terminfo(5) — Linux manual page


terminfo(5)                   File Formats                   terminfo(5)

NAME         top

       terminfo - terminal capability database

SYNOPSIS         top


DESCRIPTION         top

       Terminfo is a database describing terminals, used by screen-
       oriented programs such as nvi(1), lynx(1), mutt(1), and other
       curses applications, using high-level calls to libraries such as
       curses(3X).  It is also used via low-level calls by non-curses
       applications which may be screen-oriented (such as @CLEAR@(1)) or
       non-screen (such as @TABS@(1)).

       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities
       which they have, by specifying how to perform screen operations,
       and by specifying padding requirements and initialization

       This manual describes ncurses version

   Terminfo Entry Syntax
       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       •   Each field ends with a comma “,” (embedded commas may be
           escaped with a backslash or written as “\054”).

       •   White space between fields is ignored.

       •   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first

       •   Newlines and leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used
           for formatting entries for readability.  These are removed
           from parsed entries.

           The @INFOCMP@ -f and -W options rely on this to format if-
           then-else expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The
           resulting formatted terminal description can be read by

       •   The first field for each terminal gives the names which are
           known for the terminal, separated by “|” characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the
           terminal (its primary name), the last name given should be a
           long name fully identifying the terminal (see longname(3X)),
           and all others are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the
           primary terminal name.

           X/Open Curses advises that all names but the last should be
           in lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well
           contain upper case and blanks for readability.

           This implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed case in
           the primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no
           embedded blanks, it allows that to be both an alias and a
           verbose name (but will warn about this ambiguity).

       •   Lines beginning with a “#” in the first column are treated as

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of
           @CAPTOINFO@ and @INFOTOCAP@ (aliases for @TIC@) will move
           comments so they occur only between entries.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be
       chosen using the following conventions.  The particular piece of
       hardware making up the terminal should have a root name, thus
       “hp2621”.  This name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the
       hardware can be in, or user preferences, should be indicated by
       appending a hyphen and a mode suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in
       132-column mode would be vt100-w.  The following suffixes should
       be used where possible:

         Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
         -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
         -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
         -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
         -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
         -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
         -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
         -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
         -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
         -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
         -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
         -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
         -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
         -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual

   Terminfo Capabilities Syntax
       The terminfo entry consists of several capabilities, i.e.,
       features that the terminal has, or methods for exercising the
       terminal's features.

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry),
       there should be one or more capability fields.  These are
       boolean, numeric or string names with corresponding values:

       •   Boolean capabilities are true when present, false when
           absent.  There is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       •   Numeric capabilities have a “#” following the name, then an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       •   String capabilities have a “=” following the name, then an
           string of characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just as
           the fields comprising a terminal entry can be split into
           multiple lines.  While blanks between fields are ignored,
           blanks embedded within a string value are retained, except
           for leading blanks on a line.

       Any capability can be canceled, i.e., suppressed from the
       terminal entry, by following its name with “@” rather than a
       capability value.

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the base) with certain
       exceptions.  In the definition of the variant, the string
       capability use can be given with the name of the base terminal:

       •   The capabilities given before use override those in the base
           type named by use.

       •   If there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in
           reverse order.  That is, the rightmost use reference is
           processed first, then the one to its left, and so forth.

       •   Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override those
           brought in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the
       use reference that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For
       example, the entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx
       capabilities, and hence does not turn on the function key labels
       when in visual mode.  This is useful for different modes for a
       terminal, or for different user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities,
       which have the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the
       using terminal entry.

   Predefined Capabilities
       The following is a complete table of the capabilities included in
       a terminfo description block and available to terminfo-using
       code.  In each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database,
       and is used by a person updating the database.  Whenever
       possible, capnames are chosen to be the same as or similar to the
       ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded by ECMA-48, which uses
       identical or very similar names).  Semantics are also intended to
       match those of the specification.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some
       capabilities are new, and have names which termcap did not

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit
       of 5 characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow
       the tabs in the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics
       of the capability.  You may find some codes in the description

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the string is
              passed through tparm(3X) with parameters as given (#i).

              If no parameters are listed in the description, passing
              the string through tparm(3X) may give unexpected results,
              e.g., if it contains percent (%%) signs.

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the
              number of lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

               Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
               Booleans            name      Code
       auto_left_margin            bw        bw     cub1 wraps from
                                                    column 0 to last
       auto_right_margin           am        am     terminal has
                                                    automatic margins
       back_color_erase            bce       ut     screen erased with
                                                    background color
       can_change                  ccc       cc     terminal can re-
                                                    define existing
       ceol_standout_glitch        xhp       xs     standout not erased
                                                    by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch             xhpa      YA     only positive motion
                                                    for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res             cpix      YF     changing character
                                                    pitch changes
       cr_cancels_micro_mode       crxm      YB     using cr turns off
                                                    micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso        xt        xt     tabs destructive,
                                                    magic so char
       eat_newline_glitch          xenl      xn     newline ignored
                                                    after 80 cols
       erase_overstrike            eo        eo     can erase
                                                    overstrikes with a
       generic_type                gn        gn     generic line type
       hard_copy                   hc        hc     hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor                 chts      HC     cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key                km        km     Has a meta key
                                                    (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel             daisy     YC     printer needs
                                                    operator to change
                                                    character set
       has_status_line             hs        hs     has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation    hls       hl     terminal uses only
                                                    HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch          in        in     insert mode
                                                    distinguishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res             lpix      YG     changing line pitch
                                                    changes resolution
       memory_above                da        da     display may be
                                                    retained above the
       memory_below                db        db     display may be
                                                    retained below the
       move_insert_mode            mir       mi     safe to move while
                                                    in insert mode
       move_standout_mode          msgr      ms     safe to move while
                                                    in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff              nxon      nx     padding will not
                                                    work, xon/xoff
       no_esc_ctlc                 xsb       xb     beehive (f1=escape,
                                                    f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char                 npc       NP     pad character does
                                                    not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region      ndscr     ND     scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup               nrrmc     NR     smcup does not
                                                    reverse rmcup
       over_strike                 os        os     terminal can
       prtr_silent                 mc5i      5i     printer will not
                                                    echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch             xvpa      YD     only positive motion
                                                    for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin      sam       YE     printing in last
                                                    column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok          eslok     es     escape can be used
                                                    on the status line
       tilde_glitch                hz        hz     cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline       ul        ul     underline character
       xon_xoff                    xon       xo     terminal uses
                                                    xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

               Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                Numeric            name      Code
       columns                     cols      co     number of columns in
                                                    a line
       init_tabs                   it        it     tabs initially every
                                                    # spaces
       label_height                lh        lh     rows in each label
       label_width                 lw        lw     columns in each
       lines                       lines     li     number of lines on
                                                    screen or page
       lines_of_memory             lm        lm     lines of memory if >
                                                    line. 0 means varies
       magic_cookie_glitch         xmc       sg     number of blank
                                                    characters left by
                                                    smso or rmso
       max_attributes              ma        ma     maximum combined
                                                    attributes terminal
                                                    can handle
       max_colors                  colors    Co     maximum number of
                                                    colors on screen
       max_pairs                   pairs     pa     maximum number of
                                                    color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows             wnum      MW     maximum number of
                                                    definable windows
       no_color_video              ncv       NC     video attributes
                                                    that cannot be used
                                                    with colors
       num_labels                  nlab      Nl     number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate           pb        pb     lowest baud rate
                                                    where padding needed
       virtual_terminal            vt        vt     virtual terminal
                                                    number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line           wsl       ws     number of columns in
                                                    status line

       The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.  They came
       in with SVr4's printer support.

               Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                Numeric            name      Code
       bit_image_entwining         bitwin    Yo     number of passes for
                                                    each bit-image row
       bit_image_type              bitype    Yp     type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity             bufsz     Ya     numbers of bytes
                                                    buffered before
       buttons                     btns      BT     number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing            spinh     Yc     spacing of dots
                                                    horizontally in dots
                                                    per inch
       dot_vert_spacing            spinv     Yb     spacing of pins
                                                    vertically in pins
                                                    per inch
       max_micro_address           maddr     Yd     maximum value in
       max_micro_jump              mjump     Ye     maximum value in
       micro_col_size              mcs       Yf     character step size
                                                    when in micro mode
       micro_line_size             mls       Yg     line step size when
                                                    in micro mode
       number_of_pins              npins     Yh     numbers of pins in
       output_res_char             orc       Yi     horizontal
                                                    resolution in units
                                                    per line
       output_res_horz_inch        orhi      Yk     horizontal
                                                    resolution in units
                                                    per inch
       output_res_line             orl       Yj     vertical resolution
                                                    in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch        orvi      Yl     vertical resolution
                                                    in units per inch
       print_rate                  cps       Ym     print rate in
                                                    characters per
       wide_char_size              widcs     Yn     character step size
                                                    when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

               Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                String             name      Code
       acs_chars                   acsc      ac     graphics charset
                                                    pairs, based on
       back_tab                    cbt       bt     back tab (P)
       bell                        bel       bl     audible signal
                                                    (bell) (P)
       carriage_return             cr        cr     carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch           cpi       ZA     Change number of
                                                    characters per inch
                                                    to #1
       change_line_pitch           lpi       ZB     Change number of
                                                    lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz             chr       ZC     Change horizontal
                                                    resolution to #1
       change_res_vert             cvr       ZD     Change vertical
                                                    resolution to #1
       change_scroll_region        csr       cs     change region to
                                                    line #1 to line #2
       char_padding                rmp       rP     like ip but when in
                                                    insert mode
       clear_all_tabs              tbc       ct     clear all tab stops
       clear_margins               mgc       MC     clear right and left
                                                    soft margins
       clear_screen                clear     cl     clear screen and
                                                    home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol                     el1       cb     Clear to beginning
                                                    of line
       clr_eol                     el        ce     clear to end of line
       clr_eos                     ed        cd     clear to end of
                                                    screen (P*)
       column_address              hpa       ch     horizontal position
                                                    #1, absolute (P)
       command_character           cmdch     CC     terminal settable
                                                    cmd character in
                                                    prototype !?
       create_window               cwin      CW     define a window #1
                                                    from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address              cup       cm     move to row #1
                                                    columns #2
       cursor_down                 cud1      do     down one line
       cursor_home                 home      ho     home cursor (if no
       cursor_invisible            civis     vi     make cursor
       cursor_left                 cub1      le     move left one space
       cursor_mem_address          mrcup     CM     memory relative
                                                    cursor addressing,
                                                    move to row #1
                                                    columns #2
       cursor_normal               cnorm     ve     make cursor appear
                                                    normal (undo
       cursor_right                cuf1      nd     non-destructive
                                                    space (move right
                                                    one space)
       cursor_to_ll                ll        ll     last line, first
                                                    column (if no cup)
       cursor_up                   cuu1      up     up one line
       cursor_visible              cvvis     vs     make cursor very
       define_char                 defc      ZE     Define a character
                                                    #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                    descender #3
       delete_character            dch1      dc     delete character
       delete_line                 dl1       dl     delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                  dial      DI     dial number #1
       dis_status_line             dsl       ds     disable status line
       display_clock               dclk      DK     display clock
       down_half_line              hd        hd     half a line down
       ena_acs                     enacs     eA     enable alternate
                                                    char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode      smacs     as     start alternate
                                                    character set (P)
       enter_am_mode               smam      SA     turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode            blink     mb     turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode             bold      md     turn on bold (extra
                                                    bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode               smcup     ti     string to start
                                                    programs using cup
       enter_delete_mode           smdc      dm     enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode              dim       mh     turn on half-bright
       enter_doublewide_mode       swidm     ZF     Enter double-wide
       enter_draft_quality         sdrfq     ZG     Enter draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode           smir      im     enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode          sitm      ZH     Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode         slm       ZI     Start leftward
                                                    carriage motion
       enter_micro_mode            smicm     ZJ     Start micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality   snlq      ZK     Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality        snrmq     ZL     Enter normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode        prot      mp     turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode          rev       mr     turn on reverse
                                                    video mode
       enter_secure_mode           invis     mk     turn on blank mode
       enter_shadow_mode           sshm      ZM     Enter shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode         smso      so     begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode        ssubm     ZN     Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode      ssupm     ZO     Enter superscript
       enter_underline_mode        smul      us     begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode           sum       ZP     Start upward
                                                    carriage motion
       enter_xon_mode              smxon     SX     turn on xon/xoff
       erase_chars                 ech       ec     erase #1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode       rmacs     ae     end alternate
                                                    character set (P)
       exit_am_mode                rmam      RA     turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode         sgr0      me     turn off all
       exit_ca_mode                rmcup     te     strings to end
                                                    programs using cup
       exit_delete_mode            rmdc      ed     end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode        rwidm     ZQ     End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode            rmir      ei     exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode           ritm      ZR     End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode          rlm       ZS     End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode             rmicm     ZT     End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode            rshm      ZU     End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode          rmso      se     exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode         rsubm     ZV     End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode       rsupm     ZW     End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode         rmul      ue     exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode            rum       ZX     End reverse
                                                    character motion
       exit_xon_mode               rmxon     RX     turn off xon/xoff
       fixed_pause                 pause     PA     pause for 2-3
       flash_hook                  hook      fh     flash switch hook
       flash_screen                flash     vb     visible bell (may
                                                    not move cursor)
       form_feed                   ff        ff     hardcopy terminal
                                                    page eject (P*)
       from_status_line            fsl       fs     return from status
       goto_window                 wingo     WG     go to window #1
       hangup                      hup       HU     hang-up phone
       init_1string                is1       i1     initialization
       init_2string                is2       is     initialization
       init_3string                is3       i3     initialization
       init_file                   if        if     name of
                                                    initialization file
       init_prog                   iprog     iP     path name of program
                                                    for initialization
       initialize_color            initc     Ic     initialize color #1
                                                    to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair             initp     Ip     Initialize color
                                                    pair #1 to
       insert_character            ich1      ic     insert character (P)
       insert_line                 il1       al     insert line (P*)
       insert_padding              ip        ip     insert padding after
                                                    inserted character
       key_a1                      ka1       K1     upper left of keypad
       key_a3                      ka3       K3     upper right of
       key_b2                      kb2       K2     center of keypad
       key_backspace               kbs       kb     backspace key
       key_beg                     kbeg      @1     begin key
       key_btab                    kcbt      kB     back-tab key
       key_c1                      kc1       K4     lower left of keypad
       key_c3                      kc3       K5     lower right of
       key_cancel                  kcan      @2     cancel key
       key_catab                   ktbc      ka     clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                   kclr      kC     clear-screen or
                                                    erase key
       key_close                   kclo      @3     close key
       key_command                 kcmd      @4     command key
       key_copy                    kcpy      @5     copy key
       key_create                  kcrt      @6     create key
       key_ctab                    kctab     kt     clear-tab key
       key_dc                      kdch1     kD     delete-character key
       key_dl                      kdl1      kL     delete-line key
       key_down                    kcud1     kd     down-arrow key
       key_eic                     krmir     kM     sent by rmir or smir
                                                    in insert mode
       key_end                     kend      @7     end key
       key_enter                   kent      @8     enter/send key
       key_eol                     kel       kE     clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos                     ked       kS     clear-to-end-of-
                                                    screen key
       key_exit                    kext      @9     exit key
       key_f0                      kf0       k0     F0 function key
       key_f1                      kf1       k1     F1 function key
       key_f10                     kf10      k;     F10 function key
       key_f11                     kf11      F1     F11 function key
       key_f12                     kf12      F2     F12 function key
       key_f13                     kf13      F3     F13 function key
       key_f14                     kf14      F4     F14 function key
       key_f15                     kf15      F5     F15 function key
       key_f16                     kf16      F6     F16 function key
       key_f17                     kf17      F7     F17 function key
       key_f18                     kf18      F8     F18 function key
       key_f19                     kf19      F9     F19 function key
       key_f2                      kf2       k2     F2 function key
       key_f20                     kf20      FA     F20 function key
       key_f21                     kf21      FB     F21 function key
       key_f22                     kf22      FC     F22 function key
       key_f23                     kf23      FD     F23 function key
       key_f24                     kf24      FE     F24 function key
       key_f25                     kf25      FF     F25 function key
       key_f26                     kf26      FG     F26 function key
       key_f27                     kf27      FH     F27 function key
       key_f28                     kf28      FI     F28 function key
       key_f29                     kf29      FJ     F29 function key
       key_f3                      kf3       k3     F3 function key
       key_f30                     kf30      FK     F30 function key
       key_f31                     kf31      FL     F31 function key
       key_f32                     kf32      FM     F32 function key
       key_f33                     kf33      FN     F33 function key
       key_f34                     kf34      FO     F34 function key
       key_f35                     kf35      FP     F35 function key
       key_f36                     kf36      FQ     F36 function key
       key_f37                     kf37      FR     F37 function key
       key_f38                     kf38      FS     F38 function key
       key_f39                     kf39      FT     F39 function key
       key_f4                      kf4       k4     F4 function key
       key_f40                     kf40      FU     F40 function key
       key_f41                     kf41      FV     F41 function key
       key_f42                     kf42      FW     F42 function key
       key_f43                     kf43      FX     F43 function key
       key_f44                     kf44      FY     F44 function key
       key_f45                     kf45      FZ     F45 function key
       key_f46                     kf46      Fa     F46 function key
       key_f47                     kf47      Fb     F47 function key
       key_f48                     kf48      Fc     F48 function key
       key_f49                     kf49      Fd     F49 function key
       key_f5                      kf5       k5     F5 function key
       key_f50                     kf50      Fe     F50 function key
       key_f51                     kf51      Ff     F51 function key
       key_f52                     kf52      Fg     F52 function key
       key_f53                     kf53      Fh     F53 function key
