       as they will make the patch impossible to apply:

       ·   adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines

       ·   deleting context or removal lines

       ·   modifying the contents of context or removal lines

SEE ALSO         top

       git-status(1) git-rm(1) git-reset(1) git-mv(1) git-commit(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control system)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual page,
       see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
       2020-09-18.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that
       was found in the repository was 2020-09-09.)  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git           09/18/2020                       GIT-ADD(1)

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