terminfo(5) — Linux manual page


terminfo(5)                     File Formats                     terminfo(5)

NAME         top

       terminfo - terminal capability data base

SYNOPSIS         top


DESCRIPTION         top

       Terminfo is a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), lynx(1), mutt(1), and other curses
       applications, using high-level calls to libraries such as curses(3X).
       It is also used via low-level calls by non-curses applications which
       may be screen-oriented (such as @CLEAR@(1)) or non-screen (such as

       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which
       they have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by
       specifying padding requirements and initialization sequences.

       This manual describes ncurses version @NCURSES_MAJOR@.@NCURSES_MINOR@
       (patch @NCURSES_PATCH@).

   Terminfo Entry Syntax
       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       ·   Each field ends with a comma “,” (embedded commas may be escaped
           with a backslash or written as “\054”).

       ·   White space between fields is ignored.

       ·   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first column.

       ·   Newlines and leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used for
           formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from
           parsed entries.

           The @INFOCMP@ -f and -W options rely on this to format if-then-
           else expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The
           resulting formatted terminal description can be read by @TIC@.

       ·   The first field for each terminal gives the names which are known
           for the terminal, separated by “|” characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the
           terminal (its primary name), the last name given should be a long
           name fully identifying the terminal (see longname(3X)), and all
           others are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal

           X/Open Curses advises that all names but the last should be in
           lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain
           upper case and blanks for readability.

           This implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed case in the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded
           blanks, it allows that to be both an alias and a verbose name
           (but will warn about this ambiguity).

       ·   Lines beginning with a “#” in the first column are treated as

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of
           @CAPTOINFO@ and @INFOTOCAP@ (aliases for @TIC@) will move
           comments so they occur only between entries.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware
       making up the terminal should have a root name, thus “hp2621”.  This
       name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in,
       or user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a
       mode suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132-column mode would be vt100-w.  The
       following suffixes should be used where possible:

           Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
           -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
           -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
           -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
           -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
           -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
           -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
           -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
           -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
           -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
           -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
           -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
           -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
           -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Terminfo Capabilities Syntax
       The terminfo entry consists of several capabilities, i.e., features
       that the terminal has, or methods for exercising the terminal's

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry),
       there should be one or more capability fields.  These are boolean,
       numeric or string names with corresponding values:

       ·   Boolean capabilities are true when present, false when absent.
           There is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       ·   Numeric capabilities have a “#” following the name, then an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       ·   String capabilities have a “=” following the name, then an string
           of characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just as the
           fields comprising a terminal entry can be split into multiple
           lines.  While blanks between fields are ignored, blanks embedded
           within a string value are retained, except for leading blanks on
           a line.

       Any capability can be canceled, i.e., suppressed from the terminal
       entry, by following its name with “@” rather than a capability value.

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the base) with certain
       exceptions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability
       use can be given with the name of the base terminal:

       ·   The capabilities given before use override those in the base type
           named by use.

       ·   If there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in
           reverse order.  That is, the rightmost use reference is processed
           first, then the one to its left, and so forth.

       ·   Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override those brought
           in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use
       reference that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example,
       the entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities,
       and hence does not turn on the function key labels when in visual
       mode.  This is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for
       different user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities, which
       have the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the using
       terminal entry.

   Predefined Capabilities
       The following is a complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to terminfo-using code.  In
       each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and
       is used by a person updating the database.  Whenever possible,
       capnames are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI
       X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded by ECMA-48, which uses identical
       or very similar names).  Semantics are also intended to match those
       of the specification.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some
       capabilities are new, and have names which termcap did not

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of
       5 characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the
       tabs in the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of
       the capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the string is passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the number of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

                 Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                 Booleans            name      Code
         auto_left_margin            bw        bw     cub1 wraps from
                                                      column 0 to last

         auto_right_margin           am        am     terminal has
                                                      automatic margins
         back_color_erase            bce       ut     screen erased with
                                                      background color
         can_change                  ccc       cc     terminal can re-
                                                      define existing
         ceol_standout_glitch        xhp       xs     standout not erased
                                                      by overwriting (hp)
         col_addr_glitch             xhpa      YA     only positive motion
                                                      for hpa/mhpa caps
         cpi_changes_res             cpix      YF     changing character
                                                      pitch changes
         cr_cancels_micro_mode       crxm      YB     using cr turns off
                                                      micro mode
         dest_tabs_magic_smso        xt        xt     tabs destructive,
                                                      magic so char
         eat_newline_glitch          xenl      xn     newline ignored
                                                      after 80 cols
         erase_overstrike            eo        eo     can erase
                                                      overstrikes with a
         generic_type                gn        gn     generic line type
         hard_copy                   hc        hc     hardcopy terminal
         hard_cursor                 chts      HC     cursor is hard to
         has_meta_key                km        km     Has a meta key
                                                      (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
         has_print_wheel             daisy     YC     printer needs
                                                      operator to change
                                                      character set
         has_status_line             hs        hs     has extra status
         hue_lightness_saturation    hls       hl     terminal uses only
                                                      HLS color notation
         insert_null_glitch          in        in     insert mode
                                                      distinguishes nulls
         lpi_changes_res             lpix      YG     changing line pitch
                                                      changes resolution
         memory_above                da        da     display may be
                                                      retained above the
         memory_below                db        db     display may be
                                                      retained below the
         move_insert_mode            mir       mi     safe to move while
                                                      in insert mode
         move_standout_mode          msgr      ms     safe to move while
                                                      in standout mode
         needs_xon_xoff              nxon      nx     padding will not
                                                      work, xon/xoff
         no_esc_ctlc                 xsb       xb     beehive (f1=escape,
                                                      f2=ctrl C)
         no_pad_char                 npc       NP     pad character does
                                                      not exist
         non_dest_scroll_region      ndscr     ND     scrolling region is
         non_rev_rmcup               nrrmc     NR     smcup does not
                                                      reverse rmcup

         over_strike                 os        os     terminal can
         prtr_silent                 mc5i      5i     printer will not
                                                      echo on screen
         row_addr_glitch             xvpa      YD     only positive motion
                                                      for vpa/mvpa caps
         semi_auto_right_margin      sam       YE     printing in last
                                                      column causes cr
         status_line_esc_ok          eslok     es     escape can be used
                                                      on the status line
         tilde_glitch                hz        hz     cannot print ~'s
         transparent_underline       ul        ul     underline character
         xon_xoff                    xon       xo     terminal uses
                                                      xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

                 Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                  Numeric            name      Code
         columns                     cols      co     number of columns in
                                                      a line
         init_tabs                   it        it     tabs initially every
                                                      # spaces
         label_height                lh        lh     rows in each label
         label_width                 lw        lw     columns in each
         lines                       lines     li     number of lines on
                                                      screen or page
         lines_of_memory             lm        lm     lines of memory if >
                                                      line. 0 means varies
         magic_cookie_glitch         xmc       sg     number of blank
                                                      characters left by
                                                      smso or rmso
         max_attributes              ma        ma     maximum combined
                                                      attributes terminal
                                                      can handle
         max_colors                  colors    Co     maximum number of
                                                      colors on screen
         max_pairs                   pairs     pa     maximum number of
                                                      color-pairs on the
         maximum_windows             wnum      MW     maximum number of
                                                      definable windows
         no_color_video              ncv       NC     video attributes
                                                      that cannot be used
                                                      with colors
         num_labels                  nlab      Nl     number of labels on
         padding_baud_rate           pb        pb     lowest baud rate
                                                      where padding needed
         virtual_terminal            vt        vt     virtual terminal
                                                      number (CB/unix)
         width_status_line           wsl       ws     number of columns in
                                                      status line

       The  following  numeric  capabilities  are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.  They came  in
       with SVr4's printer support.