       key_f54                     kf54      Fi     F54 function key
       key_f55                     kf55      Fj     F55 function key
       key_f56                     kf56      Fk     F56 function key
       key_f57                     kf57      Fl     F57 function key
       key_f58                     kf58      Fm     F58 function key
       key_f59                     kf59      Fn     F59 function key
       key_f6                      kf6       k6     F6 function key
       key_f60                     kf60      Fo     F60 function key
       key_f61                     kf61      Fp     F61 function key
       key_f62                     kf62      Fq     F62 function key
       key_f63                     kf63      Fr     F63 function key
       key_f7                      kf7       k7     F7 function key
       key_f8                      kf8       k8     F8 function key
       key_f9                      kf9       k9     F9 function key
       key_find                    kfnd      @0     find key
       key_help                    khlp      %1     help key
       key_home                    khome     kh     home key
       key_ic                      kich1     kI     insert-character key
       key_il                      kil1      kA     insert-line key
       key_left                    kcub1     kl     left-arrow key
       key_ll                      kll       kH     lower-left key (home
       key_mark                    kmrk      %2     mark key
       key_message                 kmsg      %3     message key
       key_move                    kmov      %4     move key
       key_next                    knxt      %5     next key
       key_npage                   knp       kN     next-page key
       key_open                    kopn      %6     open key
       key_options                 kopt      %7     options key
       key_ppage                   kpp       kP     previous-page key
       key_previous                kprv      %8     previous key
       key_print                   kprt      %9     print key
       key_redo                    krdo      %0     redo key
       key_reference               kref      &1     reference key
       key_refresh                 krfr      &2     refresh key
       key_replace                 krpl      &3     replace key
       key_restart                 krst      &4     restart key
       key_resume                  kres      &5     resume key
       key_right                   kcuf1     kr     right-arrow key
       key_save                    ksav      &6     save key
       key_sbeg                    kBEG      &9     shifted begin key
       key_scancel                 kCAN      &0     shifted cancel key
       key_scommand                kCMD      *1     shifted command key
       key_scopy                   kCPY      *2     shifted copy key
       key_screate                 kCRT      *3     shifted create key
       key_sdc                     kDC       *4     shifted delete-
                                                    character key
       key_sdl                     kDL       *5     shifted delete-line
       key_select                  kslt      *6     select key
       key_send                    kEND      *7     shifted end key
       key_seol                    kEOL      *8     shifted clear-to-
                                                    end-of-line key
       key_sexit                   kEXT      *9     shifted exit key
       key_sf                      kind      kF     scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                   kFND      *0     shifted find key
       key_shelp                   kHLP      #1     shifted help key
       key_shome                   kHOM      #2     shifted home key
       key_sic                     kIC       #3     shifted insert-
                                                    character key
       key_sleft                   kLFT      #4     shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage                kMSG      %a     shifted message key
       key_smove                   kMOV      %b     shifted move key
       key_snext                   kNXT      %c     shifted next key
       key_soptions                kOPT      %d     shifted options key
       key_sprevious               kPRV      %e     shifted previous key
       key_sprint                  kPRT      %f     shifted print key
       key_sr                      kri       kR     scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                   kRDO      %g     shifted redo key
       key_sreplace                kRPL      %h     shifted replace key
       key_sright                  kRIT      %i     shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume                  kRES      %j     shifted resume key
       key_ssave                   kSAV      !1     shifted save key
       key_ssuspend                kSPD      !2     shifted suspend key
       key_stab                    khts      kT     set-tab key
       key_sundo                   kUND      !3     shifted undo key
       key_suspend                 kspd      &7     suspend key
       key_undo                    kund      &8     undo key
       key_up                      kcuu1     ku     up-arrow key
       keypad_local                rmkx      ke     leave
       keypad_xmit                 smkx      ks     enter
       lab_f0                      lf0       l0     label on function
                                                    key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1                      lf1       l1     label on function
                                                    key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10                     lf10      la     label on function
                                                    key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                      lf2       l2     label on function
                                                    key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                      lf3       l3     label on function
                                                    key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4                      lf4       l4     label on function
                                                    key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5                      lf5       l5     label on function
                                                    key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                      lf6       l6     label on function
                                                    key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                      lf7       l7     label on function
                                                    key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                      lf8       l8     label on function
                                                    key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                      lf9       l9     label on function
                                                    key f9 if not f9
       label_format                fln       Lf     label format
       label_off                   rmln      LF     turn off soft labels
       label_on                    smln      LO     turn on soft labels
       meta_off                    rmm       mo     turn off meta mode
       meta_on                     smm       mm     turn on meta mode
                                                    (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address        mhpa      ZY     Like column_address
                                                    in micro mode
       micro_down                  mcud1     ZZ     Like cursor_down in
                                                    micro mode
       micro_left                  mcub1     Za     Like cursor_left in
                                                    micro mode
       micro_right                 mcuf1     Zb     Like cursor_right in
                                                    micro mode
       micro_row_address           mvpa      Zc     Like row_address #1
                                                    in micro mode
       micro_up                    mcuu1     Zd     Like cursor_up in
                                                    micro mode
       newline                     nel       nw     newline (behave like
                                                    cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins               porder    Ze     Match software bits
                                                    to print-head pins
       orig_colors                 oc        oc     Set all color pairs
                                                    to the original ones
       orig_pair                   op        op     Set default pair to
                                                    its original value
       pad_char                    pad       pc     padding char
                                                    (instead of null)
       parm_dch                    dch       DC     delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line            dl        DL     delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor            cud       DO     down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro             mcud      Zf     Like
                                                    parm_down_cursor in
                                                    micro mode
       parm_ich                    ich       IC     insert #1 characters
       parm_index                  indn      SF     scroll forward #1
                                                    lines (P)
       parm_insert_line            il        AL     insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor            cub       LE     move #1 characters
                                                    to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro             mcub      Zg     Like
                                                    parm_left_cursor in
                                                    micro mode
       parm_right_cursor           cuf       RI     move #1 characters
                                                    to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro            mcuf      Zh     Like
                                                    parm_right_cursor in
                                                    micro mode
       parm_rindex                 rin       SR     scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor              cuu       UP     up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro               mcuu      Zi     Like parm_up_cursor
                                                    in micro mode
       pkey_key                    pfkey     pk     program function key
                                                    #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local                  pfloc     pl     program function key
                                                    #1 to execute string
       pkey_xmit                   pfx       px     program function key
                                                    #1 to transmit
                                                    string #2
       plab_norm                   pln       pn     program label #1 to
                                                    show string #2
       print_screen                mc0       ps     print contents of
       prtr_non                    mc5p      pO     turn on printer for
                                                    #1 bytes
       prtr_off                    mc4       pf     turn off printer
       prtr_on                     mc5       po     turn on printer
       pulse                       pulse     PU     select pulse dialing
       quick_dial                  qdial     QD     dial number #1
                                                    without checking
       remove_clock                rmclk     RC     remove clock
       repeat_char                 rep       rp     repeat char #1 #2
                                                    times (P*)
       req_for_input               rfi       RF     send next input char
                                                    (for ptys)
       reset_1string               rs1       r1     reset string
       reset_2string               rs2       r2     reset string
       reset_3string               rs3       r3     reset string
       reset_file                  rf        rf     name of reset file
       restore_cursor              rc        rc     restore cursor to
                                                    position of last
       row_address                 vpa       cv     vertical position #1
                                                    absolute (P)
       save_cursor                 sc        sc     save current cursor
                                                    position (P)
       scroll_forward              ind       sf     scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse              ri        sr     scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set             scs       Zj     Select character
                                                    set, #1
       set_attributes              sgr       sa     define video
                                                    attributes #1-#9
       set_background              setb      Sb     Set background color
       set_bottom_margin           smgb      Zk     Set bottom margin at
                                                    current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm      smgbp     Zl     Set bottom margin at
                                                    line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                    is not given) #2
                                                    lines from bottom
       set_clock                   sclk      SC     set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                    mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair              scp       sp     Set current color
                                                    pair to #1
       set_foreground              setf      Sf     Set foreground color
       set_left_margin             smgl      ML     set left soft margin
                                                    at current column.
                                                    (ML is not in BSD
       set_left_margin_parm        smglp     Zm     Set left (right)
                                                    margin at column #1
       set_right_margin            smgr      MR     set right soft
                                                    margin at current
       set_right_margin_parm       smgrp     Zn     Set right margin at
                                                    column #1
       set_tab                     hts       st     set a tab in every
                                                    row, current columns
       set_top_margin              smgt      Zo     Set top margin at
                                                    current line
       set_top_margin_parm         smgtp     Zp     Set top (bottom)
                                                    margin at row #1
       set_window                  wind      wi     current window is
                                                    lines #1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image             sbim      Zq     Start printing bit
                                                    image graphics
       start_char_set_def          scsd      Zr     Start character set
                                                    definition #1, with
                                                    #2 characters in the
       stop_bit_image              rbim      Zs     Stop printing bit
                                                    image graphics
       stop_char_set_def           rcsd      Zt     End definition of
                                                    character set #1
       subscript_characters        subcs     Zu     List of
       superscript_characters      supcs     Zv     List of
       tab                         ht        ta     tab to next 8-space
                                                    hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr              docr      Zw     Printing any of
                                                    these characters
                                                    causes CR
       to_status_line              tsl       ts     move to status line,
                                                    column #1
       tone                        tone      TO     select touch tone
       underline_char              uc        uc     underline char and
                                                    move past it
       up_half_line                hu        hu     half a line up
       user0                       u0        u0     User string #0
       user1                       u1        u1     User string #1
       user2                       u2        u2     User string #2
       user3                       u3        u3     User string #3
       user4                       u4        u4     User string #4
       user5                       u5        u5     User string #5
       user6                       u6        u6     User string #6
       user7                       u7        u7     User string #7
       user8                       u8        u8     User string #8
       user9                       u9        u9     User string #9
       wait_tone                   wait      WA     wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character              xoffc     XF     XOFF character
       xon_character               xonc      XN     XON character
       zero_motion                 zerom     Zx     No motion for
                                                    subsequent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but were originally not documented in the man page.

