yum(8) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | SPECIFYING PACKAGES | SPECIFYING PROVIDES | SPECIFYING GROUPS | SPECIFYING MODULES | SPECIFYING TRANSACTIONS | PACKAGE FILTERING | METADATA SYNCHRONIZATION | CONFIGURATION FILES REPLACEMENT POLICY | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | COPYRIGHT | COLOPHON

YUM(8)                             DNF                            YUM(8)

NAME         top

       yum - redirecting to DNF Command Reference

SYNOPSIS         top

       dnf [options] <command> [<args>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       DNF is the next upcoming major version of YUM, a package manager
       for RPM-based Linux distributions. It roughly maintains CLI
       compatibility with YUM and defines a strict API for extensions
       and plugins.

       Plugins can modify or extend features of DNF or provide
       additional CLI commands on top of those mentioned below. If you
       know the name of such a command (including commands mentioned
       below), you may find/install the package which provides it using
       the appropriate virtual provide in the form of
       dnf-command(<alias>), where <alias> is the name of the command;
       e.g.``dnf install ‘dnf-command(versionlock)’`` installs a
       versionlock plugin. This approach also applies to specifying
       dependencies of packages that require a particular DNF command.

       Return values:

       • 0  : Operation was successful.

       • 1  : An error occurred, which was handled by dnf.

       • 3  : An unknown unhandled error occurred during operation.

       • 100: See check-update200: There was a problem with acquiring or releasing of locks.

       Available commands:

       • aliasautoremovecheckcheck-updatecleandeplistdistro-syncdowngradegrouphelphistoryinfoinstalllistmakecachemarkmoduleprovidesreinstallremoverepoinforepolistrepoqueryrepository-packagessearchshellswapupdateinfoupgradeupgrade-minimal

       Additional information:

       • OptionsSpecifying PackagesSpecifying ProvidesSpecifying GroupsSpecifying TransactionsMetadata SynchronizationConfiguration Files Replacement PolicyFilesSee Also

OPTIONS         top

       -4     Resolve to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6     Resolve to IPv6 addresses only.

       --advisory=<advisory>, --advisories=<advisory>
              Include packages corresponding to the advisory ID, Eg.
              FEDORA-2201-123.  Applicable for the install, repoquery,
              updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       --allowerasing
              Allow erasing of installed packages to resolve
              dependencies. This option could be used as an alternative
              to the yum swap command where packages to remove are not
              explicitly defined.

       --assumeno
              Automatically answer no for all questions.

       -b, --best
              Try the best available package versions in transactions.
              Specifically during dnf upgrade, which by default skips
              over updates that can not be installed for dependency
              reasons, the switch forces DNF to only consider the latest
              packages. When running into packages with broken
              dependencies, DNF will fail giving a reason why the latest
              version can not be installed.

       --bugfix
              Include packages that fix a bugfix issue. Applicable for
              the install, repoquery, updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       --bz=<bugzilla>, --bzs=<bugzilla>
              Include packages that fix a Bugzilla ID, Eg. 123123.
              Applicable for the install, repoquery, updateinfo and
              upgrade commands.

       -C, --cacheonly
              Run entirely from system cache, don’t update the cache and
              use it even in case it is expired.

              DNF uses a separate cache for each user under which it
              executes. The cache for the root user is called the system
              cache. This switch allows a regular user read-only access
              to the system cache, which usually is more fresh than the
              user’s and thus he does not have to wait for metadata
              sync.

       --color=<color>
              Control whether color is used in terminal output. Valid
              values are always, never and auto (default).

       --comment=<comment>
              Add a comment to the transaction history.

       -c <config file>, --config=<config file>
              Configuration file location.

       --cve=<cves>, --cves=<cves>
              Include packages that fix a CVE (Common Vulnerabilities
              and Exposures) ID (http://cve.mitre.org/about/ ), Eg.
              CVE-2201-0123. Applicable for the install, repoquery,
              updateinfo, and upgrade commands.

       -d <debug level>, --debuglevel=<debug level>
              Debugging output level. This is an integer value between 0
              (no additional information strings) and 10 (shows all
              debugging information, even that not understandable to the
              user), default is 2. Deprecated, use -v instead.

       --debugsolver
              Dump data aiding in dependency solver debugging into
              ./debugdata.