                 Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                  Numeric            name      Code

         bit_image_entwining         bitwin    Yo     number of passes for
                                                      each bit-image row
         bit_image_type              bitype    Yp     type of bit-image
         buffer_capacity             bufsz     Ya     numbers of bytes
                                                      buffered before
         buttons                     btns      BT     number of buttons on
         dot_horz_spacing            spinh     Yc     spacing of dots
                                                      horizontally in dots
                                                      per inch
         dot_vert_spacing            spinv     Yb     spacing of pins
                                                      vertically in pins
                                                      per inch
         max_micro_address           maddr     Yd     maximum value in
         max_micro_jump              mjump     Ye     maximum value in
         micro_col_size              mcs       Yf     character step size
                                                      when in micro mode
         micro_line_size             mls       Yg     line step size when
                                                      in micro mode
         number_of_pins              npins     Yh     numbers of pins in
         output_res_char             orc       Yi     horizontal
                                                      resolution in units
                                                      per line
         output_res_horz_inch        orhi      Yk     horizontal
                                                      resolution in units
                                                      per inch
         output_res_line             orl       Yj     vertical resolution
                                                      in units per line
         output_res_vert_inch        orvi      Yl     vertical resolution
                                                      in units per inch
         print_rate                  cps       Ym     print rate in
                                                      characters per
         wide_char_size              widcs     Yn     character step size
                                                      when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

                 Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                  String             name      Code
         acs_chars                   acsc      ac     graphics charset
                                                      pairs, based on
         back_tab                    cbt       bt     back tab (P)
         bell                        bel       bl     audible signal
                                                      (bell) (P)
         carriage_return             cr        cr     carriage return (P*)
         change_char_pitch           cpi       ZA     Change number of
                                                      characters per inch
                                                      to #1
         change_line_pitch           lpi       ZB     Change number of
                                                      lines per inch to #1
         change_res_horz             chr       ZC     Change horizontal
                                                      resolution to #1
         change_res_vert             cvr       ZD     Change vertical
                                                      resolution to #1

         change_scroll_region        csr       cs     change region to
                                                      line #1 to line #2
         char_padding                rmp       rP     like ip but when in
                                                      insert mode
         clear_all_tabs              tbc       ct     clear all tab stops
         clear_margins               mgc       MC     clear right and left
                                                      soft margins
         clear_screen                clear     cl     clear screen and
                                                      home cursor (P*)
         clr_bol                     el1       cb     Clear to beginning
                                                      of line
         clr_eol                     el        ce     clear to end of line
         clr_eos                     ed        cd     clear to end of
                                                      screen (P*)
         column_address              hpa       ch     horizontal position
                                                      #1, absolute (P)
         command_character           cmdch     CC     terminal settable
                                                      cmd character in
                                                      prototype !?
         create_window               cwin      CW     define a window #1
                                                      from #2,#3 to #4,#5
         cursor_address              cup       cm     move to row #1
                                                      columns #2
         cursor_down                 cud1      do     down one line
         cursor_home                 home      ho     home cursor (if no
         cursor_invisible            civis     vi     make cursor
         cursor_left                 cub1      le     move left one space
         cursor_mem_address          mrcup     CM     memory relative
                                                      cursor addressing,
                                                      move to row #1
                                                      columns #2
         cursor_normal               cnorm     ve     make cursor appear
                                                      normal (undo
         cursor_right                cuf1      nd     non-destructive
                                                      space (move right
                                                      one space)
         cursor_to_ll                ll        ll     last line, first
                                                      column (if no cup)
         cursor_up                   cuu1      up     up one line
         cursor_visible              cvvis     vs     make cursor very
         define_char                 defc      ZE     Define a character
                                                      #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                      descender #3
         delete_character            dch1      dc     delete character
         delete_line                 dl1       dl     delete line (P*)
         dial_phone                  dial      DI     dial number #1
         dis_status_line             dsl       ds     disable status line
         display_clock               dclk      DK     display clock
         down_half_line              hd        hd     half a line down
         ena_acs                     enacs     eA     enable alternate
                                                      char set
         enter_alt_charset_mode      smacs     as     start alternate
                                                      character set (P)
         enter_am_mode               smam      SA     turn on automatic
         enter_blink_mode            blink     mb     turn on blinking

         enter_bold_mode             bold      md     turn on bold (extra
                                                      bright) mode
         enter_ca_mode               smcup     ti     string to start
                                                      programs using cup
         enter_delete_mode           smdc      dm     enter delete mode
         enter_dim_mode              dim       mh     turn on half-bright
         enter_doublewide_mode       swidm     ZF     Enter double-wide
         enter_draft_quality         sdrfq     ZG     Enter draft-quality
         enter_insert_mode           smir      im     enter insert mode
         enter_italics_mode          sitm      ZH     Enter italic mode
         enter_leftward_mode         slm       ZI     Start leftward
                                                      carriage motion
         enter_micro_mode            smicm     ZJ     Start micro-motion
         enter_near_letter_quality   snlq      ZK     Enter NLQ mode
         enter_normal_quality        snrmq     ZL     Enter normal-quality
         enter_protected_mode        prot      mp     turn on protected
         enter_reverse_mode          rev       mr     turn on reverse
                                                      video mode
         enter_secure_mode           invis     mk     turn on blank mode
         enter_shadow_mode           sshm      ZM     Enter shadow-print
         enter_standout_mode         smso      so     begin standout mode
         enter_subscript_mode        ssubm     ZN     Enter subscript mode
         enter_superscript_mode      ssupm     ZO     Enter superscript
         enter_underline_mode        smul      us     begin underline mode
         enter_upward_mode           sum       ZP     Start upward
                                                      carriage motion
         enter_xon_mode              smxon     SX     turn on xon/xoff
         erase_chars                 ech       ec     erase #1 characters
         exit_alt_charset_mode       rmacs     ae     end alternate
                                                      character set (P)
         exit_am_mode                rmam      RA     turn off automatic
         exit_attribute_mode         sgr0      me     turn off all
         exit_ca_mode                rmcup     te     strings to end
                                                      programs using cup
         exit_delete_mode            rmdc      ed     end delete mode
         exit_doublewide_mode        rwidm     ZQ     End double-wide mode
         exit_insert_mode            rmir      ei     exit insert mode
         exit_italics_mode           ritm      ZR     End italic mode
         exit_leftward_mode          rlm       ZS     End left-motion mode
         exit_micro_mode             rmicm     ZT     End micro-motion
         exit_shadow_mode            rshm      ZU     End shadow-print
         exit_standout_mode          rmso      se     exit standout mode
         exit_subscript_mode         rsubm     ZV     End subscript mode
         exit_superscript_mode       rsupm     ZW     End superscript mode
         exit_underline_mode         rmul      ue     exit underline mode
         exit_upward_mode            rum       ZX     End reverse
                                                      character motion
         exit_xon_mode               rmxon     RX     turn off xon/xoff

         fixed_pause                 pause     PA     pause for 2-3
         flash_hook                  hook      fh     flash switch hook
         flash_screen                flash     vb     visible bell (may
                                                      not move cursor)
         form_feed                   ff        ff     hardcopy terminal
                                                      page eject (P*)
         from_status_line            fsl       fs     return from status
         goto_window                 wingo     WG     go to window #1
         hangup                      hup       HU     hang-up phone
         init_1string                is1       i1     initialization
         init_2string                is2       is     initialization
         init_3string                is3       i3     initialization
         init_file                   if        if     name of
                                                      initialization file
         init_prog                   iprog     iP     path name of program
                                                      for initialization
         initialize_color            initc     Ic     initialize color #1
                                                      to (#2,#3,#4)
         initialize_pair             initp     Ip     Initialize color
                                                      pair #1 to
         insert_character            ich1      ic     insert character (P)
         insert_line                 il1       al     insert line (P*)
         insert_padding              ip        ip     insert padding after
                                                      inserted character
         key_a1                      ka1       K1     upper left of keypad
         key_a3                      ka3       K3     upper right of
         key_b2                      kb2       K2     center of keypad
         key_backspace               kbs       kb     backspace key
         key_beg                     kbeg      @1     begin key
         key_btab                    kcbt      kB     back-tab key
         key_c1                      kc1       K4     lower left of keypad
         key_c3                      kc3       K5     lower right of
         key_cancel                  kcan      @2     cancel key
         key_catab                   ktbc      ka     clear-all-tabs key
         key_clear                   kclr      kC     clear-screen or
                                                      erase key
         key_close                   kclo      @3     close key
         key_command                 kcmd      @4     command key
         key_copy                    kcpy      @5     copy key
         key_create                  kcrt      @6     create key
         key_ctab                    kctab     kt     clear-tab key
         key_dc                      kdch1     kD     delete-character key
         key_dl                      kdl1      kL     delete-line key
         key_down                    kcud1     kd     down-arrow key
         key_eic                     krmir     kM     sent by rmir or smir
                                                      in insert mode
         key_end                     kend      @7     end key
         key_enter                   kent      @8     enter/send key
         key_eol                     kel       kE     clear-to-end-of-line
         key_eos                     ked       kS     clear-to-end-of-
                                                      screen key
         key_exit                    kext      @9     exit key
         key_f0                      kf0       k0     F0 function key
         key_f1                      kf1       k1     F1 function key
         key_f10                     kf10      k;     F10 function key