               Variable            Cap-       TCap      Description
                String             name       Code
       alt_scancode_esc            scesa      S8     Alternate escape
                                                     for scancode
       bit_image_carriage_return   bicr       Yv     Move to beginning
                                                     of same row
       bit_image_newline           binel      Zz     Move to next row
                                                     of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat            birep      Xy     Repeat bit image
                                                     cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names              csnm       Zy     Produce #1'th item
                                                     from list of
                                                     character set
       code_set_init               csin       ci     Init sequence for
                                                     multiple codesets
       color_names                 colornm    Yw     Give name for
                                                     color #1
       define_bit_image_region     defbi      Yx     Define rectangular
                                                     bit image region
       device_type                 devt       dv     Indicate
       display_pc_char             dispc      S1     Display PC
                                                     character #1
       end_bit_image_region        endbi      Yy     End a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode       smpch      S2     Enter PC character
                                                     display mode
       enter_scancode_mode         smsc       S4     Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode        rmpch      S3     Exit PC character
                                                     display mode
       exit_scancode_mode          rmsc       S5     Exit PC scancode
       get_mouse                   getm       Gm     Curses should get
                                                     button events,
                                                     parameter #1 not
       key_mouse                   kmous      Km     Mouse event has
       mouse_info                  minfo      Mi     Mouse status
       pc_term_options             pctrm      S6     PC terminal
       pkey_plab                   pfxl       xl     Program function
                                                     key #1 to type
                                                     string #2 and show
                                                     string #3
       req_mouse_pos               reqmp      RQ     Request mouse
       scancode_escape             scesc      S7     Escape for
                                                     scancode emulation
       set0_des_seq                s0ds       s0     Shift to codeset 0
                                                     (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq                s1ds       s1     Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq                s2ds       s2     Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq                s3ds       s3     Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background            setab      AB     Set background
                                                     color to #1, using
                                                     ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground            setaf      AF     Set foreground
                                                     color to #1, using
                                                     ANSI escape
       set_color_band              setcolor   Yz     Change to ribbon
                                                     color #1
       set_lr_margin               smglr      ML     Set both left and
                                                     right margins to
                                                     #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                     not in BSD
       set_page_length             slines     YZ     Set page length to
                                                     #1 lines
       set_tb_margin               smgtb      MT     Sets both top and
                                                     bottom margins to
                                                     #1, #2

        The XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They
        were used in some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g.,
        Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap
        names for them are invented.  According to the XSI Curses
        standard, they have no termcap names.  If your compiled terminfo
        entries use these, they may not be binary-compatible with System
        V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

                Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                 String             name      Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode    ehhlm     Xh     Enter horizontal
                                                     highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode          elhlm     Xl     Enter left highlight
        enter_low_hl_mode           elohlm    Xo     Enter low highlight
        enter_right_hl_mode         erhlm     Xr     Enter right
                                                     highlight mode
        enter_top_hl_mode           ethlm     Xt     Enter top highlight
        enter_vertical_hl_mode      evhlm     Xv     Enter vertical
                                                     highlight mode
        set_a_attributes            sgr1      sA     Define second set of
                                                     video attributes
        set_pglen_inch              slength   YI     Set page length to
                                                     #1 hundredth of an
                                                     inch (some
                                                     implementations use
                                                     sL for termcap).

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The preceding section listed the predefined capabilities.  They
       deal with some special features for terminals no longer (or
       possibly never) produced.  Occasionally there are special
       features of newer terminals which are awkward or impossible to
       represent by reusing the predefined capabilities.

       ncurses addresses this limitation by allowing user-defined
       capabilities.  The @TIC@ and @INFOCMP@ programs provide the -x
       option for this purpose.  When -x is set, @TIC@ treats unknown
       capabilities as user-defined.  That is, if @TIC@ encounters a
       capability name which it does not recognize, it infers its type
       (boolean, number or string) from the syntax and makes an extended
       table entry for that capability.  The use_extended_names(3X)
       function makes this information conditionally available to
       applications.  The ncurses library provides the data leaving most
       of the behavior to applications:

       •   User-defined capability strings whose name begins with “k”
           are treated as function keys.

       •   The types (boolean, number, string) determined by @TIC@ can
           be inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       •   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the
           capability is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a
       predefined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited
       to the capabilities defined by terminfo implementations.  As a
       rule, user-defined capabilities intended for use by termcap
       applications should be limited to booleans and numbers to avoid
       running past the 1023 byte limit assumed by termcap
       implementations and their applications.  In particular, providing
       extended sets of function keys (past the 60 numbered keys and the
       handful of special named keys) is best done using the longer
       names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is
       representative of what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal
       typically looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space
       at the beginning of each line except the first.  Comments may be
       included on lines beginning with “#”.  Capabilities in terminfo
       are of three types:

       •   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has
           some particular feature,

       •   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the
           size of particular delays, and

       •   string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be used
           to perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-
       standard terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic
       return and line-feed when the end of a line is reached) is
       indicated by the capability am.  Hence the description of ansi
       includes am.  Numeric capabilities are followed by the character
       “#” and then a positive value.  Thus cols, which indicates the
       number of columns the terminal has, gives the value “80” for
       ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified in
       decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language
       conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of
       line sequence) are given by the two-character code, an “=”, and
       then a string ending at the next following “,”.

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued
       capabilities for easy encoding of characters there:

       •   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       •   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       •   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s


             newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and


       X/Open Curses does not say what “appropriate x” might be.  In
       practice, that is a printable ASCII graphic character.  The
       special case “^?” is interpreted as DEL (127).  In all other
       cases, the character value is AND'd with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII
       control codes in the range 0 through 31.

       Other escapes include

       •   \^ for ^,

       •   \\ for \,

       •   \, for comma,

       •   \: for :,

       •   and \0 for null.

           \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but
           behaves as a null character on most terminals, providing CS7
           is specified.  See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility
           of the compiled terminfo files with other implementations,
           e.g., the SVr4 systems, which document this.  Compiled
           terminfo files use null-terminated strings, with no lengths.
           Modifying this would require a new binary format, which would
           not work with other implementations.

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a string
       capability, enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and
       padding characters are supplied by tputs(3X) to provide this

       •   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of
           precision; it may be followed by suffixes “*” or “/” or both.

       •   A “*” indicates that the padding required is proportional to
           the number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount
           given is the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the
           case of insert character, the factor is still the number of
           lines affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon
           capability; it is used for cost computation but does not
           trigger delays.

