git-pull(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-PULL(1)                    Git Manual                    GIT-PULL(1)

NAME         top

       git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a
       local branch

SYNOPSIS         top

       git pull [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current
       branch. If the current branch is behind the remote, then by
       default it will fast-forward the current branch to match the
       remote. If the current branch and the remote have diverged, the
       user needs to specify how to reconcile the divergent branches
       with --rebase or --no-rebase (or the corresponding configuration
       option in pull.rebase).

       More precisely, git pull runs git fetch with the given parameters
       and then depending on configuration options or command line
       flags, will call either git rebase or git merge to reconcile
       diverging branches.

       <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as passed
       to git-fetch(1). <refspec> can name an arbitrary remote ref (for
       example, the name of a tag) or even a collection of refs with
       corresponding remote-tracking branches (e.g.,
       refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*), but usually it is the name
       of a branch in the remote repository.

       Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the
       "remote" and "merge" configuration for the current branch as set
       by git-branch(1) --track.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is

                     A---B---C master on origin
               D---E---F---G master
                   origin/master in your repository

       Then "git pull" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
       master branch since it diverged from the local master (i.e., E)
       until its current commit (C) on top of master and record the
       result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent
       commits and a log message from the user describing the changes.

                     A---B---C origin/master
                    /         \
               D---E---F---G---H master

       See git-merge(1) for details, including how conflicts are
       presented and handled.

       In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use git
       reset --merge. Warning: In older versions of Git, running git
       pull with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it
       leaves you in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case
       of a conflict.

       If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted
       changes, the merge will be automatically canceled and the work
       tree untouched. It is generally best to get any local changes in
       working order before pulling or stash them away with

OPTIONS         top

       -q, --quiet
           This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch
           reporting of during transfer, and underlying git-merge to
           squelch output during merging.

       -v, --verbose
           Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.

           This option controls if new commits of populated submodules
           should be fetched, and if the working trees of active
           submodules should be updated, too (see git-fetch(1),
           git-config(1) and gitmodules(5)).

           If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits
           are rebased as well.

           If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are
           resolved and checked out.

   Options related to merging
       --commit, --no-commit
           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be
           used to override --no-commit. Only useful when merging.

           With --no-commit perform the merge and stop just before
           creating a merge commit, to give the user a chance to inspect
           and further tweak the merge result before committing.

           Note that fast-forward updates do not create a merge commit
           and therefore there is no way to stop those merges with
           --no-commit. Thus, if you want to ensure your branch is not
           changed or updated by the merge command, use --no-ff with

       --edit, -e, --no-edit
           Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical
           merge to further edit the auto-generated merge message, so
           that the user can explain and justify the merge. The
           --no-edit option can be used to accept the auto-generated
           message (this is generally discouraged).

           Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not
           allowing the user to edit the merge log message. They will
           see an editor opened when they run git merge. To make it
           easier to adjust such scripts to the updated behaviour, the
           environment variable GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at
           the beginning of them.

           This option determines how the merge message will be cleaned
           up before committing. See git-commit(1) for more details. In
           addition, if the <mode> is given a value of scissors,
           scissors will be appended to MERGE_MSG before being passed on
           to the commit machinery in the case of a merge conflict.

           Only update to the new history if there is no divergent local
           history. This is the default when no method for reconciling
           divergent histories is provided (via the --rebase=* flags).

       --ff, --no-ff
           When merging rather than rebasing, specifies how a merge is
           handled when the merged-in history is already a descendant of
           the current history. If merging is requested, --ff is the
           default unless merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag
           that is not stored in its natural place in the refs/tags/
           hierarchy, in which case --no-ff is assumed.

           With --ff, when possible resolve the merge as a fast-forward
           (only update the branch pointer to match the merged branch;
           do not create a merge commit). When not possible (when the
           merged-in history is not a descendant of the current
           history), create a merge commit.

           With --no-ff, create a merge commit in all cases, even when
           the merge could instead be resolved as a fast-forward.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
           GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The keyid argument is
           optional and defaults to the committer identity; if
           specified, it must be stuck to the option without a space.
           --no-gpg-sign is useful to countermand both commit.gpgSign
           configuration variable, and earlier --gpg-sign.

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with
           one-line descriptions from at most <n> actual commits that
           are being merged. See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1). Only useful
           when merging.

           With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the
           actual commits being merged.