         key_f11                     kf11      F1     F11 function key
         key_f12                     kf12      F2     F12 function key
         key_f13                     kf13      F3     F13 function key
         key_f14                     kf14      F4     F14 function key
         key_f15                     kf15      F5     F15 function key
         key_f16                     kf16      F6     F16 function key
         key_f17                     kf17      F7     F17 function key
         key_f18                     kf18      F8     F18 function key
         key_f19                     kf19      F9     F19 function key
         key_f2                      kf2       k2     F2 function key
         key_f20                     kf20      FA     F20 function key
         key_f21                     kf21      FB     F21 function key
         key_f22                     kf22      FC     F22 function key
         key_f23                     kf23      FD     F23 function key
         key_f24                     kf24      FE     F24 function key
         key_f25                     kf25      FF     F25 function key
         key_f26                     kf26      FG     F26 function key
         key_f27                     kf27      FH     F27 function key
         key_f28                     kf28      FI     F28 function key
         key_f29                     kf29      FJ     F29 function key
         key_f3                      kf3       k3     F3 function key
         key_f30                     kf30      FK     F30 function key
         key_f31                     kf31      FL     F31 function key
         key_f32                     kf32      FM     F32 function key
         key_f33                     kf33      FN     F33 function key
         key_f34                     kf34      FO     F34 function key
         key_f35                     kf35      FP     F35 function key
         key_f36                     kf36      FQ     F36 function key
         key_f37                     kf37      FR     F37 function key
         key_f38                     kf38      FS     F38 function key
         key_f39                     kf39      FT     F39 function key
         key_f4                      kf4       k4     F4 function key
         key_f40                     kf40      FU     F40 function key
         key_f41                     kf41      FV     F41 function key
         key_f42                     kf42      FW     F42 function key
         key_f43                     kf43      FX     F43 function key
         key_f44                     kf44      FY     F44 function key
         key_f45                     kf45      FZ     F45 function key
         key_f46                     kf46      Fa     F46 function key
         key_f47                     kf47      Fb     F47 function key
         key_f48                     kf48      Fc     F48 function key
         key_f49                     kf49      Fd     F49 function key
         key_f5                      kf5       k5     F5 function key
         key_f50                     kf50      Fe     F50 function key
         key_f51                     kf51      Ff     F51 function key
         key_f52                     kf52      Fg     F52 function key
         key_f53                     kf53      Fh     F53 function key
         key_f54                     kf54      Fi     F54 function key
         key_f55                     kf55      Fj     F55 function key
         key_f56                     kf56      Fk     F56 function key
         key_f57                     kf57      Fl     F57 function key
         key_f58                     kf58      Fm     F58 function key
         key_f59                     kf59      Fn     F59 function key
         key_f6                      kf6       k6     F6 function key
         key_f60                     kf60      Fo     F60 function key
         key_f61                     kf61      Fp     F61 function key
         key_f62                     kf62      Fq     F62 function key
         key_f63                     kf63      Fr     F63 function key
         key_f7                      kf7       k7     F7 function key
         key_f8                      kf8       k8     F8 function key
         key_f9                      kf9       k9     F9 function key
         key_find                    kfnd      @0     find key
         key_help                    khlp      %1     help key
         key_home                    khome     kh     home key
         key_ic                      kich1     kI     insert-character key

         key_il                      kil1      kA     insert-line key
         key_left                    kcub1     kl     left-arrow key
         key_ll                      kll       kH     lower-left key (home
         key_mark                    kmrk      %2     mark key
         key_message                 kmsg      %3     message key
         key_move                    kmov      %4     move key
         key_next                    knxt      %5     next key
         key_npage                   knp       kN     next-page key
         key_open                    kopn      %6     open key
         key_options                 kopt      %7     options key
         key_ppage                   kpp       kP     previous-page key
         key_previous                kprv      %8     previous key
         key_print                   kprt      %9     print key
         key_redo                    krdo      %0     redo key
         key_reference               kref      &1     reference key
         key_refresh                 krfr      &2     refresh key
         key_replace                 krpl      &3     replace key
         key_restart                 krst      &4     restart key
         key_resume                  kres      &5     resume key
         key_right                   kcuf1     kr     right-arrow key
         key_save                    ksav      &6     save key
         key_sbeg                    kBEG      &9     shifted begin key
         key_scancel                 kCAN      &0     shifted cancel key
         key_scommand                kCMD      *1     shifted command key
         key_scopy                   kCPY      *2     shifted copy key
         key_screate                 kCRT      *3     shifted create key
         key_sdc                     kDC       *4     shifted delete-
                                                      character key
         key_sdl                     kDL       *5     shifted delete-line
         key_select                  kslt      *6     select key
         key_send                    kEND      *7     shifted end key
         key_seol                    kEOL      *8     shifted clear-to-
                                                      end-of-line key
         key_sexit                   kEXT      *9     shifted exit key
         key_sf                      kind      kF     scroll-forward key
         key_sfind                   kFND      *0     shifted find key
         key_shelp                   kHLP      #1     shifted help key
         key_shome                   kHOM      #2     shifted home key
         key_sic                     kIC       #3     shifted insert-
                                                      character key
         key_sleft                   kLFT      #4     shifted left-arrow
         key_smessage                kMSG      %a     shifted message key
         key_smove                   kMOV      %b     shifted move key
         key_snext                   kNXT      %c     shifted next key
         key_soptions                kOPT      %d     shifted options key
         key_sprevious               kPRV      %e     shifted previous key
         key_sprint                  kPRT      %f     shifted print key
         key_sr                      kri       kR     scroll-backward key
         key_sredo                   kRDO      %g     shifted redo key
         key_sreplace                kRPL      %h     shifted replace key
         key_sright                  kRIT      %i     shifted right-arrow
         key_srsume                  kRES      %j     shifted resume key
         key_ssave                   kSAV      !1     shifted save key
         key_ssuspend                kSPD      !2     shifted suspend key
         key_stab                    khts      kT     set-tab key
         key_sundo                   kUND      !3     shifted undo key
         key_suspend                 kspd      &7     suspend key
         key_undo                    kund      &8     undo key
         key_up                      kcuu1     ku     up-arrow key

         keypad_local                rmkx      ke     leave
         keypad_xmit                 smkx      ks     enter
         lab_f0                      lf0       l0     label on function
                                                      key f0 if not f0
         lab_f1                      lf1       l1     label on function
                                                      key f1 if not f1
         lab_f10                     lf10      la     label on function
                                                      key f10 if not f10
         lab_f2                      lf2       l2     label on function
                                                      key f2 if not f2
         lab_f3                      lf3       l3     label on function
                                                      key f3 if not f3
         lab_f4                      lf4       l4     label on function
                                                      key f4 if not f4
         lab_f5                      lf5       l5     label on function
                                                      key f5 if not f5
         lab_f6                      lf6       l6     label on function
                                                      key f6 if not f6
         lab_f7                      lf7       l7     label on function
                                                      key f7 if not f7
         lab_f8                      lf8       l8     label on function
                                                      key f8 if not f8
         lab_f9                      lf9       l9     label on function
                                                      key f9 if not f9
         label_format                fln       Lf     label format
         label_off                   rmln      LF     turn off soft labels
         label_on                    smln      LO     turn on soft labels
         meta_off                    rmm       mo     turn off meta mode
         meta_on                     smm       mm     turn on meta mode
                                                      (8th-bit on)
         micro_column_address        mhpa      ZY     Like column_address
                                                      in micro mode
         micro_down                  mcud1     ZZ     Like cursor_down in
                                                      micro mode
         micro_left                  mcub1     Za     Like cursor_left in
                                                      micro mode
         micro_right                 mcuf1     Zb     Like cursor_right in
                                                      micro mode
         micro_row_address           mvpa      Zc     Like row_address #1
                                                      in micro mode
         micro_up                    mcuu1     Zd     Like cursor_up in
                                                      micro mode
         newline                     nel       nw     newline (behave like
                                                      cr followed by lf)
         order_of_pins               porder    Ze     Match software bits
                                                      to print-head pins
         orig_colors                 oc        oc     Set all color pairs
                                                      to the original ones
         orig_pair                   op        op     Set default pair to
                                                      its original value
         pad_char                    pad       pc     padding char
                                                      (instead of null)
         parm_dch                    dch       DC     delete #1 characters
         parm_delete_line            dl        DL     delete #1 lines (P*)
         parm_down_cursor            cud       DO     down #1 lines (P*)
         parm_down_micro             mcud      Zf     Like
                                                      parm_down_cursor in
                                                      micro mode
         parm_ich                    ich       IC     insert #1 characters

         parm_index                  indn      SF     scroll forward #1
                                                      lines (P)
         parm_insert_line            il        AL     insert #1 lines (P*)
         parm_left_cursor            cub       LE     move #1 characters
                                                      to the left (P)
         parm_left_micro             mcub      Zg     Like
                                                      parm_left_cursor in
                                                      micro mode
         parm_right_cursor           cuf       RI     move #1 characters
                                                      to the right (P*)
         parm_right_micro            mcuf      Zh     Like
                                                      parm_right_cursor in
                                                      micro mode
         parm_rindex                 rin       SR     scroll back #1 lines
         parm_up_cursor              cuu       UP     up #1 lines (P*)
         parm_up_micro               mcuu      Zi     Like parm_up_cursor
                                                      in micro mode
         pkey_key                    pfkey     pk     program function key
                                                      #1 to type string #2
         pkey_local                  pfloc     pl     program function key
                                                      #1 to execute string
         pkey_xmit                   pfx       px     program function key
                                                      #1 to transmit
                                                      string #2
         plab_norm                   pln       pn     program label #1 to
                                                      show string #2
         print_screen                mc0       ps     print contents of
         prtr_non                    mc5p      pO     turn on printer for
                                                      #1 bytes
         prtr_off                    mc4       pf     turn off printer
         prtr_on                     mc5       po     turn on printer
         pulse                       pulse     PU     select pulse dialing
         quick_dial                  qdial     QD     dial number #1
                                                      without checking
         remove_clock                rmclk     RC     remove clock
         repeat_char                 rep       rp     repeat char #1 #2
                                                      times (P*)
         req_for_input               rfi       RF     send next input char
                                                      (for ptys)
         reset_1string               rs1       r1     reset string
         reset_2string               rs2       r2     reset string
         reset_3string               rs3       r3     reset string
         reset_file                  rf        rf     name of reset file
         restore_cursor              rc        rc     restore cursor to
                                                      position of last
         row_address                 vpa       cv     vertical position #1
                                                      absolute (P)
         save_cursor                 sc        sc     save current cursor
                                                      position (P)
         scroll_forward              ind       sf     scroll text up (P)
         scroll_reverse              ri        sr     scroll text down (P)
         select_char_set             scs       Zj     Select character
                                                      set, #1
         set_attributes              sgr       sa     define video
                                                      attributes #1-#9
         set_background              setb      Sb     Set background color
         set_bottom_margin           smgb      Zk     Set bottom margin at
                                                      current line