       •   A “/” suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and
           forces a delay of the given number of milliseconds even on
           devices for which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do
       this, put a period before the capability name.  For example, see
       the second ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The ncurses library searches for terminal descriptions in several
       places.  It uses only the first description found.  The library
       has a compiled-in list of places to search which can be
       overridden by environment variables.  Before starting to search,
       ncurses eliminates duplicates in its search list.

       •   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is
           interpreted as the pathname of a directory containing the
           compiled description you are working on.  Only that directory
           is searched.

       •   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the
           directory $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

       •   Next, if the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set,
           ncurses will interpret the contents of that variable as a
           list of colon-separated directories (or database files) to be

           An empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends
           with a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as
           the system location @TERMINFO@.

       •   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           •   a list of directories (@TERMINFO_DIRS@), and

           •   the system terminfo directory, @TERMINFO@ (the compiled-
               in default).

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The
       most effective way to prepare a terminal description is by
       imitating the description of a similar terminal in terminfo and
       to build up a description gradually, using partial descriptions
       with vi or some other screen-oriented program to check that they
       are correct.  Be aware that a very unusual terminal may expose
       deficiencies in the ability of the terminfo file to describe it
       or bugs in the screen-handling code of the test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal
       manufacturer did not document it) a severe test is to edit a
       large file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of
       the screen, then hit the “u” key several times quickly.  If the
       terminal messes up, more padding is usually needed.  A similar
       test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by
       the cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the
       number of lines on the screen is given by the lines capability.
       If the terminal wraps around to the beginning of the next line
       when it reaches the right margin, then it should have the am
       capability.  If the terminal can clear its screen, leaving the
       cursor in the home position, then this is given by the clear
       string capability.  If the terminal overstrikes (rather than
       clearing a position when a character is struck over) then it
       should have the os capability.  If the terminal is a printing
       terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies to storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010
       series, as well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a
       code to move the cursor to the left edge of the current row, give
       this as cr.  (Normally this will be carriage return, control/M.)
       If there is a code to produce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc)
       give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left
       (such as backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.
       Similarly, codes to move to the right, up, and down should be
       given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.  These local cursor motions should
       not alter the text they pass over, for example, you would not
       normally use “cuf1= ” because the space would erase the character
       moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions
       encoded in terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges of a
       CRT terminal.  Programs should never attempt to backspace around
       the left edge, unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up
       locally off the top.  In order to scroll text up, a program will
       go to the bottom left corner of the screen and send the ind
       (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind
       and ri are undefined when not on their respective corners of the

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and
       rin which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they
       take one parameter, and scroll that many lines.  They are also
       undefined except at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right
       edge of the screen when text is output, but this does not
       necessarily apply to a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local
       motion which is defined from the left edge is if bw is given,
       then a cub1 from the left edge will move to the right edge of the
       previous row.  If bw is not given, the effect is undefined.  This
       is useful for drawing a box around the edge of the screen, for
       example.  If the terminal has switch selectable automatic
       margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on; i.e.,
       am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first
       column of the next line, that command can be given as nel
       (newline).  It does not matter if the command clears the
       remainder of the current line, so if the terminal has no cr and
       lf it may still be possible to craft a working nel out of one or
       both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and “glass-tty”
       terminals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the
       terminal are described by a parameterized string capability, with
       printf-like escapes such as %x in it.  For example, to address
       the cursor, the cup capability is given, using two parameters:
       the row and column to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered
       from zero and refer to the physical screen visible to the user,
       not to any unseen memory.)  If the terminal has memory relative
       cursor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to
       manipulate it.  Typically a sequence will push one of the
       parameters onto the stack and then print it in some format.
       Print (e.g., “%d”) is a special case.  Other operations,
       including “%t” pop their operand from the stack.  It is noted
       that more complex operations are often necessary, e.g., in the
       sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs “%”

            as in printf(3), flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a “:” to
            allow the next character to be a “-” flag, avoiding
            interpreting “%-” as an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The terms “static” and “dynamic” are misleading.
            Historically, these are simply two different sets of
            variables, whose values are not reset between calls to
            tparm(3X).  However, that fact is not documented in other
            implementations.  Relying on it will adversely impact
            portability to other implementations:

            •   SVr2 curses supported dynamic variables.  Those are set
                only by a %P operator.  A %g for a given variable
                without first setting it with %P will give unpredictable
                results, because dynamic variables are an uninitialized
                local array on the stack in the tparm function.

            •   SVr3.2 curses supported static variables.  Those are an
                array in the TERMINAL structure (declared in term.h),
                and are zeroed automatically when the setupterm function
                allocates the data.

            •   SVr4 curses made no further improvements to the
                dynamic/static variable feature.

            •   Solaris XPG4 curses does not distinguish between dynamic
                and static variables.  They are the same.  Like SVr4
                curses, XPG4 curses does not initialize these

            •   Before version 6.3, ncurses stores both dynamic and
                static variables in persistent storage, initialized to

            •   Beginning with version 6.3, ncurses stores static and
                dynamic variables in the same manner as SVr4.

                •   Unlike other implementations, ncurses zeros dynamic
                    variables before the first %g or %P operator.

                •   Like SVr2, the scope of dynamic variables in ncurses
                    is within the current call to tparm.  Use static
                    variables if persistent storage is needed.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.
            Usually the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack, and
            %t pops it from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).
            If it is zero (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of @TIC@ or @INFOCMP@ to see the structure
            of if-then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very
            complicated when written on one line.  The -f option splits
            the string into lines with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the
       usual order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use “%gx%{5}%-”.  %P
       and %g variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs
       to be sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the
       order of the rows and columns is inverted here, and that the row
       and column are printed as two digits.  Thus its cup capability is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent
       preceded by a ^T, with the row and column simply encoded in
       binary, “cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c”.  Terminals which use “%c” need to be
       able to backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up
       one line on the screen (cuu1).  This is necessary because it is
       not always safe to transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may
       change or discard them.  (The library routines dealing with
       terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are never expanded, so \t is
       safe to send.  This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column
       offset by a blank character, thus “cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%'
       '%+%c”.  After sending “\E=”, this pushes the first parameter,
       pushes the ASCII value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the
       sum on the stack in place of the two previous values) and outputs
       that value as a character.  Then the same is done for the second
       parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper
       left corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly
       a fast way of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given
       as ll; this may involve going up with cuu1 from the home
       position, but a program should never do this itself (unless ll
       does) because it can make no assumption about the effect of
       moving up from the home position.  Note that the home position is
       the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left corner of the
       screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP terminals
       cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing,
       these can be given as single parameter capabilities hpa
       (horizontal position absolute) and vpa (vertical position
       absolute).  Sometimes these are shorter than the more general two
       parameter sequence (as with the hp2645) and can be used in
       preference to cup.  If there are parameterized local motions
       (e.g., move n spaces to the right) these can be given as cud,
       cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating how many
       spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the terminal does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a
       program that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit
       this mode can be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for
       example, from terminals like the Concept with more than one page
       of memory.  If the terminal has only memory relative cursor
       addressing and not screen relative cursor addressing, a one
       screen-sized window must be fixed into the terminal for cursor
       addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the TEKTRONIX
       4025, where smcup sets the command character to be the one used
       by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not restore the screen
       after an rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to
       outputting rmcup), specify nrrmc.

       SVr4 (and X/Open Curses) list several string capabilities for
       setting margins.  Two were intended for use with terminals, and
       another six were intended for use with printers.

       •   The two terminal capabilities assume that the terminal may
           have the capability of setting the left and/or right margin
           at the current cursor column position.

       •   The printer capabilities assume that the printer may have two
           types of capability:

           •   the ability to set a top and/or bottom margin using the
               current line position, and

           •   parameterized capabilities for setting the top, bottom,
               left, right margins given the number of rows or columns.

       In practice, the categorization into “terminal” and “printer” is
       not suitable:

       •   The AT&T SVr4 terminal database uses smgl four times, for
           AT&T hardware.

           Three of the four are printers.  They lack the ability to set
           left/right margins by specifying the column.

       •   Other (non-AT&T) terminals may support margins but using
           different assumptions from AT&T.

           For instance, the DEC VT420 supports left/right margins, but
           only using a column parameter.  As an added complication, the
           VT420 uses two settings to fully enable left/right margins
           (left/right margin mode, and origin mode).  The former
           enables the margins, which causes printed text to wrap within
           margins, but the latter is needed to prevent cursor-
           addressing outside those margins.

       •   Both DEC VT420 left/right margins are set with a single
           control sequence.  If either is omitted, the corresponding
           margin is set to the left or right edge of the display
           (rather than leaving the margin unmodified).