       --disableexcludes=[all|main|<repoid>],
       --disableexcludepkgs=[all|main|<repoid>]
          Disable the configuration file excludes. Takes one of the
          following three options:

          • all, disables all configuration file excludes

          • main, disables excludes defined in the [main] section

          • repoid, disables excludes defined for the given repository

       --disable, --set-disabled
              Disable specified repositories (automatically saves). The
              option has to be used together with the config-manager
              command (dnf-plugins-core).

       --disableplugin=<plugin names>
              Disable the listed plugins specified by names or globs.

       --disablerepo=<repoid>
              Disable specific repositories by an id or a glob. This
              option is mutually exclusive with --repo.

       --downloaddir=<path>, --destdir=<path>
              Redirect downloaded packages to provided directory. The
              option has to be used together with the --downloadonly
              command line option, with the download command
              (dnf-plugins-core) or with the system-upgrade command
              (dnf-plugins-extras).

       --downloadonly
              Download the resolved package set without performing any
              rpm transaction (install/upgrade/erase).

       -e <error level>, --errorlevel=<error level>
              Error output level. This is an integer value between 0 (no
              error output) and 10 (shows all error messages), default
              is 3. Deprecated, use -v instead.

       --enable, --set-enabled
              Enable specified repositories (automatically saves). The
              option has to be used together with the config-manager
              command (dnf-plugins-core).

       --enableplugin=<plugin names>
              Enable the listed plugins specified by names or globs.

       --enablerepo=<repoid>
              Enable additional repositories by an id or a glob.

       --enhancement
              Include enhancement relevant packages. Applicable for the
              install, repoquery, updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       -x <package-file-spec>, --exclude=<package-file-spec>
              Exclude packages specified by <package-file-spec> from the
              operation.

       --excludepkgs=<package-file-spec>
              Deprecated option. It was replaced by the --exclude
              option.

       --forcearch=<arch>
              Force the use of an architecture. Any architecture can be
              specified.  However, use of an architecture not supported
              natively by your CPU will require emulation of some kind.
              This is usually through QEMU. The behavior of --forcearch
              can be configured by using the arch and ignorearch
              configuration options with values <arch> and True
              respectively.

       -h, --help, --help-cmd
              Show the help.

       --installroot=<path>
              Specifies an alternative installroot, relative to where
              all packages will be installed. Think of this like doing
              chroot <root> dnf, except using --installroot allows dnf
              to work before the chroot is created. It requires absolute
              path.

       • cachedir, log files, releasever, and gpgkey are taken from or
         stored in the installroot. Gpgkeys are imported into the
         installroot from a path relative to the host which can be
         specified in the repository section of configuration files.

       • configuration file and reposdir are searched inside the
         installroot first. If they are not present, they are taken from
         the host system.  Note:  When a path is specified within a
         command line argument (--config=<config file> in case of
         configuration file and --setopt=reposdir=<reposdir> for
         reposdir) then this path is always relative to the host with no
         exceptions.

       • vars are taken from the host system or installroot according to
         reposdir . When reposdir path is specified within a command
         line argument, vars are taken from the installroot. When
         varsdir paths are specified within a command line argument
         (--setopt=varsdir=<reposdir>) then those path are always
         relative to the host with no exceptions.

       • The pluginpath and pluginconfpath are relative to the host.
          Note: You may also want to use the command-line option
          --releasever=<release> when creating the installroot,
          otherwise the $releasever value is taken from the rpmdb within
          the installroot (and thus it is empty at the time of creation
          and the transaction will fail). If --releasever=/ is used, the
          releasever will be detected from the host (/) system. The new
          installroot path at the time of creation does not contain the
          repository, releasever and dnf.conf files.

          On a modular system you may also want to use the
          --setopt=module_platform_id=<module_platform_name:stream>
          command-line option when creating the installroot, otherwise
          the module_platform_id value will be taken from the
          /etc/os-release file within the installroot (and thus it will
          be empty at the time of creation, the modular dependency could
          be unsatisfied and modules content could be excluded).