         set_bottom_margin_parm      smgbp     Zl     Set bottom margin at
                                                      line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                      is not given) #2
                                                      lines from bottom
         set_clock                   sclk      SC     set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                      mins #3 secs
         set_color_pair              scp       sp     Set current color
                                                      pair to #1
         set_foreground              setf      Sf     Set foreground color
         set_left_margin             smgl      ML     set left soft margin
                                                      at current
                                                      column.     See
                                                      smgl. (ML is not in
                                                      BSD termcap).
         set_left_margin_parm        smglp     Zm     Set left (right)
                                                      margin at column #1
         set_right_margin            smgr      MR     set right soft
                                                      margin at current
         set_right_margin_parm       smgrp     Zn     Set right margin at
                                                      column #1
         set_tab                     hts       st     set a tab in every
                                                      row, current columns
         set_top_margin              smgt      Zo     Set top margin at
                                                      current line
         set_top_margin_parm         smgtp     Zp     Set top (bottom)
                                                      margin at row #1
         set_window                  wind      wi     current window is
                                                      lines #1-#2 cols
         start_bit_image             sbim      Zq     Start printing bit
                                                      image graphics
         start_char_set_def          scsd      Zr     Start character set
                                                      definition #1, with
                                                      #2 characters in the
         stop_bit_image              rbim      Zs     Stop printing bit
                                                      image graphics
         stop_char_set_def           rcsd      Zt     End definition of
                                                      character set #1
         subscript_characters        subcs     Zu     List of
         superscript_characters      supcs     Zv     List of
         tab                         ht        ta     tab to next 8-space
                                                      hardware tab stop
         these_cause_cr              docr      Zw     Printing any of
                                                      these characters
                                                      causes CR
         to_status_line              tsl       ts     move to status line,
                                                      column #1
         tone                        tone      TO     select touch tone
         underline_char              uc        uc     underline char and
                                                      move past it
         up_half_line                hu        hu     half a line up
         user0                       u0        u0     User string #0
         user1                       u1        u1     User string #1
         user2                       u2        u2     User string #2
         user3                       u3        u3     User string #3
         user4                       u4        u4     User string #4
         user5                       u5        u5     User string #5

         user6                       u6        u6     User string #6
         user7                       u7        u7     User string #7
         user8                       u8        u8     User string #8
         user9                       u9        u9     User string #9
         wait_tone                   wait      WA     wait for dial-tone
         xoff_character              xoffc     XF     XOFF character
         xon_character               xonc      XN     XON character
         zero_motion                 zerom     Zx     No motion for
                                                      subsequent character

       The  following  string  capabilities  are  present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but were originally not documented in the man page.

                 Variable            Cap-       TCap      Description
                  String             name       Code
         alt_scancode_esc            scesa      S8     Alternate escape
                                                       for scancode
         bit_image_carriage_return   bicr       Yv     Move to beginning
                                                       of same row
         bit_image_newline           binel      Zz     Move to next row
                                                       of the bit image
         bit_image_repeat            birep      Xy     Repeat bit image
                                                       cell #1 #2 times
         char_set_names              csnm       Zy     Produce #1'th item
                                                       from list of
                                                       character set
         code_set_init               csin       ci     Init sequence for
                                                       multiple codesets
         color_names                 colornm    Yw     Give name for
                                                       color #1
         define_bit_image_region     defbi      Yx     Define rectangular
                                                       bit image region
         device_type                 devt       dv     Indicate
         display_pc_char             dispc      S1     Display PC
                                                       character #1
         end_bit_image_region        endbi      Yy     End a bit-image
         enter_pc_charset_mode       smpch      S2     Enter PC character
                                                       display mode
         enter_scancode_mode         smsc       S4     Enter PC scancode
         exit_pc_charset_mode        rmpch      S3     Exit PC character
                                                       display mode
         exit_scancode_mode          rmsc       S5     Exit PC scancode
         get_mouse                   getm       Gm     Curses should get
                                                       button events,
                                                       parameter #1 not
         key_mouse                   kmous      Km     Mouse event has
         mouse_info                  minfo      Mi     Mouse status
         pc_term_options             pctrm      S6     PC terminal
         pkey_plab                   pfxl       xl     Program function
                                                       key #1 to type
                                                       string #2 and show
                                                       string #3

         req_mouse_pos               reqmp      RQ     Request mouse
         scancode_escape             scesc      S7     Escape for
                                                       scancode emulation
         set0_des_seq                s0ds       s0     Shift to codeset 0
                                                       (EUC set 0, ASCII)
         set1_des_seq                s1ds       s1     Shift to codeset 1
         set2_des_seq                s2ds       s2     Shift to codeset 2
         set3_des_seq                s3ds       s3     Shift to codeset 3
         set_a_background            setab      AB     Set background
                                                       color to #1, using
                                                       ANSI escape
         set_a_foreground            setaf      AF     Set foreground
                                                       color to #1, using
                                                       ANSI escape
         set_color_band              setcolor   Yz     Change to ribbon
                                                       color #1
         set_lr_margin               smglr      ML     Set both left and
                                                       right margins to
                                                       #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                       not in BSD
         set_page_length             slines     YZ     Set page length to
                                                       #1 lines
         set_tb_margin               smgtb      MT     Sets both top and
                                                       bottom margins to
                                                       #1, #2

        The  XSI  Curses  standard  added these hardcopy capabilities.  They
        were used in some  post-4.1  versions  of  System  V  curses,  e.g.,
        Solaris  2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names
        for them are invented.  According to the XSI Curses  standard,  they
        have no termcap names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these,
        they may not be binary-compatible with  System  V  terminfo  entries
        after SVr4.1; beware!

                 Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                  String             name      Code
         enter_horizontal_hl_mode    ehhlm     Xh     Enter horizontal
                                                      highlight mode
         enter_left_hl_mode          elhlm     Xl     Enter left highlight
         enter_low_hl_mode           elohlm    Xo     Enter low highlight
         enter_right_hl_mode         erhlm     Xr     Enter right
                                                      highlight mode
         enter_top_hl_mode           ethlm     Xt     Enter top highlight
         enter_vertical_hl_mode      evhlm     Xv     Enter vertical
                                                      highlight mode
         set_a_attributes            sgr1      sA     Define second set of
                                                      video attributes
         set_pglen_inch              slength   YI     Set page length to
                                                      #1 hundredth of an
                                                      inch (some
                                                      implementations use
                                                      sL for termcap).

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The  preceding section listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal
       with some special features  for  terminals  no  longer  (or  possibly
       never)  produced.   Occasionally  there are special features of newer
       terminals which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the
       predefined capabilities.

       ncurses   addresses   this   limitation   by   allowing  user-defined
       capabilities.  The @TIC@ and @INFOCMP@ programs provide the -x option
       for  this purpose.  When -x is set, @TIC@ treats unknown capabilities
       as user-defined.  That is, if  @TIC@  encounters  a  capability  name
       which  it  does not recognize, it infers its type (boolean, number or
       string) from the syntax and makes an extended table  entry  for  that
       capability.    The   use_extended_names(3X)   function   makes   this
       information conditionally available  to  applications.   The  ncurses
       library   provides   the   data  leaving  most  of  the  behavior  to

       ·   User-defined capability strings whose name begins  with  “k”  are
           treated as function keys.

       ·   The  types  (boolean,  number, string) determined by @TIC@ can be
           inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       ·   If  the  capability  name  happens  to  be  two  characters,  the
           capability is also available through the termcap interface.