       These are the margin-related capabilities:
             Name       Description
             smgl       Set left margin at current column
             smgr       Set right margin at current column
             smgb       Set bottom margin at current line
             smgt       Set top margin at current line
             smgbp      Set bottom margin at line N
             smglp      Set left margin at column N
             smgrp      Set right margin at column N
             smgtp      Set top margin at line N
             smglr      Set both left and right margins to L and R
             smgtb      Set both top and bottom margins to T and B

       When writing an application that uses these string capabilities,
       the pairs should be first checked to see if each capability in
       the pair is set or only one is set:

       •   If both smglp and smgrp are set, each is used with a single
           argument, N, that gives the column number of the left and
           right margin, respectively.

       •   If both smgtp and smgbp are set, each is used to set the top
           and bottom margin, respectively:

           •   smgtp is used with a single argument, N, the line number
               of the top margin.

           •   smgbp is used with two arguments, N and M, that give the
               line number of the bottom margin, the first counting from
               the top of the page and the second counting from the
               bottom.  This accommodates the two styles of specifying
               the bottom margin in different manufacturers' printers.

           When designing a terminfo entry for a printer that has a
           settable bottom margin, only the first or second argument
           should be used, depending on the printer.  When developing an
           application that uses smgbp to set the bottom margin, both
           arguments must be given.

       Conversely, when only one capability in the pair is set:

       •   If only one of smglp and smgrp is set, then it is used with
           two arguments, the column number of the left and right
           margins, in that order.

       •   Likewise, if only one of smgtp and smgbp is set, then it is
           used with two arguments that give the top and bottom margins,
           in that order, counting from the top of the page.

           When designing a terminfo entry for a printer that requires
           setting both left and right or top and bottom margins
           simultaneously, only one capability in the pairs smglp and
           smgrp or smgtp and smgbp should be defined, leaving the other

       Except for very old terminal descriptions, e.g., those developed
       for SVr4, the scheme just described should be considered
       obsolete.  An improved set of capabilities was added late in the
       SVr4 releases (smglr and smgtb), which explicitly use two
       parameters for setting the left/right or top/bottom margins.

       When setting margins, the line- and column-values are zero-based.

       The mgc string capability should be defined.  Applications such
       as tabs(1) rely upon this to reset all margins.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of
       the line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as
       el.  If the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line to
       the current position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is,
       this should be given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the
       current position to the end of the display, then this should be
       given as ed.  Ed is only defined from the first column of a line.
       (Thus, it can be simulated by a request to delete a large number
       of lines, if a true ed is not available.)

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where
       the cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done only
       from the first position of a line.  The cursor must then appear
       on the newly blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line
       which the cursor is on, then this should be given as dl1; this is
       done only from the first position on the line to be deleted.
       Versions of il1 and dl1 which take a single parameter and insert
       or delete that many lines can be given as il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100)
       the command to set this can be described with the csr capability,
       which takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the
       scrolling region.  The cursor position is, alas, undefined after
       using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using
       csr on a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore
       cursor) commands may be useful for ensuring that your synthesized
       insert/delete string does not move the cursor.  (Note that the
       ncurses(3X) library does this synthesis automatically, so you
       need not compose insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a
       combination of index with the memory-lock feature found on some
       terminals (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be
       done using ri or ind on many terminals without a true
       insert/delete line, and is often faster even on terminals with
       those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each
       scrolling window is effectively a view port on a screen-sized
       canvas.  To test for this capability, create a scrolling region
       in the middle of the screen, write something to the bottom line,
       move the cursor to the top of the region, and do ri followed by
       dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the bottom of the region by
       the ri re-appears, then scrolling is non-destructive.  System V
       and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and rin will simulate
       destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions you not to
       define csr unless this is true.  This curses implementation is
       more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndsrc
       is defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of
       memory, which all commands affect, it should be given as the
       parameterized string wind.  The four parameters are the starting
       and ending lines in memory and the starting and ending columns in
       memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da
       capability should be given; if display memory can be retained
       below, then db should be given.  These indicate that deleting a
       line or scrolling may bring non-blank lines up from below or that
       scrolling back with ri may bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect
       to insert/delete character which can be described using terminfo.
       The most common insert/delete character operations affect only
       the characters on the current line and shift characters off the
       end of the line rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept
       100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed
       and untyped blanks on the screen, shifting upon an insert or
       delete only to an untyped blank on the screen which is either
       eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the
       screen and then typing text separated by cursor motions.  Type
       “abc    def” using local cursor motions (not spaces) between the
       “abc” and the “def”.  Then position the cursor before the “abc”
       and put the terminal in insert mode.  If typing characters causes
       the rest of the line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off
       the end, then your terminal does not distinguish between blanks
       and untyped positions.  If the “abc” shifts over to the “def”
       which then move together around the end of the current line and
       onto the next as you insert, you have the second type of
       terminal, and should give the capability in, which stands for
       “insert null”.

       While these are two logically separate attributes (one line
       versus multi-line insert mode, and special treatment of untyped
       spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be
       described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an insert mode,
       and terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank
       position on the current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get
       into insert mode.  Give as rmir the sequence to leave insert
       mode.  Now give as ich1 any sequence needed to be sent just
       before sending the character to be inserted.  Most terminals with
       a true insert mode will not give ich1; terminals which send a
       sequence to open a screen position should give it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to
       ich1.  Technically, you should not give both unless the terminal
       actually requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly,
       some non-curses applications get confused if both are present;
       the symptom is doubled characters in an update using insert.
       This requirement is now rare; most ich sequences do not require
       previous smir, and most smir insert modes do not require ich1
       before each character.  Therefore, the new curses actually
       assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or ich/ich1 as
       appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an entry to be
       used under new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of
       milliseconds in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which
       may need to be sent after an insert of a single character may
       also be given in ip.  If your terminal needs both to be placed
       into an “insert mode” and a special code to precede each inserted
       character, then both smir/rmir and ich1 can be given, and both
       will be used.  The ich capability, with one parameter, n, will
       repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while not in
       insert mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode
       to delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab
       after the insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion
       while in insert mode you can give the capability mir to speed up
       inserting in this case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.
       Some terminals (notably Datamedia's) must not have mir because of
       the way their insert mode works.

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch
       with one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and delete mode by
       giving smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the
       terminal needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n
       blanks without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes,
       these can be represented in a number of different ways.  You
       should choose one display form as standout mode, representing a
       good, high contrast, easy-on-the-eyes, format for highlighting
       error messages and other attention getters.  (If you have a
       choice, reverse video plus half-bright is good, or reverse video
       alone.)  The sequences to enter and exit standout mode are given
       as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the code to change into or
       out of standout mode leaves one or even two blank spaces on the
       screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then xmc should be
       given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as
       smul and rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to
       underline the current character and move the cursor one space to
       the right, such as the Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include
       blink (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-
       bright) invis (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev
       (reverse video) sgr0 (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter
       alternate character set mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character
       set mode).  Turning on any of these modes singly may or may not
       turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes,
       this should be given as sgr (set attributes), taking 9
       parameters.  Each parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the
       corresponding attribute is on or off.  The 9 parameters are, in
       order: standout, underline, reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank,
       protect, alternate character set.  Not all modes need be
       supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding separate
       attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

            tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

            none                 none             \E[0m
            p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
            p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
            p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
            p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
            p5                   dim              not available
            p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
            p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
            p8                   protect          not used
            p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes,
       since there is no quick way to determine whether they are active.
       Standout is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.
       The vt220 terminal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly
       used in sgr because it protects characters on the screen from the
       host's erasures.  The altcharset mode also is different in that
       it is either ^O or ^N, depending on whether it is off or on.  If
       all modes are turned on, the resulting sequence is

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is
       output when either p1 or p3 is true, that is, if either standout
       or reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies

         sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

         \E[0                 always              \E[0
         ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
         ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
         ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
         ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
         ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
         m                    always              m
         ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.
       Also, some implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is,
       Not all terminfo entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.
       Many terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries which have
       no sgr string.  The only drawback to adding an sgr string is that
       termcap also assumes that sgr0 does not exit alternate character
       set mode.

