git-bundle(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-BUNDLE(1)                  Git Manual                  GIT-BUNDLE(1)

NAME         top

       git-bundle - Move objects and refs by archive

SYNOPSIS         top

       git bundle create [-q | --quiet | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
                           [--version=<version>] <file> <git-rev-list-args>
       git bundle verify [-q | --quiet] <file>
       git bundle list-heads <file> [<refname>...]
       git bundle unbundle <file> [<refname>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Some workflows require that one or more branches of development
       on one machine be replicated on another machine, but the two
       machines cannot be directly connected, and therefore the
       interactive Git protocols (git, ssh, http) cannot be used.

       The git bundle command packages objects and references in an
       archive at the originating machine, which can then be imported
       into another repository using git fetch, git pull, or git clone,
       after moving the archive by some means (e.g., by sneakernet).

       As no direct connection between the repositories exists, the user
       must specify a basis for the bundle that is held by the
       destination repository: the bundle assumes that all objects in
       the basis are already in the destination repository.

OPTIONS         top

       create [options] <file> <git-rev-list-args>
           Used to create a bundle named file. This requires the
           <git-rev-list-args> arguments to define the bundle contents.
           options contains the options specific to the git bundle
           create subcommand.

       verify <file>
           Used to check that a bundle file is valid and will apply
           cleanly to the current repository. This includes checks on
           the bundle format itself as well as checking that the
           prerequisite commits exist and are fully linked in the
           current repository.  git bundle prints a list of missing
           commits, if any, and exits with a non-zero status.

       list-heads <file>
           Lists the references defined in the bundle. If followed by a
           list of references, only references matching those given are
           printed out.

       unbundle <file>
           Passes the objects in the bundle to git index-pack for
           storage in the repository, then prints the names of all
           defined references. If a list of references is given, only
           references matching those in the list are printed. This
           command is really plumbing, intended to be called only by git

           A list of arguments, acceptable to git rev-parse and git
           rev-list (and containing a named ref, see SPECIFYING
           REFERENCES below), that specifies the specific objects and
           references to transport. For example, master~10..master
           causes the current master reference to be packaged along with
           all objects added since its 10th ancestor commit. There is no
           explicit limit to the number of references and objects that
           may be packaged.

           A list of references used to limit the references reported as
           available. This is principally of use to git fetch, which
           expects to receive only those references asked for and not
           necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, git bundle
           acts like git fetch-pack).

           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
           default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is
           specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
           standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.

           When --stdout is specified then progress report is displayed
           during the object count and compression phases but inhibited
           during the write-out phase. The reason is that in some cases
           the output stream is directly linked to another command which
           may wish to display progress status of its own as it
           processes incoming pack data. This flag is like --progress
           except that it forces progress report for the write-out phase
           as well even if --stdout is used.

           This is used to imply --all-progress whenever progress
           display is activated. Unlike --all-progress this flag doesn’t
           actually force any progress display by itself.

           Specify the bundle version. Version 2 is the older format and
           can only be used with SHA-1 repositories; the newer version 3
           contains capabilities that permit extensions. The default is
           the oldest supported format, based on the hash algorithm in

       -q, --quiet
           This flag makes the command not to report its progress on the
           standard error stream.


       git bundle will only package references that are shown by git
       show-ref: this includes heads, tags, and remote heads. References
       such as master~1 cannot be packaged, but are perfectly suitable
       for defining the basis. More than one reference may be packaged,
       and more than one basis can be specified. The objects packaged
       are those not contained in the union of the given bases. Each
       basis can be specified explicitly (e.g. ^master~10), or
       implicitly (e.g. master~10..master, --since=10.days.ago master).

       It is very important that the basis used be held by the
       destination. It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing
       the bundle file to contain objects already in the destination, as
       these are ignored when unpacking at the destination.

       git clone can use any bundle created without negative refspecs
       (e.g., new, but not If you want to match git clone
       --mirror, which would include your refs such as refs/remotes/*,
       use --all. If you want to provide the same set of refs that a
       clone directly from the source repository would get, use
       --branches --tags for the <git-rev-list-args>.

EXAMPLES         top

       Assume you want to transfer the history from a repository R1 on
       machine A to another repository R2 on machine B. For whatever
       reason, direct connection between A and B is not allowed, but we
       can move data from A to B via some mechanism (CD, email, etc.).
       We want to update R2 with development made on the branch master
       in R1.

       To bootstrap the process, you can first create a bundle that does
       not have any basis. You can use a tag to remember up to what
       commit you last processed, in order to make it easy to later
       update the other repository with an incremental bundle:

           machineA$ cd R1
           machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle master
           machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master

       Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. Because
       this bundle does not require any existing object to be extracted,
       you can create a new repository on machine B by cloning from it:

           machineB$ git clone -b master /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2

       This will define a remote called "origin" in the resulting
       repository that lets you fetch and pull from the bundle. The
       $GIT_DIR/config file in R2 will have an entry like this:

           [remote "origin"]
               url = /home/me/tmp/file.bundle
               fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*

       To update the resulting mine.git repository, you can fetch or
       pull after replacing the bundle stored at
       /home/me/tmp/file.bundle with incremental updates.

       After working some more in the original repository, you can
       create an incremental bundle to update the other repository:

           machineA$ cd R1
           machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle lastR2bundle..master
           machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master

       You then transfer the bundle to the other machine to replace
       /home/me/tmp/file.bundle, and pull from it.

           machineB$ cd R2
           machineB$ git pull

       If you know up to what commit the intended recipient repository
       should have the necessary objects, you can use that knowledge to
       specify the basis, giving a cut-off point to limit the revisions
       and objects that go in the resulting bundle. The previous example
       used the lastR2bundle tag for this purpose, but you can use any
       other options that you would give to the git-log(1) command. Here
       are more examples:

       You can use a tag that is present in both:

           $ git bundle create mybundle v1.0.0..master

       You can use a basis based on time:

           $ git bundle create mybundle --since=10.days master

       You can use the number of commits:

           $ git bundle create mybundle -10 master

       You can run git-bundle verify to see if you can extract from a
       bundle that was created with a basis:

           $ git bundle verify mybundle

       This will list what commits you must have in order to extract
       from the bundle and will error out if you do not have them.

       A bundle from a recipient repository’s point of view is just like
       a regular repository which it fetches or pulls from. You can, for
       example, map references when fetching:

           $ git fetch mybundle master:localRef

       You can also see what references it offers:

           $ git ls-remote mybundle

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control
       system) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2021-04-01.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2021-03-30.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git         04/01/2021                  GIT-BUNDLE(1)

Pages that refer to this page: dpkg-source(1)git(1)git-clone(1)git-fast-export(1)git-fetch(1)git-pack-objects(1)git-pull(1)git-push(1)