       While  termcap  is  said  to  be extensible because it does not use a
       predefined set of capabilities, in practice it has  been  limited  to
       the  capabilities  defined  by  terminfo implementations.  As a rule,
       user-defined capabilities intended for use  by  termcap  applications
       should  be  limited to booleans and numbers to avoid running past the
       1023  byte  limit  assumed  by  termcap  implementations  and   their
       applications.   In  particular,  providing  extended sets of function
       keys (past the 60 numbered keys and  the  handful  of  special  named
       keys) is best done using the longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The   following  entry,  describing  an  ANSI-standard  terminal,  is
       representative of  what  a  terminfo  entry  for  a  modern  terminal
       typically looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries  may  continue  onto multiple lines by placing white space at
       the beginning of  each  line  except  the  first.   Comments  may  be
       included  on  lines beginning with “#”.  Capabilities in terminfo are
       of three types:

       ·   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the  terminal  has  some
           particular feature,

       ·   numeric  capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size
           of particular delays, and

       ·   string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be  used  to
           perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All  capabilities  have  names.   For  instance,  the fact that ANSI-
       standard terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic  return
       and  line-feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the
       capability am.  Hence the description of ansi includes  am.   Numeric
       capabilities  are  followed  by the character “#” and then a positive
       value.  Thus cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal
       has,  gives the value “80” for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities
       may be specified in  decimal,  octal  or  hexadecimal,  using  the  C
       programming language conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character code, an  “=”,  and  then  a
       string ending at the next following “,”.

       A  number  of  escape  sequences  are  provided  in the string valued
       capabilities for easy encoding of characters there:

       ·   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       ·   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       ·   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s


             newline, line-feed,  return,  tab,  backspace,  form-feed,  and


       X/Open  Curses  does  not  say  what  “appropriate  x”  might be.  In
       practice, that is a printable ASCII graphic character.   The  special
       case  “^?”  is  interpreted  as  DEL  (127).  In all other cases, the
       character value is AND'd with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in
       the range 0 through 31.

       Other escapes include

       ·   \^ for ^,

       ·   \\ for \,

       ·   \, for comma,

       ·   \: for :,

       ·   and \0 for null.

           \0  will  produce  \200,  which  does  not terminate a string but
           behaves as a null character on most terminals, providing  CS7  is
           specified.  See stty(1).

           The  reason for this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility of
           the compiled terminfo files with other implementations, e.g., the
           SVr4  systems,  which document this.  Compiled terminfo files use
           null-terminated strings, with no lengths.  Modifying  this  would
           require  a  new  binary  format,  which would not work with other

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a  string  capability,
       enclosed  in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters
       are supplied by tputs(3X) to provide this delay.

       ·   The delay must be a number with at  most  one  decimal  place  of
           precision; it may be followed by suffixes “*” or “/” or both.

       ·   A  “*” indicates that the padding required is proportional to the
           number of lines affected by the operation, and the  amount  given
           is  the  per-affected-unit  padding  required.   (In  the case of
           insert character,  the  factor  is  still  the  number  of  lines

           Normally,   padding  is  advisory  if  the  device  has  the  xon
           capability; it is used for cost computation but does not  trigger

       ·   A “/” suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds  even  on  devices  for
           which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The  ncurses  library  searches  for terminal descriptions in several
       places.  It uses only the first description found.  The library has a
       compiled-in  list  of  places  to  search  which can be overridden by
       environment variables.  Before starting to search, ncurses eliminates
       duplicates in its search list.

       ·   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as
           the pathname of a directory containing the  compiled  description
           you are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       ·   If  TERMINFO  is  not  set,  ncurses  will  instead  look  in the
           directory $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

       ·   Next, if the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is  set,  ncurses
           will  interpret the contents of that variable as a list of colon-
           separated directories (or database files) to be searched.

           An empty directory name (i.e., if the  variable  begins  or  ends
           with  a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the
           system location @TERMINFO@.

       ·   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           ·   a list of directories (@TERMINFO_DIRS@), and

           ·   the system terminfo directory,  @TERMINFO@  (the  compiled-in

   Preparing Descriptions
       We  now  outline  how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description is by  imitating  the
       description  of  a  similar  terminal  in  terminfo and to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions  with  vi  or  some
       other  screen-oriented  program  to  check that they are correct.  Be
       aware that a very unusual terminal may  expose  deficiencies  in  the
       ability  of  the  terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-
       handling code of the test program.

       To  get  the  padding  for  insert  line  right  (if   the   terminal
       manufacturer  did  not  document it) a severe test is to edit a large
       file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so  lines  from  the  middle  of  the
       screen,  then hit the “u” key several times quickly.  If the terminal
       messes up, more padding is usually needed.  A  similar  test  can  be
       used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then  the  number
       of  lines  on  the  screen  is given by the lines capability.  If the
       terminal wraps around to the beginning  of  the  next  line  when  it
       reaches  the right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If
       the terminal can clear its screen, leaving the  cursor  in  the  home
       position,  then this is given by the clear string capability.  If the
       terminal  overstrikes  (rather  than  clearing  a  position  when   a
       character  is struck over) then it should have the os capability.  If
       the terminal is a printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give  it
       both  hc  and  os.   (os  applies to storage scope terminals, such as
       TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as well as hard copy and APL  terminals.)   If
       there  is  a  code to move the cursor to the left edge of the current
       row, give this as  cr.   (Normally  this  will  be  carriage  return,
       control/M.)   If  there is a code to produce an audible signal (bell,
       beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left  (such
       as  backspace)  that  capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly,
       codes to move to the right, up, and down should  be  given  as  cuf1,
       cuu1, and cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text
       they pass over, for example, you  would  not  normally  use  “cuf1= ”
       because the space would erase the character moved over.

       A  very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded
       in terminfo are undefined  at  the  left  and  top  edges  of  a  CRT
       terminal.  Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left
       edge, unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off  the
       top.   In  order  to  scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom
       left corner of the screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top  left  corner  of  the
       screen  and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and
       ri are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are  indn  and  rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one
       parameter, and scroll that  many  lines.   They  are  also  undefined
       except at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The  am  capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge
       of the screen when text is output,  but  this  does  not  necessarily
       apply to a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion which is
       defined from the left edge is if bw is given, then a  cub1  from  the
       left  edge will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is
       not given, the effect is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box
       around  the  edge  of  the  screen, for example.  If the terminal has
       switch  selectable  automatic  margins,  the  terminfo  file  usually
       assumes  that  this  is  on; i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command
       which moves to the first column of the next line, that command can be
       given as nel (newline).  It does not matter if the command clears the
       remainder of the current line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it
       may  still  be  possible to craft a working nel out of one or both of

       These capabilities suffice  to  describe  hard-copy  and  “glass-tty”
       terminals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing  and  other  strings  requiring  parameters in the
       terminal are described by a  parameterized  string  capability,  with
       printf-like  escapes  such  as %x in it.  For example, to address the
       cursor, the cup capability is given, using two  parameters:  the  row
       and  column  to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero
       and refer to the physical screen visible to  the  user,  not  to  any
       unseen   memory.)    If  the  terminal  has  memory  relative  cursor
       addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The  parameter  mechanism  uses  a  stack  and  special  %  codes  to
       manipulate  it.  Typically a sequence will push one of the parameters
       onto the stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g.,  "%d")
       is  a  special  case.   Other  operations,  including  "%t" pop their
       operand from the stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are
       often necessary, e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs “%”

            as  in printf(3), flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a “:” to allow
            the next character to be a “-” flag, avoiding interpreting  “%-”
            as an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms “static” and “dynamic” are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables,  whose  values
            are not reset between calls to tparm(3X).  However, that fact is
            not documented in other implementations.   Relying  on  it  will
            adversely impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This  forms  an  if-then-else.   The  %e  elsepart  is optional.
            Usually the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  %t
            pops  it from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it
            is zero (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of @TIC@ or @INFOCMP@ to see the structure  of
            if-then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated
            when written on one line.  The -f option splits the string  into
            lines with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use  "%gx%{5}%-".   %P  and  %g
       variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider  the  HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to
       be sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of
       the  rows  and  columns is inverted here, and that the row and column
       are  printed  as  two   digits.    Thus   its   cup   capability   is

       The  Microterm  ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded
       by  a  ^T,  with  the  row  and  column  simply  encoded  in  binary,
       “cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c”.   Terminals  which  use  “%c”  need to be able to
       backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up  one  line  on
       the  screen  (cuu1).  This is necessary because it is not always safe
       to transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or  discard  them.
       (The  library  routines  dealing  with terminfo set tty modes so that
       tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be
       essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final  example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset
       by a blank character, thus “cup=\E=%p1%'  '%+%c%p2%'  '%+%c”.   After
       sending  “\E=”,  this  pushes  the  first parameter, pushes the ASCII
       value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on  the  stack  in
       place  of  the  two  previous  values)  and  outputs  that value as a
       character.  Then the same is done for  the  second  parameter.   More
       complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home;  similarly  a  fast
       way of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this
       may involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a  program
       should  never  do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no
       assumption about the effect of moving  up  from  the  home  position.
       Note  that  the  home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to
       the top left corner of the screen, not of  memory.   (Thus,  the  \EH
       sequence on HP terminals cannot be used for home.)