       --signoff, --no-signoff
           Add a Signed-off-by trailer by the committer at the end of
           the commit log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on
           the project to which you’re committing. For example, it may
           certify that the committer has the rights to submit the work
           under the project’s license or agrees to some contributor
           representation, such as a Developer Certificate of Origin.
           (See for the one used by the
           Linux kernel and Git projects.) Consult the documentation or
           leadership of the project to which you’re contributing to
           understand how the signoffs are used in that project.

           The --no-signoff option can be used to countermand an earlier
           --signoff option on the command line.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
           Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also
           controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.

           With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the

       --squash, --no-squash
           Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge
           happened (except for the merge information), but do not
           actually make a commit, move the HEAD, or record
           $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to cause the next git commit command to
           create a merge commit). This allows you to create a single
           commit on top of the current branch whose effect is the same
           as merging another branch (or more in case of an octopus).

           With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result.
           This option can be used to override --squash.

           With --squash, --commit is not allowed, and will fail.

           Only useful when merging.

           By default, the pre-merge and commit-msg hooks are run. When
           --no-verify is given, these are bypassed. See also
           githooks(5). Only useful when merging.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
           Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once
           to specify them in the order they should be tried. If there
           is no -s option, a built-in list of strategies is used
           instead (ort when merging a single head, octopus otherwise).

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
           Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge

       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
           Verify that the tip commit of the side branch being merged is
           signed with a valid key, i.e. a key that has a valid uid: in
           the default trust model, this means the signing key has been
           signed by a trusted key. If the tip commit of the side branch
           is not signed with a valid key, the merge is aborted.

           Only useful when merging.

       --summary, --no-summary
           Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and
           will be removed in the future.

       --autostash, --no-autostash
           Automatically create a temporary stash entry before the
           operation begins, record it in the ref MERGE_AUTOSTASH and
           apply it after the operation ends. This means that you can
           run the operation on a dirty worktree. However, use with
           care: the final stash application after a successful merge
           might result in non-trivial conflicts.

           By default, git merge command refuses to merge histories that
           do not share a common ancestor. This option can be used to
           override this safety when merging histories of two projects
           that started their lives independently. As that is a very
           rare occasion, no configuration variable to enable this by
           default exists and will not be added.

           Only useful when merging.

       -r, --rebase[=(false|true|merges|interactive)]
           When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
           branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
           corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
           was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that
           information to avoid rebasing non-local changes.

           When set to merges, rebase using git rebase --rebase-merges
           so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase
           (see git-rebase(1) for details).

           When false, merge the upstream branch into the current

           When interactive, enable the interactive mode of rebase.

           See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and
           branch.autoSetupRebase in git-config(1) if you want to make
           git pull always use --rebase instead of merging.

               This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It
               rewrites history, which does not bode well when you
               published that history already. Do not use this option
               unless you have read git-rebase(1) carefully.

           This is shorthand for --rebase=false.

   Options related to fetching
           Fetch all remotes. This overrides the configuration variable

       -a, --append
           Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the
           existing contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old
           data in .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

           Use an atomic transaction to update local refs. Either all
           refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.

           Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the
           tip of each remote branch history. If fetching to a shallow
           repository created by git clone with --depth=<depth> option
           (see git-clone(1)), deepen or shorten the history to the
           specified number of commits. Tags for the deepened commits
           are not fetched.

           Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits
           from the current shallow boundary instead of from the tip of
           each remote branch history.

           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to
           include all reachable commits after <date>.

           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to
           exclude commits reachable from a specified remote branch or
           tag. This option can be specified multiple times.

           If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow
           repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations
           imposed by shallow repositories.

           If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as
           possible so that the current repository has the same history
           as the source repository.

           By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch
           refuses refs that require updating .git/shallow. This option
           updates .git/shallow and accepts such refs.

           By default, Git will report, to the server, commits reachable
           from all local refs to find common commits in an attempt to
           reduce the size of the to-be-received packfile. If specified,
           Git will only report commits reachable from the given tips.
           This is useful to speed up fetches when the user knows which
           local ref is likely to have commits in common with the
           upstream ref being fetched.

           This option may be specified more than once; if so, Git will
           report commits reachable from any of the given commits.

           The argument to this option may be a glob on ref names, a
           ref, or the (possibly abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit.
           Specifying a glob is equivalent to specifying this option
           multiple times, one for each matching ref name.

           See also the fetch.negotiationAlgorithm and push.negotiate
           configuration variables documented in git-config(1), and the
           --negotiate-only option below.