       Terminals with the “magic cookie” glitch (xmc) deposit special
       “cookies” when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect
       the display algorithm rather than having extra bits for each
       character.  Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically
       leave standout mode when they move to a new line or the cursor is
       addressed.  Programs using standout mode should exit standout
       mode before moving the cursor or sending a newline, unless the
       msgr capability, asserting that it is safe to move in standout
       mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an
       error quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as
       flash; it must not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it
       is not on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking
       underline into an easier to find block or blinking underline)
       give this sequence as cvvis.  If there is a way to make the
       cursor completely invisible, give that as civis.  The capability
       cnorm should be given which undoes the effects of both of these

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with
       no special codes needed) even though it does not overstrike, then
       you should give the capability ul.  If a character overstriking
       another leaves both characters on the screen, specify the
       capability os.  If overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then
       this should be indicated by giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys
       are pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is not
       possible to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local
       (this applies, for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If
       the keypad can be set to transmit or not transmit, give these
       codes as smkx and rmkx.  Otherwise the keypad is assumed to
       always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down
       arrow, and home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1,
       and khome respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0,
       f1, ..., f10, the codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ...,
       kf10.  If these keys have labels other than the default f0
       through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       •   kll (home down),

       •   kbs (backspace),

       •   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       •   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       •   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       •   kdch1 (delete character),

       •   kdl1 (delete line),

       •   krmir (exit insert mode),

       •   kel (clear to end of line),

       •   ked (clear to end of screen),

       •   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       •   kil1 (insert line),

       •   knp (next page),

       •   kpp (previous page),

       •   kind (scroll forward/down),

       •   kri (scroll backward/up),

       •   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including
       the four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given as ka1,
       ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.  These keys are useful when the effects
       of a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc,
       and pfx.  A string to program screen labels should be specified
       as pln.  Each of these strings takes two parameters: the function
       key number to program (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it
       with.  Function key numbers out of this range may program
       undefined keys in a terminal dependent manner.  The difference
       between the capabilities is that pfkey causes pressing the given
       key to be the same as the user typing the given string; pfloc
       causes the string to be executed by the terminal in local; and
       pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of
       programmable screen labels and their width and height.  If there
       are commands to turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and
       rmln.  smln is normally output after one or more pln sequences to
       make sure that the change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       A few capabilities are used only for tabs:

       •   If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to
           the next tab stop can be given as ht (usually control/I).

       •   A “back-tab” command which moves leftward to the preceding
           tab stop can be given as cbt.

           By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are
           being expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the
           terminal, programs should not use ht or cbt even if they are
           present, since the user may not have the tab stops properly

       •   If the terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set
           every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the numeric
           parameter it is given, showing the number of spaces the tabs
           are set to.

           The it capability is normally used by the @TSET@ command to
           determine whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion,
           and whether to set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab
           stops that can be saved in non-volatile memory, the terminfo
           description can assume that they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include

       •   is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings for the terminal,

       •   iprog, the path name of a program to be run to initialize the

       •   and if, the name of a file containing long initialization

       These strings are expected to set the terminal into modes
       consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They are
       normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the @TPUT@
       program, each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the
       following order:

              run the program

                     is1 and

              set the margins using
                     mgc or
                     smglp and smgrp or
                     smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally output

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can
       be set up without duplicating strings by putting the common
       sequences in is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally
       unknown state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to
       is1 , is2 , if and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by
       reset option of @TPUT@, or by the @RESET@ program (an alias of
       @TSET@), which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged
       state.  Commands are normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only
       if they produce annoying effects on the screen and are not
       necessary when logging in.  For example, the command to set the
       vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it
       causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not normally
       needed since the terminal is usually already in 80-column mode.

       The @RESET@ program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the
       same order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1,
       etc.  If any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are
       missing, the @RESET@ program falls back upon the corresponding
       initialization capability string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be
       given as tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the
       current column of every row).  If a more complex sequence is
       needed to set the tabs than can be described by this, the
       sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

       The @TPUT@ reset command uses the same capability strings as the
       @RESET@ command, although the two programs (@TPUT@ and @RESET@)
       provide different command-line options.

       In practice, these terminfo capabilities are not often used in
       initialization of tabs (though they are required for the @TABS@

       •   Almost all hardware terminals (at least those which supported
           tabs) initialized those to every eight columns:

           The only exception was the AT&T 2300 series, which set tabs
           to every five columns.

       •   In particular, developers of the hardware terminals which are
           commonly used as models for modern terminal emulators
           provided documentation demonstrating that eight columns were
           the standard.

       •   Because of this, the terminal initialization programs @TPUT@
           and @TSET@ use the tbc (clear_all_tabs) and hts (set_tab)
           capabilities directly only when the it (init_tabs) capability
           is set to a value other than eight.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or
       DTR handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very
       archaic CRTs (including, for example, DEC VT100s).  These may
       require padding characters after certain cursor motions and
       screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that
       is, it automatically emits ^S back to the host when its input
       buffers are close to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses
       the emission of padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped
       console devices effectively that do not have a speed limit.
       Padding information should still be included so that routines can
       make better decisions about relative costs, but actual pad
       characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud
       rates below the value of pb.  If the entry has no padding baud
       rate, then whether padding is emitted or not is completely
       controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a
       pad, then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of
       the pad string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra “status line” which is not normally
       used by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable
       but not part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the
       Heathkit H19 has a status line of this kind, as would a 24-line
       VT100 with a 23-line scrolling region set up on initialization.
       This situation is indicated by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access
       the status line.  These may be expressed as a string with single
       parameter tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin
       column on the status line.  The capability fsl must return to the
       main-screen cursor positions before the last tsl.  You may need
       to embed the string values of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore
       cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the
       width of the terminal.  If this is untrue, you can specify it
       with the numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as

       The boolean capability eslok specifies that escape sequences,
       tabs, etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these
       capabilities.  They are documented here in case they ever become

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-
       drawing.  Terminfo and curses have built-in support for most of
       the drawing characters supported by the VT100, with some
       characters from the AT&T 4410v1 added.  This alternate character
       set may be specified by the acsc capability.

      Glyph                       ACS            Ascii     acsc     acsc
      Name                        Name           Default   Char     Value
      arrow pointing right        ACS_RARROW     >         +        0x2b
      arrow pointing left         ACS_LARROW     <         ,        0x2c
      arrow pointing up           ACS_UARROW     ^         -        0x2d
      arrow pointing down         ACS_DARROW     v         .        0x2e
      solid square block          ACS_BLOCK      #         0        0x30
      diamond                     ACS_DIAMOND    +         `        0x60
      checker board (stipple)     ACS_CKBOARD    :         a        0x61
      degree symbol               ACS_DEGREE     \         f        0x66
      plus/minus                  ACS_PLMINUS    #         g        0x67
      board of squares            ACS_BOARD      #         h        0x68
      lantern symbol              ACS_LANTERN    #         i        0x69
      lower right corner          ACS_LRCORNER   +         j        0x6a
      upper right corner          ACS_URCORNER   +         k        0x6b
      upper left corner           ACS_ULCORNER   +         l        0x6c
      lower left corner           ACS_LLCORNER   +         m        0x6d
      large plus or crossover     ACS_PLUS       +         n        0x6e
      scan line 1                 ACS_S1         ~         o        0x6f
      scan line 3                 ACS_S3         -         p        0x70
      horizontal line             ACS_HLINE      -         q        0x71
      scan line 7                 ACS_S7         -         r        0x72
      scan line 9                 ACS_S9         _         s        0x73
      tee pointing right          ACS_LTEE       +         t        0x74
      tee pointing left           ACS_RTEE       +         u        0x75
      tee pointing up             ACS_BTEE       +         v        0x76
      tee pointing down           ACS_TTEE       +         w        0x77
      vertical line               ACS_VLINE      |         x        0x78
      less-than-or-equal-to       ACS_LEQUAL     <         y        0x79
      greater-than-or-equal-to    ACS_GEQUAL     >         z        0x7a
      greek pi                    ACS_PI         *         {        0x7b
      not-equal                   ACS_NEQUAL     !         |        0x7c
      UK pound sign               ACS_STERLING   f         }        0x7d
      bullet                      ACS_BULLET     o         ~        0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       •   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping for lantern
           is uppercase “I” although Unix implementations use the
           lowercase “i” mapping.

       •   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using the alternate
           character set feature, temporarily switching modes and
           sending characters in the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the
           acsc Value column in the table).

       •   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that

           Some of the characters within the range do not match the
           VT100; presumably they were used in the AT&T terminal: board
           of squares replaces the VT100 newline symbol, while lantern
           symbol replaces the VT100 vertical tab symbol.  The other
           VT100 symbols for control characters (horizontal tab,
           carriage return and line-feed) are not (re)used in curses.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a
       column to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the
       character which (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will
       be rendered as the corresponding graphic.  Then read off the
       VT100/your terminal character pairs right to left in sequence;
       these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       The curses library functions init_pair and init_color manipulate
       the color pairs and color values discussed in this section (see
       curs_color(3X) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either “Tektronix-like” or “HP-like”:

       •   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors
           (where N is usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground
           and background characters independently, mixing them into
           N * N color-pairs.