       If  the  terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these
       can  be  given  as  single  parameter  capabilities  hpa  (horizontal
       position  absolute)  and vpa (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes
       these are shorter than the more general two  parameter  sequence  (as
       with  the hp2645) and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are
       parameterized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to the right)  these
       can  be  given  as  cud,  cub,  cuf,  and cuu with a single parameter
       indicating how many spaces to move.  These are  primarily  useful  if
       the terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If  the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit  this  mode
       can  be  given  as  smcup  and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from
       terminals like the Concept with more than one page of memory.  If the
       terminal  has  only  memory relative cursor addressing and not screen
       relative cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must  be  fixed
       into  the  terminal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is
       also used for the  TEKTRONIX  4025,  where  smcup  sets  the  command
       character to be the one used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will
       not restore the screen after an rmcup  sequence  is  output  (to  the
       state prior to outputting rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the  terminal can clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is,  this  should  be
       given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is  only
       defined  from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated
       by a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed  is  not

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If  the  terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done  only  from  the
       first  position  of a line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor  is
       on,  then  this  should  be  given as dl1; this is done only from the
       first position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of  il1  and  dl1
       which  take  a  single parameter and insert or delete that many lines
       can be given as il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100)  the
       command  to  set this can be described with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top  and  bottom  lines  of  the  scrolling
       region.   The  cursor  position  is, alas, undefined after using this

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line  using  csr
       on  a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)
       commands  may  be  useful  for   ensuring   that   your   synthesized
       insert/delete  string  does  not  move  the  cursor.   (Note that the
       ncurses(3X) library does this synthesis automatically,  so  you  need
       not compose insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet  another  way  to  construct  insert and delete might be to use a
       combination of index with  the  memory-lock  feature  found  on  some
       terminals   (like  the  HP-700/90  series,  which  however  also  has

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also  be  done
       using  ri or ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set  if  each  scrolling
       window  is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test
       for this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle  of  the
       screen,  write  something  to the bottom line, move the cursor to the
       top of the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or  ind.   If  the  data
       scrolled  off  the  bottom  of  the region by the ri re-appears, then
       scrolling is non-destructive.  System V and XSI  Curses  expect  that
       ind,  ri,  indn,  and  rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their
       documentation cautions you not to define csr  unless  this  is  true.
       This  curses  implementation  is  more  liberal  and will do explicit
       erases after scrolling if ndsrc is defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which  all  commands  affect, it should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and  ending  lines
       in  memory  and  the  starting  and ending columns in memory, in that

       If the  terminal  can  retain  display  memory  above,  then  the  da
       capability  should be given; if display memory can be retained below,
       then db should be given.  These indicate  that  deleting  a  line  or
       scrolling  may  bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling
       back with ri may bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals  with  respect  to
       insert/delete  character  which can be described using terminfo.  The
       most  common  insert/delete  character  operations  affect  only  the
       characters  on  the  current line and shift characters off the end of
       the line rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100  and  the
       Perkin Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks
       on the screen, shifting upon an insert or delete only to  an  untyped
       blank  on  the  screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two
       untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of  terminal  you  have  by  clearing  the
       screen  and  then  typing  text  separated  by  cursor motions.  Type
       “abc    def” using local cursor  motions  (not  spaces)  between  the
       “abc”  and  the “def”.  Then position the cursor before the “abc” and
       put the terminal in insert mode.  If  typing  characters  causes  the
       rest of the line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end,
       then your terminal does not distinguish between  blanks  and  untyped
       positions.   If  the  “abc”  shifts over to the “def” which then move
       together around the end of the current line and onto the next as  you
       insert,  you  have  the  second type of terminal, and should give the
       capability in, which stands for “insert null”.

       While these are two logically separate attributes  (one  line  versus
       multi-line  insert  mode, and special treatment of untyped spaces) we
       have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo  can  describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a  blank  position  on
       the current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.
       Give as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any
       sequence  needed  to  be sent just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1;
       terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.
       Technically,  you  should  not give both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used  in  combination.   Accordingly,  some  non-
       curses  applications get confused if both are present; the symptom is
       doubled characters in an update using insert.   This  requirement  is
       now  rare;  most ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most
       smir  insert  modes  do  not  require  ich1  before  each  character.
       Therefore,  the new curses actually assumes this is the case and uses
       either rmir/smir or ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).   If  you
       have to write an entry to be used under new curses for a terminal old
       enough to need both, include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If  post  insert  padding  is  needed,  give  this  as  a  number  of
       milliseconds  in  ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may
       need to be sent after an insert of a single  character  may  also  be
       given  in  ip.   If  your  terminal  needs  both to be placed into an
       “insert mode” and a special code to precede each inserted  character,
       then  both  smir/rmir  and  ich1 can be given, and both will be used.
       The ich capability, with one parameter, n, will repeat the effects of
       ich1 n times.

       If  padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert  mode  to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while in  insert
       mode  you  can  give the capability mir to speed up inserting in this
       case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.  Some terminals  (notably
       Datamedia's)  must  not have mir because of the way their insert mode

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch  with
       one  parameter,  n, to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving
       smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any  mode  the  terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A  command  to  erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display  attributes,  these
       can  be represented in a number of different ways.  You should choose
       one  display  form  as  standout  mode,  representing  a  good,  high
       contrast,  easy-on-the-eyes,  format  for highlighting error messages
       and other attention getters.  (If you have a  choice,  reverse  video
       plus  half-bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to
       enter  and  exit  standout  mode  are  given  as   smso   and   rmso,
       respectively.   If  the  code  to change into or out of standout mode
       leaves one or even two blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and
       Teleray 1061 do, then xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given  as  smul
       and  rmul  respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the
       current character and move the cursor one space to the right, such as
       the Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis
       (blanking  or  invisible  text)  prot (protected) rev (reverse video)
       sgr0 (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter alternate  character
       set  mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on
       any of these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of  modes,  this
       should  be  given as sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding  attribute  is
       on  or  off.   The  9  parameters are, in order: standout, underline,
       reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.
       Not  all  modes  need  be  supported  by  sgr,  only  those for which
       corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

              tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

              none                 none             \E[0m
              p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
              p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
              p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
              p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
              p5                   dim              not available
              p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
              p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
              p8                   protect          not used
              p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by  turning  off  any  existing  modes,
       since  there  is  no  quick way to determine whether they are active.
       Standout is set up to be the combination of reverse  and  bold.   The
       vt220  terminal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in
       sgr because it protects characters on  the  screen  from  the  host's
       erasures.  The altcharset mode also is different in that it is either
       ^O or ^N, depending on whether it is off or on.   If  all  modes  are
       turned on, the resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences  are  common  to different modes.  For example, ;7 is
       output when either p1 or p3 is true, that is, if either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

           sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

           \E[0                 always              \E[0
           ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
           ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
           ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
           ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
           ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
           m                    always              m
           ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember  that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr being given  if  sgr0  is,  Not  all
       terminfo  entries  necessarily  have  an  sgr  string, however.  Many
       terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries which have  no  sgr
       string.   The  only  drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap
       also assumes that sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with  the  “magic  cookie”  glitch  (xmc)  deposit  special
       “cookies”  when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the
       display algorithm rather than having extra bits for  each  character.
       Some  terminals,  such  as  the HP 2621, automatically leave standout
       mode when they move to  a  new  line  or  the  cursor  is  addressed.
       Programs  using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving
       the  cursor  or  sending  a  newline,  unless  the  msgr  capability,
       asserting that it is safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move the cursor.

       If  the  cursor  needs to be made more visible than normal when it is
       not on  the  bottom  line  (to  make,  for  example,  a  non-blinking
       underline  into  an  easier to find block or blinking underline) give
       this sequence as cvvis.  If  there  is  a  way  to  make  the  cursor
       completely  invisible,  give  that  as  civis.   The capability cnorm
       should be given which undoes the effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters  (with  no
       special  codes  needed)  even though it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If a character  overstriking  another
       leaves  both characters on the screen, specify the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be  indicated
       by giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If  the  terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to  handle  terminals  where  the  keypad  only  works in local (this
       applies, for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the  keypad
       can  be set to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and
       rmkx.  Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down  arrow,
       and  home  keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1,  ...,  f10,
       the  codes  they  send can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these
       keys have labels other than the default f0 through  f10,  the  labels
       can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       ·   kll (home down),

       ·   kbs (backspace),

       ·   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       ·   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       ·   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       ·   kdch1 (delete character),

       ·   kdl1 (delete line),

       ·   krmir (exit insert mode),

       ·   kel (clear to end of line),

       ·   ked (clear to end of screen),

       ·   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       ·   kil1 (insert line),

       ·   knp (next page),

       ·   kpp (previous page),

       ·   kind (scroll forward/down),

       ·   kri (scroll backward/up),

       ·   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In  addition,  if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
       four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given as ka1,  ka3,  kb2,
       kc1,  and  kc3.   These  keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as  pfkey,  pfloc,  and
       pfx.   A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.
       Each of these strings takes two parameters: the function  key  number
       to  program  (from  0  to  10)  and  the  string  to program it with.
       Function key numbers out of this range may program undefined keys  in
       a terminal dependent manner.  The difference between the capabilities
       is that pfkey causes pressing the given key to be  the  same  as  the
       user  typing the given string; pfloc causes the string to be executed
       by the terminal in local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted
       to the computer.