           Do not fetch anything from the server, and instead print the
           ancestors of the provided --negotiation-tip=* arguments,
           which we have in common with the server.

           This is incompatible with
           --recurse-submodules=[yes|on-demand]. Internally this is used
           to implement the push.negotiate option, see git-config(1).

           Show what would be done, without making any changes.

           Print the output to standard output in an easy-to-parse
           format for scripts. See section OUTPUT in git-fetch(1) for

           This is incompatible with
           --recurse-submodules=[yes|on-demand] and takes precedence
           over the fetch.output config option.

       -f, --force
           When git fetch is used with <src>:<dst> refspec, it may
           refuse to update the local branch as discussed in the
           <refspec> part of the git-fetch(1) documentation. This option
           overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
           Keep downloaded pack.

           Modify the configured refspec to place all refs into the
           refs/prefetch/ namespace. See the prefetch task in

       -p, --prune
           Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that
           no longer exist on the remote. Tags are not subject to
           pruning if they are fetched only because of the default tag
           auto-following or due to a --tags option. However, if tags
           are fetched due to an explicit refspec (either on the command
           line or in the remote configuration, for example if the
           remote was cloned with the --mirror option), then they are
           also subject to pruning. Supplying --prune-tags is a
           shorthand for providing the tag refspec.

           By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded
           from the remote repository are fetched and stored locally.
           This option disables this automatic tag following. The
           default behavior for a remote may be specified with the
           remote.<name>.tagOpt setting. See git-config(1).

           When fetching refs listed on the command line, use the
           specified refspec (can be given more than once) to map the
           refs to remote-tracking branches, instead of the values of
           remote.*.fetch configuration variables for the remote
           repository. Providing an empty <refspec> to the --refmap
           option causes Git to ignore the configured refspecs and rely
           entirely on the refspecs supplied as command-line arguments.
           See section on "Configured Remote-tracking Branches" for

       -t, --tags
           Fetch all tags from the remote (i.e., fetch remote tags
           refs/tags/* into local tags with the same name), in addition
           to whatever else would otherwise be fetched. Using this
           option alone does not subject tags to pruning, even if
           --prune is used (though tags may be pruned anyway if they are
           also the destination of an explicit refspec; see --prune).

       -j, --jobs=<n>
           Number of parallel children to be used for all forms of

           If the --multiple option was specified, the different remotes
           will be fetched in parallel. If multiple submodules are
           fetched, they will be fetched in parallel. To control them
           independently, use the config settings fetch.parallel and
           submodule.fetchJobs (see git-config(1)).

           Typically, parallel recursive and multi-remote fetches will
           be faster. By default fetches are performed sequentially, not
           in parallel.

           If the remote is fetched successfully, add upstream
           (tracking) reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1) and
           other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge
           and branch.<name>.remote in git-config(1).

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
           When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by
           git fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command
           to specify non-default path for the command run on the other

           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
           default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is
           specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
           standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.

       -o <option>, --server-option=<option>
           Transmit the given string to the server when communicating
           using protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a
           NUL or LF character. The server’s handling of server options,
           including unknown ones, is server-specific. When multiple
           --server-option=<option> are given, they are all sent to the
           other side in the order listed on the command line.

           By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during
           fetch. This can be disabled through fetch.showForcedUpdates,
           but the --show-forced-updates option guarantees this check
           occurs. See git-config(1).

           By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during
           fetch. Pass --no-show-forced-updates or set
           fetch.showForcedUpdates to false to skip this check for
           performance reasons. If used during git-pull the --ff-only
           option will still check for forced updates before attempting
           a fast-forward update. See git-config(1).

       -4, --ipv4
           Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

       -6, --ipv6
           Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.

           The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull
           operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the
           section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the
           section REMOTES below).

           Specifies which refs to fetch and which local refs to update.
           When no <refspec>s appear on the command line, the refs to
           fetch are read from remote.<repository>.fetch variables
           instead (see the section "CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING
           BRANCHES" in git-fetch(1)).

           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +,
           followed by the source <src>, followed by a colon :, followed
           by the destination ref <dst>. The colon can be omitted when
           <dst> is empty. <src> is typically a ref, but it can also be
           a fully spelled hex object name.

           A <refspec> may contain a * in its <src> to indicate a simple
           pattern match. Such a refspec functions like a glob that
           matches any ref with the same prefix. A pattern <refspec>
           must have a * in both the <src> and <dst>. It will map refs
           to the destination by replacing the * with the contents
           matched from the source.