          Installroot examples:

          dnf --installroot=<installroot> --releasever=<release> install
          system-release
                 Permanently sets the releasever of the system in the
                 <installroot> directory to <release>.

          dnf --installroot=<installroot> --setopt=reposdir=<path>
          --config /path/dnf.conf upgrade
                 Upgrades packages inside the installroot from a
                 repository described by --setopt using configuration
                 from /path/dnf.conf.

       --newpackage
              Include newpackage relevant packages. Applicable for the
              install, repoquery, updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       --noautoremove
              Disable removal of dependencies that are no longer used.
              It sets clean_requirements_on_remove configuration option
              to False.

       --nobest
              Set best option to False, so that transactions are not
              limited to best candidates only.

       --nodocs
              Do not install documentation. Sets the rpm flag
              ‘RPMTRANS_FLAG_NODOCS’.

       --nogpgcheck
              Skip checking GPG signatures on packages (if RPM policy
              allows).

       --noplugins
              Disable all plugins.

       --obsoletes
              This option has an effect on an install/update, it enables
              dnf’s obsoletes processing logic. For more information see
              the obsoletes option.

              This option also displays capabilities that the package
              obsoletes when used together with the repoquery command.

              Configuration Option: obsoletes

       -q, --quiet
              In combination with a non-interactive command, shows just
              the relevant content. Suppresses messages notifying about
              the current state or actions of DNF.

       -R <minutes>, --randomwait=<minutes>
              Maximum command wait time.

       --refresh
              Set metadata as expired before running the command.

       --releasever=<release>
              Configure DNF as if the distribution release was
              <release>. This can affect cache paths, values in
              configuration files and mirrorlist URLs.

       --repofrompath <repo>,<path/url>
              Specify a repository to add to the repositories for this
              query.  This option can be used multiple times.

       • The repository label is specified by <repo>.

       • The path or url to the repository is specified by <path/url>.
         It is the same path as a baseurl and can be also enriched by
         the repo variables.

       • The configuration for the repository can be adjusted using -‐
         -setopt=<repo>.<option>=<value>.

       • If you want to view only packages from this repository, combine
         this with the --repo=<repo> or --disablerepo="*" switches.

       --repo=<repoid>, --repoid=<repoid>
              Enable just specific repositories by an id or a glob. Can
              be used multiple times with accumulative effect. It is
              basically a shortcut for --disablerepo="*"
              --enablerepo=<repoid> and is mutually exclusive with the
              --disablerepo option.

       --rpmverbosity=<name>
              RPM debug scriptlet output level. Sets the debug level to
              <name> for RPM scriptlets.  For available levels, see the
              rpmverbosity configuration option.

       --sec-severity=<severity>, --secseverity=<severity>
              Includes packages that provide a fix for an issue of the
              specified severity.  Applicable for the install,
              repoquery, updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       --security
              Includes packages that provide a fix for a security issue.
              Applicable for the upgrade command.

       --setopt=<option>=<value>
              Override a configuration option from the configuration
              file. To override configuration options for repositories,
              use repoid.option for the <option>. Values for
              configuration options like excludepkgs, includepkgs,
              installonlypkgs and tsflags are appended to the original
              value, they do not override it. However, specifying an
              empty value (e.g. --setopt=tsflags=) will clear the
              option.

       --skip-broken
              Resolve depsolve problems by removing packages that are
              causing problems from the transaction.  It is an alias for
              the strict configuration option with value False.
              Additionally, with the enable and disable module
              subcommands it allows one to perform an action even in
              case of broken modular dependencies.

       --showduplicates
              Show duplicate packages in repositories. Applicable for
              the list and search commands.

       -v, --verbose
              Verbose operation, show debug messages.

       --version
              Show DNF version and exit.

       -y, --assumeyes
              Automatically answer yes for all questions.

       List options are comma-separated. Command-line options override
       respective settings from configuration files.

COMMANDS         top

       For an explanation of <package-spec>, <package-file-spec> and
       <package-name-spec> see Specifying Packages.

       For an explanation of <provide-spec> see Specifying Provides.

       For an explanation of <group-spec> see Specifying Groups.

       For an explanation of <module-spec> see Specifying Modules.

       For an explanation of <transaction-spec> see Specifying
       Transactions.

   Alias Command
       Command: alias

       Allows the user to define and manage a list of aliases (in the
       form <name=value>), which can be then used as dnf commands to
       abbreviate longer command sequences. For examples on using the
       alias command, see Alias Examples. For examples on the alias
       processing, see Alias Processing Examples.