       The  capabilities  nlab,  lw and lh define the number of programmable
       screen labels and their width and height.  If there are  commands  to
       turn  the  labels  on  and  off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is
       normally output after one or more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       A few capabilities are used only for tabs:

       ·   If  the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the
           next tab stop can be given as ht (usually control/I).

       ·   A “back-tab” command which moves leftward to  the  preceding  tab
           stop can be given as cbt.

           By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
           expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the  terminal,
           programs should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since
           the user may not have the tab stops properly set.

       ·   If the terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set every n
           spaces  when the terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter it
           is given, showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to.

           The it capability is normally  used  by  the  @TSET@  command  to
           determine whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and
           whether to set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that
           can be saved in non-volatile memory, the terminfo description can
           assume that they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include

       ·   is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings for the terminal,

       ·   iprog, the path name of a program to be  run  to  initialize  the

       ·   and  if,  the  name  of  a  file  containing  long initialization

       These strings are expected to set the terminal into modes  consistent
       with the rest of the terminfo description.  They are normally sent to
       the terminal, by the init option of the @TPUT@ program, each time the
       user logs in.  They will be printed in the following order:

              run the program

                     is1 and

              set the margins using
                     mgc or
                     smglp and smgrp or
                     smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally output

       Most  initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be
       set up without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A  set  of  sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2  ,
       if and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by reset option of
       @TPUT@, or by the @RESET@ program (an alias of @TSET@), which is used
       when  the  terminal  gets into a wedged state.  Commands are normally
       placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce  annoying  effects
       on  the  screen  and are not necessary when logging in.  For example,
       the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode  would  normally  be
       part  of  is2,  but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is
       not  normally  needed  since  the  terminal  is  usually  already  in
       80-column mode.

       The @RESET@ program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.   If
       any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       @RESET@ program falls  back  upon  the  corresponding  initialization
       capability string.

       If  there  are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given
       as tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in  the  current
       column  of  every  row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to set
       the tabs than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in
       is2 or if.

       The  @TPUT@  reset  command  uses  the same capability strings as the
       @RESET@ command, although  the  two  programs  (@TPUT@  and  @RESET@)
       provide different command-line options.

       In  practice,  these  terminfo  capabilities  are  not  often used in
       initialization of tabs (though  they  are  required  for  the  @TABS@

       ·   Almost  all  hardware  terminals  (at least those which supported
           tabs) initialized those to every eight columns:

           The only exception was the AT&T 2300 series, which  set  tabs  to
           every five columns.

       ·   In  particular,  developers  of  the hardware terminals which are
           commonly used as models for modern  terminal  emulators  provided
           documentation demonstrating that eight columns were the standard.

       ·   Because  of this, the terminal initialization programs @TPUT@ and
           @TSET@  use  the   tbc   (clear_all_tabs)   and   hts   (set_tab)
           capabilities  directly only when the it (init_tabs) capability is
           set to a value other than eight.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC  VT100s).   These  may  require  padding
       characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If  the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is,
       it automatically emits ^S back to the host when its input buffers are
       close  to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
       padding.  You can also  set  it  for  memory-mapped  console  devices
       effectively  that  do  not  have  a speed limit.  Padding information
       should still be included so that routines can make  better  decisions
       about   relative  costs,  but  actual  pad  characters  will  not  be

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding  is  suppressed  at  baud
       rates  below the value of pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate,
       then whether padding is emitted or not is  completely  controlled  by

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of  the  pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra “status line” which is not normally used
       by  software  (and  thus  not  counted  in   the   terminal's   lines

       The  simplest  case  is a status line which is cursor-addressable but
       not part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19
       has  a  status  line  of  this  kind, as would a 24-line VT100 with a
       23-line scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is
       indicated by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.   These  may  be  expressed  as  a  string  with  single
       parameter tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on
       the status line.  The capability fsl must return to  the  main-screen
       cursor  positions  before  the  last  tsl.  You may need to embed the
       string values of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl  and
       fsl to accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width
       of the terminal.  If this is untrue, you  can  specify  it  with  the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The  boolean  capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The  ncurses  implementation  does  not  yet   use   any   of   these
       capabilities.   They  are  documented  here  in case they ever become

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals  have  alternate  character  sets  useful  for  forms-
       drawing.   Terminfo  and curses have built-in support for most of the
       drawing characters supported by the VT100, with some characters  from
       the AT&T 4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may be specified
       by the acsc capability.

        Glyph                       ACS            Ascii     acsc     acsc
        Name                        Name           Default   Char     Value
        arrow pointing right        ACS_RARROW     >         +        0x2b
        arrow pointing left         ACS_LARROW     <         ,        0x2c
        arrow pointing up           ACS_UARROW     ^         -        0x2d
        arrow pointing down         ACS_DARROW     v         .        0x2e
        solid square block          ACS_BLOCK      #         0        0x30
        diamond                     ACS_DIAMOND    +         `        0x60
        checker board (stipple)     ACS_CKBOARD    :         a        0x61
        degree symbol               ACS_DEGREE     \         f        0x66
        plus/minus                  ACS_PLMINUS    #         g        0x67
        board of squares            ACS_BOARD      #         h        0x68
        lantern symbol              ACS_LANTERN    #         i        0x69
        lower right corner          ACS_LRCORNER   +         j        0x6a
        upper right corner          ACS_URCORNER   +         k        0x6b
        upper left corner           ACS_ULCORNER   +         l        0x6c
        lower left corner           ACS_LLCORNER   +         m        0x6d
        large plus or crossover     ACS_PLUS       +         n        0x6e
        scan line 1                 ACS_S1         ~         o        0x6f
        scan line 3                 ACS_S3         -         p        0x70
        horizontal line             ACS_HLINE      -         q        0x71
        scan line 7                 ACS_S7         -         r        0x72
        scan line 9                 ACS_S9         _         s        0x73
        tee pointing right          ACS_LTEE       +         t        0x74
        tee pointing left           ACS_RTEE       +         u        0x75
        tee pointing up             ACS_BTEE       +         v        0x76
        tee pointing down           ACS_TTEE       +         w        0x77
        vertical line               ACS_VLINE      |         x        0x78
        less-than-or-equal-to       ACS_LEQUAL     <         y        0x79
        greater-than-or-equal-to    ACS_GEQUAL     >         z        0x7a
        greek pi                    ACS_PI         *         {        0x7b
        not-equal                   ACS_NEQUAL     !         |        0x7c
        UK pound sign               ACS_STERLING   f         }        0x7d
        bullet                      ACS_BULLET     o         ~        0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       ·   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping for lantern  is
           uppercase “I” although Unix implementations use the lowercase “i”

       ·   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using the alternate  character
           set  feature,  temporarily switching modes and sending characters
           in the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the acsc  Value  column  in
           the table).

       ·   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some  of  the characters within the range do not match the VT100;
           presumably they were used in the AT&T terminal: board of  squares
           replaces  the VT100 newline symbol, while lantern symbol replaces
           the VT100 vertical tab  symbol.   The  other  VT100  symbols  for
           control  characters  (horizontal  tab,  carriage return and line-
           feed) are not (re)used in curses.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column
       to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will be rendered  as  the
       corresponding   graphic.   Then  read  off  the  VT100/your  terminal
       character pairs right to left in  sequence;  these  become  the  ACSC

   Color Handling
       The  curses library functions init_pair and init_color manipulate the
       color  pairs  and  color  values  discussed  in  this  section   (see
       curs_color(3X) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either “Tektronix-like” or “HP-like”:

       ·   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where
           N is usually  8),  and  can  set  character-cell  foreground  and
           background  characters  independently,  mixing  them  into  N * N

       ·   On HP-like terminals, the  user  must  set  each  color  pair  up
           separately  (foreground  and  background  are  not  independently
           settable).  Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M  different
           colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some  basic  color  capabilities are independent of the color method.
       The numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the maximum numbers
       of  colors and color-pairs that can be displayed simultaneously.  The
       op (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors  to
       their  default  values  for  the  terminal.  The oc string resets all
       colors or color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.  Some
       terminals  (including  many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas
       with the current background color rather than  the  power-up  default
       background; these should have the boolean capability bce.

       While  the  curses  library  works  with  color pairs (reflecting the
       inability of some devices to set  foreground  and  background  colors
       independently),  there  are  separate  capabilities for setting these

       ·   To change  the  current  foreground  or  background  color  on  a
           Tektronix-type  terminal,  use  setaf  (set  ANSI foreground) and
           setab (set ANSI background) or setf  (set  foreground)  and  setb
           (set  background).   These  take one parameter, the color number.
           The SVr4 documentation describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft
           says  that "If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set
           background and foreground, they should  be  coded  as  setaf  and
           setab, respectively.