           If a refspec is prefixed by ^, it will be interpreted as a
           negative refspec. Rather than specifying which refs to fetch
           or which local refs to update, such a refspec will instead
           specify refs to exclude. A ref will be considered to match if
           it matches at least one positive refspec, and does not match
           any negative refspec. Negative refspecs can be useful to
           restrict the scope of a pattern refspec so that it will not
           include specific refs. Negative refspecs can themselves be
           pattern refspecs. However, they may only contain a <src> and
           do not specify a <dst>. Fully spelled out hex object names
           are also not supported.

           tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>;
           it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.

           The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is
           not an empty string, an attempt is made to update the local
           ref that matches it.

           Whether that update is allowed without --force depends on the
           ref namespace it’s being fetched to, the type of object being
           fetched, and whether the update is considered to be a
           fast-forward. Generally, the same rules apply for fetching as
           when pushing, see the <refspec>...  section of git-push(1)
           for what those are. Exceptions to those rules particular to
           git fetch are noted below.

           Until Git version 2.20, and unlike when pushing with
           git-push(1), any updates to refs/tags/* would be accepted
           without + in the refspec (or --force). When fetching, we
           promiscuously considered all tag updates from a remote to be
           forced fetches. Since Git version 2.20, fetching to update
           refs/tags/* works the same way as when pushing. I.e. any
           updates will be rejected without + in the refspec (or

           Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), any updates outside of
           refs/{tags,heads}/* will be accepted without + in the refspec
           (or --force), whether that’s swapping e.g. a tree object for
           a blob, or a commit for another commit that doesn’t have the
           previous commit as an ancestor etc.

           Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), there is no
           configuration which’ll amend these rules, and nothing like a
           pre-fetch hook analogous to the pre-receive hook.

           As with pushing with git-push(1), all of the rules described
           above about what’s not allowed as an update can be overridden
           by adding an optional leading + to a refspec (or using the
           --force command line option). The only exception to this is
           that no amount of forcing will make the refs/heads/*
           namespace accept a non-commit object.

               When the remote branch you want to fetch is known to be
               rewound and rebased regularly, it is expected that its
               new tip will not be a descendant of its previous tip (as
               stored in your remote-tracking branch the last time you
               fetched). You would want to use the + sign to indicate
               non-fast-forward updates will be needed for such
               branches. There is no way to determine or declare that a
               branch will be made available in a repository with this
               behavior; the pulling user simply must know this is the
               expected usage pattern for a branch.

               There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec>
               directly on git pull command line and having multiple
               remote.<repository>.fetch entries in your configuration
               for a <repository> and running a git pull command without
               any explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec>s listed
               explicitly on the command line are always merged into the
               current branch after fetching. In other words, if you
               list more than one remote ref, git pull will create an
               Octopus merge. On the other hand, if you do not list any
               explicit <refspec> parameter on the command line, git
               pull will fetch all the <refspec>s it finds in the
               remote.<repository>.fetch configuration and merge only
               the first <refspec> found into the current branch. This
               is because making an Octopus from remote refs is rarely
               done, while keeping track of multiple remote heads in
               one-go by fetching more than one is often useful.

GIT URLS         top

       In general, URLs contain information about the transport
       protocol, the address of the remote server, and the path to the
       repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some of this
       information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition,
       ftp and ftps can be used for fetching, but this is inefficient
       and deprecated; do not use them).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       •   ssh://[<user>@]<host>[:<port>]/<path-to-git-repo>git://<host>[:<port>]/<path-to-git-repo>http[s]://<host>[:<port>]/<path-to-git-repo>ftp[s]://<host>[:<port>]/<path-to-git-repo>

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh

       •   [<user>@]<host>:/<path-to-git-repo>

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the
       first colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains
       a colon. For example the local path foo:bar could be specified as
       an absolute path or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an
       ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~<username>

       •   ssh://[<user>@]<host>[:<port>]/~<user>/<path-to-git-repo>git://<host>[:<port>]/~<user>/<path-to-git-repo>

       •   [<user>@]<host>:~<user>/<path-to-git-repo>

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the
       following syntaxes may be used:

       •   /path/to/repo.git/file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning,
       when the former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for

       git clone, git fetch and git pull, but not git push, will also
       accept a suitable bundle file. See git-bundle(1).