       •   On HP-like terminals, the user must set each color pair up
           separately (foreground and background are not independently
           settable).  Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M
           different colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color
       method.  The numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the
       maximum numbers of colors and color-pairs that can be displayed
       simultaneously.  The op (original pair) string resets foreground
       and background colors to their default values for the terminal.
       The oc string resets all colors or color-pairs to their default
       values for the terminal.  Some terminals (including many PC
       terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the current
       background color rather than the power-up default background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       While the curses library works with color pairs (reflecting the
       inability of some devices to set foreground and background colors
       independently), there are separate capabilities for setting these

       •   To change the current foreground or background color on a
           Tektronix-type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI foreground) and
           setab (set ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and setb
           (set background).  These take one parameter, the color
           number.  The SVr4 documentation describes only setaf/setab;
           the XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal supports ANSI
           escape sequences to set background and foreground, they
           should be coded as setaf and setab, respectively.

       •   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to set
           background and foreground, they should be coded as setf and
           setb, respectively.  The vidputs and the refresh(3X)
           functions use the setaf and setab capabilities if they are

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric
       argument each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably
       defined as follows (the middle column is the symbolic #define
       available in the header for the curses or ncurses libraries).
       The terminal hardware is free to map these as it likes, but the
       RGB values indicate normal locations in color space.

                 Color       #define       Value       RGB
                 black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                 red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                 green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                 yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                 blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                 magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                 cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                 white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a
       different mapping, i.e.,
                 Color       #define       Value       RGB
                 black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                 blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                 green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                 cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                 red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                 magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                 yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                 white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color
       capabilities; otherwise red/blue will be interchanged on the

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number
       parameter to set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       •   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be
           present to indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the
           initc capability will take a color number (0 to colors -
           1)and three more parameters which describe the color.  These
           three parameters default to being interpreted as RGB (Red,
           Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capability hls is
           present, they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness, Saturation)
           indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       •   On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for
           changing a color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters;
           a color-pair number (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples
           describing first background and then foreground colors.
           These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or (Hue,
           Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can
       register these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a
       bit-mask of attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.
       The correspondence with the attributes understood by curses is as

               Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
               A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
               A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
               A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
               A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
               A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
               A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
               A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
               A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
               A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
               A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
               A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
               A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
               A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
               A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
               A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
               A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute
       collides with the foreground color blue and is not available in
       color mode.  These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and
       optimizes the output in favor of colors.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a
       pad, then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of
       the pad string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad
       character, specify npc.  Note that ncurses implements the
       termcap-compatible PC variable; though the application may set
       this value to something other than a null, ncurses will test npc
       first and use napms if the terminal has no pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be
       indicated with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This
       is primarily useful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy
       terminals.  If a hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page
       (form feed), give this as ff (usually control/L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number
       of times (to save time transmitting a large number of identical
       characters) this can be indicated with the parameterized string
       rep.  The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the
       second is the number of times to repeat it.  Thus,
       tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the same as “xxxxxxxxxx”.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the
       TEKTRONIX 4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype
       command character is chosen which is used in all capabilities.
       This character is given in the cmdch capability to identify it.
       The following convention is supported on some UNIX systems: The
       environment is to be searched for a CC variable, and if found,
       all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced with the
       character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of
       known terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network,
       should include the gn (generic) capability so that programs can
       complain that they do not know how to talk to the terminal.
       (This capability does not apply to virtual terminal descriptions
       for which the escape sequences are known.)

       If the terminal has a “meta key” which acts as a shift key,
       setting the 8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can
       be indicated with km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the
       8th bit is parity and it will usually be cleared.  If strings
       exist to turn this “meta mode” on and off, they can be given as
       smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the
       screen at once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated
       with lm.  A value of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is
       not fixed, but that there is still more memory than fits on the

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual
       terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected
       to the terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of the
       screen, mc4: turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.
       When the printer is on, all text sent to the terminal will be
       sent to the printer.  It is undefined whether the text is also
       displayed on the terminal screen when the printer is on.  A
       variation mc5p takes one parameter, and leaves the printer on for
       as many characters as the value of the parameter, then turns the
       printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.  All text,
       including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while an
       mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow “~” characters to be
       displayed should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap,
       such as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely
       writing normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to
       blanks, should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the
       variable indicating this is now “dest_tabs_magic_smso”; in older
       versions, it was teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to
       mean that it is not possible to position the cursor on top of a
       “magic cookie”, that to erase standout mode it is instead
       necessary to use delete and insert line.  The ncurses
       implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the
       escape or control/C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1
       key is used for escape and f2 for control/C.  (Only certain
       Superbees have this problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in
       older terminfo versions, this capability was called
       “beehive_glitch”; it is now “no_esc_ctl_c”.

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more
       capabilities of the form xx.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no
       entry has even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table
       maximum.  Unfortunately, the termcap translations are much more
       strictly limited (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of
       long terminfo entries can cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent instruct
       the user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.
       The entry gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that
       makes the maximum safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023)
       bytes.  Depending on what the application and the termcap library
       being used does, and where in the termcap file the terminal type
       that tgetent is searching for is, several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they
       find an entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not;
       others truncate the entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application
       programs allocate more than the recommended 1K for the termcap
       entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it:
       before “tc” expansion, and after “tc” expansion.  “tc” is the
       capability that tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the
       current one, to add on its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does
       not use the “tc” capability, then of course the two lengths are
       the same.

       The “before tc expansion” length is the most important one,
       because it affects more than just users of that particular
       terminal.  This is the length of the entry as it exists in
       /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-newline pairs, which tgetent
       strips out while reading it.  Some termcap libraries strip off
       the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now suppose:

       •   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes

       •   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       •   and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU)
           reads the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its
           length, to see if it is the entry it wants,

       •   and tgetent is searching for a terminal type that either is
           the long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long
           entry, or does not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent
           has to search the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and
       probably core dump the program.  Programs like telnet are
       particularly vulnerable; modern telnets pass along values like
       the terminal type automatically.  The results are almost as
       undesirable with a termcap library, like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix
       4.4, that prints warning messages when it reads an overly long
       termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates long entries, like
       OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying here but will return incorrect
       data for the terminal.

       The “after tc expansion” length will have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal
       type, since tgetent only does “tc” expansion once it is found the
       terminal type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can
       cause, on various combinations of termcap libraries and
       applications, a core dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If
       it is too long even before “tc” expansion, it will have this
       effect even for users of some other terminal types and users
       whose TERM variable does not have a termcap entry.

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses
       implementation of @TIC@(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-
       tc length of a termcap translation is too long.  The -c (check)
       option also checks resolved (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo entries
       between commercial UNIX versions.  The problem is that there are
       at least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which
       diverged from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added
       extension capabilities to the string table that (in the binary
       format) collide with System V and XSI Curses extensions.

EXTENSIONS         top

       Searching for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and
       TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do
       not interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in
       an alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other
       things, map CR and NL to characters that do not trigger local
       motions).  The ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET
       mode.  This raises the possibility that an XPG4 implementation
       making the opposite interpretation may need terminfo entries made
       for ncurses to have msgr turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character
       modes in a slightly non-standard way to get better update
       efficiency.  See the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are
       not documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are
       deduced from the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses library
       wants to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and
       emulators like xterm that can return mouse-tracking information
       in the keyboard-input stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention italics.  Portable applications
       must assume that numeric capabilities are signed 16-bit values.
       This includes the no_color_video (ncv) capability.  The 32768
       mask value used for italics with ncv can be confused with an
       absent or cancelled ncv.  If italics should work with colors,
       then the ncv value must be specified, even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses support
       different subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases)
       different extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of
       October 1995:

       •   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4

       •   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended
           string capability (set_pglen).

       •   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo
           capabilities.  The booleans end with xon_xoff; the numerics
           with width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       •   HP/UX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics
           num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function keys 11
           through 63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and label_off, plus
           some incompatible extensions in the string table.

       •   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11
           through 63, plus a number of incompatible string table

       •   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

FILES         top

              files containing terminal descriptions

SEE ALSO         top

       @INFOCMP@(1M), @TABS@(1), @TIC@(1M), curses(3X), curs_color(3X),
       curs_variables(3X), printf(3), term_variables(3X).  term(5).

AUTHORS         top

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on
       pcurses by Pavel Curtis.

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the ncurses (new curses) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://www.gnu.org/software/ncurses/ncurses.html⟩.  If you have
       a bug report for this manual page, send it to
       bug-ncurses-request@gnu.org.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git mirror of the CVS repository
       ⟨https://github.com/mirror/ncurses.git⟩ on 2023-12-22.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2023-03-12.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to


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