       ·   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to set background
           and  foreground,  they  should  be  coded  as  setf   and   setb,
           respectively.   The vidputs and the refresh(3X) functions use the
           setaf and setab capabilities if they are defined.

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb  capabilities  take  a  single  numeric
       argument  each.   Argument  values  0-7  of  setaf/setab are portably
       defined as  follows  (the  middle  column  is  the  symbolic  #define
       available  in  the  header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The
       terminal hardware is free to map these  as  it  likes,  but  the  RGB
       values indicate normal locations in color space.

                   Color       #define       Value       RGB
                   black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                   red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                   green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                   yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                   blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                   magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                   cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                   white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The  argument  values  of  setf/setb  historically  correspond  to  a
       different mapping, i.e.,

                   Color       #define       Value       RGB
                   black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                   blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                   green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0

                   cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                   red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                   magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                   yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                   white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets  of  color  capabilities;
       otherwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       ·   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may  be  present
           to  indicate  that  colors  can  be  modified.   If so, the initc
           capability will take a color number (0 to colors  -  1)and  three
           more parameters which describe the color.  These three parameters
           default to being interpreted as RGB (Red,  Green,  Blue)  values.
           If the boolean capability hls is present, they are instead as HLS
           (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) indices.  The ranges  are  terminal-

       ·   On  an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing
           a color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a  color-pair
           number  (0  to  max_pairs  - 1), and two triples describing first
           background and then foreground colors.  These parameters must  be
           (Red,  Green,  Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on

       On some color terminals, colors collide  with  highlights.   You  can
       register  these  collisions  with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-
       mask of attributes not to be  used  when  colors  are  enabled.   The
       correspondence  with  the  attributes  understood  by  curses  is  as

                 Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
                 A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
                 A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
                 A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
                 A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
                 A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
                 A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
                 A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
                 A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
                 A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
                 A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
                 A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
                 A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
                 A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
                 A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
                 A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
                 A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For example,  on  many  IBM  PC  consoles,  the  underline  attribute
       collides with the foreground color blue and is not available in color
       mode.  These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4  curses  does  nothing  with  ncv,  ncurses  recognizes  it  and
       optimizes the output in favor of colors.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of  the  pad
       string  is  used.   If  the  terminal  does not have a pad character,
       specify npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible  PC
       variable;  though  the  application  may  set this value to something
       other than a null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms  if  the
       terminal has no pad character.

       If  the  terminal  can  move  up  or  down  half  a line, this can be
       indicated with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line  down).   This  is
       primarily   useful  for  superscripts  and  subscripts  on  hard-copy
       terminals.  If a hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page  (form
       feed), give this as ff (usually control/L).

       If  there  is a command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times  (to  save  time  transmitting  a  large  number  of  identical
       characters)  this can be indicated with the parameterized string rep.
       The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second is
       the  number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10)
       is the same as “xxxxxxxxxx”.

       If the terminal  has  a  settable  command  character,  such  as  the
       TEKTRONIX  4025,  this  can  be  indicated  with  cmdch.  A prototype
       command character is chosen which is used in all capabilities.   This
       character  is  given  in  the  cmdch  capability to identify it.  The
       following  convention  is  supported  on  some  UNIX   systems:   The
       environment  is  to  be searched for a CC variable, and if found, all
       occurrences  of  the  prototype  character  are  replaced  with   the
       character in the environment variable.

       Terminal  descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network, should  include
       the  gn  (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they
       do not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability  does  not
       apply to virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences
       are known.)

       If the terminal has a “meta key” which acts as a shift  key,  setting
       the  8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated
       with km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is  parity
       and  it will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this “meta
       mode” on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the  screen
       at  once,  the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A
       value of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is  not  fixed,  but
       that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the  terminal  is  one  of  those  supported  by the UNIX virtual
       terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary  printer  connected  to
       the  terminal  can be given as mc0: print the contents of the screen,
       mc4: turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the  printer.   When  the
       printer  is  on,  all  text  sent to the terminal will be sent to the
       printer.  It is undefined whether the text is also displayed  on  the
       terminal  screen  when the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes one
       parameter, and leaves the printer on for as many  characters  as  the
       value  of  the  parameter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter
       should not exceed 255.  All text,  including  mc4,  is  transparently
       passed to the printer while an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine  terminals,  which  do  not  allow  “~”  characters  to  be
       displayed should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If  el  is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs  turn  all  characters  moved  over  to
       blanks,  should  indicate  xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable
       indicating this is now “dest_tabs_magic_smso”; in older versions,  it
       was teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not
       possible to position the cursor on top of a “magic cookie”,  that  to
       erase  standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete and insert
       line.  The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which  is  unable  to  correctly  transmit  the
       escape  or  control/C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key
       is used for escape and f2 for  control/C.   (Only  certain  Superbees
       have  this  problem,  depending  on  the  ROM.)   Note  that in older
       terminfo versions, this capability was called “beehive_glitch”; it is
       now “no_esc_ctl_c”.

       Other  specific  terminal  problems  may  be corrected by adding more
       capabilities of the form xx.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has   even  approached  terminfo's  4096-byte  string-table  maximum.
       Unfortunately,  the  termcap  translations  are  much  more  strictly
       limited  (to  1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of long terminfo
       entries can cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent  instruct  the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
       gets null-terminated by  the  termcap  library,  so  that  makes  the
       maximum safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending
       on what the application and the termcap library being used does,  and
       where in the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent is searching
       for is, several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if  they  find
       an  entry  that's  longer  than  1023  bytes;  others  do not; others
       truncate the  entries  to  1023  bytes.   Some  application  programs
       allocate  more  than the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others
       do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
       “tc”  expansion,  and  after  “tc” expansion.  “tc” is the capability
       that tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to
       add  on  its  capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the “tc”
       capability, then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The “before tc expansion” length is the most important  one,  because
       it affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is
       the length of the entry as  it  exists  in  /etc/termcap,  minus  the
       backslash-newline  pairs,  which tgetent strips out while reading it.
       Some termcap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU  termcap
       does not).  Now suppose:

       ·   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       ·   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       ·   and  the  termcap  library  (like  the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU)
           reads the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length,
           to see if it is the entry it wants,

       ·   and  tgetent  is searching for a terminal type that either is the
           long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long entry,  or
           does not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent has to search
           the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack,  and  probably
       core  dump  the  program.   Programs  like  telnet  are  particularly
       vulnerable; modern telnets pass along values like the  terminal  type
       automatically.   The results are almost as undesirable with a termcap
       library, like  SunOS  4.1.3  and  Ultrix  4.4,  that  prints  warning
       messages  when  it  reads an overly long termcap entry.  If a termcap
       library truncates long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying
       here but will return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  “after  tc  expansion”  length will have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set  TERM  to  that  terminal
       type,  since  tgetent  only  does “tc” expansion once it is found the
       terminal type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause,
       on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.   If  it  is  too  long  even
       before  “tc”  expansion,  it  will have this effect even for users of
       some other terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not have
       a termcap entry.

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       @TIC@(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation  is too long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count on portability  of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between  commercial  UNIX versions.  The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX)  which  diverged
       from   System  V  terminfo  after  SVr1,  and  have  added  extension
       capabilities to the string table that (in the binary format)  collide
       with System V and XSI Curses extensions.

EXTENSIONS         top

       Searching for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and
       TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters that do not trigger local motions).  The
       ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises
       the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite
       interpretation may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have
       msgr turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character
       modes in a slightly non-standard way to get better update efficiency.
       See the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses library wants
       to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like
       xterm that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-
       input stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention italics.  Portable applications must
       assume that numeric capabilities are signed 16-bit values.  This
       includes the no_color_video (ncv) capability.  The 32768 mask value
       used for italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled
       ncv.  If italics should work with colors, then the ncv value must be
       specified, even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different
       extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       ·   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       ·   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended
           string capability (set_pglen).

       ·   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo
           capabilities.  The booleans end with xon_xoff; the numerics with
           width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       ·   HP/UX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics
           num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function keys 11
           through 63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and label_off, plus some
           incompatible extensions in the string table.

       ·   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through
           63, plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       ·   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

FILES         top

       @TERMINFO@/?/*           files containing terminal descriptions

SEE ALSO         top

       @TABS@(1), @TIC@(1M), @INFOCMP@(1M), curses(3X), curs_color(3X),
       curs_variables(3X), printf(3), term(5).  term_variables(3X).

AUTHORS         top

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on
       pcurses by Pavel Curtis.

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the ncurses (new curses) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://www.gnu.org/software/ncurses/ncurses.html⟩.  If you have a
       bug report for this manual page, send it to
       bug-ncurses-request@gnu.org.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git mirror of the CVS repository
       ⟨git://ncurses.scripts.mit.edu/ncurses.git⟩ on 2020-09-18.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2020-08-17.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org


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