       When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol,
       it attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one
       exists. To explicitly request a remote helper, the following
       syntax may be used:

       •   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being
       invoked. See gitremote-helpers(7) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote
       repositories and you want to use a different format for them
       (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that
       work), you can create a configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual-url-base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other-url-base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git"
       will be rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual-url-base>"]
                           pushInsteadOf = <other-url-base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "ssh://"]
                           pushInsteadOf = git://

       a URL like "git://" will be rewritten
       to "ssh://" for pushes, but pulls
       will still use the original URL.

REMOTES         top

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       •   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       •   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       •   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command
       line because they each contain a refspec which git will use by

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had
       previously configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even
       by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this
       remote will be used to access the repository. The refspec of this
       remote will be used by default when you do not provide a refspec
       on the command line. The entry in the config file would appear
       like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <URL>
                           pushurl = <pushurl>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and
       defaults to <URL>. Pushing to a remote affects all defined
       pushurls or all defined urls if no pushurls are defined. Fetch,
       however, will only fetch from the first defined url if multiple
       urls are defined.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes.
       The URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The
       refspec in this file will be used as default when you do not
       provide a refspec on the command line. This file should have the
       following format:

                   URL: one of the above URL formats
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git
       pull and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be
       specified for additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in
       $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file will be used to access
       the repository. This file should have the following format:


       <URL> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following
       refspecs, if you don’t provide one on the command line. <branch>
       is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults
       to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push uses:



       The merge mechanism (git merge and git pull commands) allows the
       backend merge strategies to be chosen with -s option. Some
       strategies can also take their own options, which can be passed
       by giving -X<option> arguments to git merge and/or git pull.

           This is the default merge strategy when pulling or merging
           one branch. This strategy can only resolve two heads using a
           3-way merge algorithm. When there is more than one common
           ancestor that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a
           merged tree of the common ancestors and uses that as the
           reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been reported to
           result in fewer merge conflicts without causing mismerges by
           tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux 2.6
           kernel development history. Additionally this strategy can
           detect and handle merges involving renames. It does not make
           use of detected copies. The name for this algorithm is an
           acronym ("Ostensibly Recursive’s Twin") and came from the
           fact that it was written as a replacement for the previous
           default algorithm, recursive.

           The ort strategy can take the following options:

               This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved
               cleanly by favoring our version. Changes from the other
               tree that do not conflict with our side are reflected in
               the merge result. For a binary file, the entire contents
               are taken from our side.

               This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy,
               which does not even look at what the other tree contains
               at all. It discards everything the other tree did,
               declaring our history contains all that happened in it.

               This is the opposite of ours; note that, unlike ours,
               there is no theirs merge strategy to confuse this merge
               option with.

           ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol,
               Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change
               as unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge.
               Whitespace changes mixed with other changes to a line are
               not ignored. See also git-diff(1) -b, -w,
               --ignore-space-at-eol, and --ignore-cr-at-eol.

               •   If their version only introduces whitespace changes
                   to a line, our version is used;

               •   If our version introduces whitespace changes but
                   their version includes a substantial change, their
                   version is used;

               •   Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.

               This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three
               stages of a file when resolving a three-way merge. This
               option is meant to be used when merging branches with
               different clean filters or end-of-line normalization
               rules. See "Merging branches with differing
               checkin/checkout attributes" in gitattributes(5) for

               Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the
               merge.renormalize configuration variable.

               Turn on rename detection, optionally setting the
               similarity threshold. This is the default. This overrides
               the merge.renames configuration variable. See also
               git-diff(1) --find-renames.

               Deprecated synonym for find-renames=<n>.

               This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy,
               where the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must be
               shifted to match with each other when merging. Instead,
               the specified path is prefixed (or stripped from the
               beginning) to make the shape of two trees to match.

           This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge
           algorithm. When there is more than one common ancestor that
           can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a merged tree of the
           common ancestors and uses that as the reference tree for the
           3-way merge. This has been reported to result in fewer merge
           conflicts without causing mismerges by tests done on actual
           merge commits taken from Linux 2.6 kernel development
           history. Additionally this can detect and handle merges
           involving renames. It does not make use of detected copies.
           This was the default strategy for resolving two heads from
           Git v0.99.9k until v2.33.0.

           The recursive strategy takes the same options as ort.
           However, there are three additional options that ort ignores
           (not documented above) that are potentially useful with the
           recursive strategy:

               Deprecated synonym for diff-algorithm=patience.

               Use a different diff algorithm while merging, which can
               help avoid mismerges that occur due to unimportant
               matching lines (such as braces from distinct functions).
               See also git-diff(1) --diff-algorithm. Note that ort
               specifically uses diff-algorithm=histogram, while
               recursive defaults to the diff.algorithm config setting.

               Turn off rename detection. This overrides the
               merge.renames configuration variable. See also
               git-diff(1) --no-renames.

           This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
           another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge
           algorithm. It tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge
           ambiguities. It does not handle renames.

           This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to
           do a complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is
           primarily meant to be used for bundling topic branch heads
           together. This is the default merge strategy when pulling or
           merging more than one branch.

           This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of
           the merge is always that of the current branch head,
           effectively ignoring all changes from all other branches. It
           is meant to be used to supersede old development history of
           side branches. Note that this is different from the -Xours
           option to the recursive merge strategy.

           This is a modified ort strategy. When merging trees A and B,
           if B corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to
           match the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees
           at the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common
           ancestor tree.

       With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default,
       ort), if a change is made on both branches, but later reverted on
       one of the branches, that change will be present in the merged
       result; some people find this behavior confusing. It occurs
       because only the heads and the merge base are considered when
       performing a merge, not the individual commits. The merge
       algorithm therefore considers the reverted change as no change at
       all, and substitutes the changed version instead.


       Often people use git pull without giving any parameter.
       Traditionally, this has been equivalent to saying git pull
       origin. However, when configuration branch.<name>.remote is
       present while on branch <name>, that value is used instead of

       In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value of
       the configuration remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there
       is not any such variable, the value on the URL: line in
       $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> is used.

       In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and
       optionally store in the remote-tracking branches) when the
       command is run without any refspec parameters on the command
       line, values of the configuration variable remote.<origin>.fetch
       are consulted, and if there aren’t any, $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>
       is consulted and its Pull: lines are used. In addition to the
       refspec formats described in the OPTIONS section, you can have a
       globbing refspec that looks like this:


       A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store
       what were fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and
       RHS must end with /*. The above specifies that all remote
       branches are tracked using remote-tracking branches in
       refs/remotes/origin/ hierarchy under the same name.

       The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after fetching
       is a bit involved, in order not to break backward compatibility.

       If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull,
       they are all merged.

       When no refspec was given on the command line, then git pull uses
       the refspec from the configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>.
       In such cases, the following rules apply:

        1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch
           <name> exists, that is the name of the branch at the remote
           site that is merged.

        2. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.

        3. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.

EXAMPLES         top

       •   Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you
           cloned from, then merge one of them into your current branch:

               $ git pull
               $ git pull origin

           Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote
           repository, but the choice is determined by the
           branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options; see
           git-config(1) for details.

       •   Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:

               $ git pull origin next

           This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, and
           updates the remote-tracking branch origin/next. The same can
           be done by invoking fetch and merge:

               $ git fetch origin
               $ git merge origin/next

       If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and would
       want to start over, you can recover with git reset.

SECURITY         top

       The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side
       from stealing data from the other repository that was not
       intended to be shared. If you have private data that you need to
       protect from a malicious peer, your best option is to store it in
       another repository. This applies to both clients and servers. In
       particular, namespaces on a server are not effective for read
       access control; you should only grant read access to a namespace
       to clients that you would trust with read access to the entire

       The known attack vectors are as follows:

        1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects
           it has that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can
           be used to optimize the transfer if the peer also has them.
           The attacker chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref
           to X, but isn’t required to send the content of X because the
           victim already has it. Now the victim believes that the
           attacker has X, and it sends the content of X back to the
           attacker later. (This attack is most straightforward for a
           client to perform on a server, by creating a ref to X in the
           namespace the client has access to and then fetching it. The
           most likely way for a server to perform it on a client is to
           "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the user does
           additional work on this branch and pushes it back to the
           server without noticing the merge.)

        2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The
           victim sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and
           the attacker falsely claims to have X and not Y, so the
           victim sends Y as a delta against X. The delta reveals
           regions of X that are similar to Y to the attacker.

BUGS         top

       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already
       checked out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new
       submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject the
       submodule itself cannot be fetched, making it impossible to check
       out that submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This
       is expected to be fixed in a future Git version.

SEE ALSO         top

       git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control
       system) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2024-06-14.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2024-06-12.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git         2024-06-12                    GIT-PULL(1)

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