       To use an alias (name=value), the name must be placed as the
       first “command” (e.g. the first argument that is not an option).
       It is then replaced by its value and the resulting sequence is
       again searched for aliases. The alias processing stops when the
       first found command is not a name of any alias.

       In case the processing would result in an infinite recursion, the
       original arguments are used instead.

       Also, like in shell aliases, if the result starts with a \, the
       alias processing will stop.

       All aliases are defined in configuration files in the
       /etc/dnf/aliases.d/ directory in the [aliases] section, and
       aliases created by the alias command are written to the USER.conf
       file. In case of conflicts, the USER.conf has the highest
       priority, and alphabetical ordering is used for the rest of the
       configuration files.

       Optionally, there is the enabled option in the [main] section
       defaulting to True. This can be set for each file separately in
       the respective file, or globally for all aliases in the
       ALIASES.conf file.

       dnf alias [options] [list] [<name>...]
          List aliases with their final result. The [<alias>...]
          parameter further limits the result to only those aliases
          matching it.

       dnf alias [options] add <name=value>...
          Create new aliases.

       dnf alias [options] delete <name>...
          Delete aliases.

   Alias Examples
       dnf alias list
              Lists all defined aliases.

       dnf alias add rm=remove
              Adds a new command alias called rm which works the same as
              the remove command.

       dnf alias add upgrade="\upgrade --skip-broken
       --disableexcludes=all --obsoletes"
              Adds a new command alias called upgrade which works the
              same as the upgrade command, with additional options. Note
              that the original upgrade command is prefixed with a \ to
              prevent an infinite loop in alias processing.

   Alias Processing Examples
       If there are defined aliases in=install and FORCE="--skip-broken
       --disableexcludes=all":

       • dnf FORCE in will be replaced with dnf --skip-broken
         --disableexcludes=all installdnf in FORCE will be replaced with dnf install FORCE (which
         will fail)

       If there is defined alias in=install:

       • dnf in will be replaced with dnf installdnf --repo updates in will be replaced with dnf --repo updates
         in (which will fail)

   Autoremove Command
       Command: autoremove
       Aliases for explicit NEVRA matching: autoremove-n, autoremove-na, autoremove-nevra

       dnf [options] autoremove
          Removes all “leaf” packages from the system that were
          originally installed as dependencies of user-installed
          packages, but which are no longer required by any such
          package.

       Packages listed in installonlypkgs are never automatically
       removed by this command.

       dnf [options] autoremove <spec>...
          This is an alias for the Remove Command command with
          clean_requirements_on_remove set to True. It removes the
          specified packages from the system along with any packages
          depending on the packages being removed. Each <spec> can be
          either a <package-spec>, which specifies a package directly,
          or a @<group-spec>, which specifies an (environment) group
          which contains it. It also removes any dependencies that are
          no longer needed.

          There are also a few specific autoremove commands
          autoremove-n, autoremove-na and autoremove-nevra that allow
          the specification of an exact argument in the NEVRA
          (name-epoch:version-release.architecture) format.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired
       metadata. See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Check Command
       Command: check

       dnf [options] check [--dependencies] [--duplicates] [--obsoleted]
       [--provides]
          Checks the local packagedb and produces information on any
          problems it finds. You can limit the checks to be performed by
          using the --dependencies, --duplicates, --obsoleted and
          --provides options (the default is to check everything).

   Check-Update Command
       Command: check-update
       Aliases: check-upgrade

       dnf [options] check-update [--changelogs]
       [<package-file-spec>...]
          Non-interactively checks if updates of the specified packages
          are available. If no <package-file-spec> is given, checks
          whether any updates at all are available for your system. DNF
          exit code will be 100 when there are updates available and a
          list of the updates will be printed, 0 if not and 1 if an
          error occurs. If --changelogs option is specified, also
          changelog delta of packages about to be updated is printed.

          Please note that having a specific newer version available for
          an installed package (and reported by check-update) does not
          imply that subsequent dnf upgrade will install it. The
          difference is that dnf upgrade has restrictions (like package
          dependencies being satisfied) to take into account.

          The output is affected by the autocheck_running_kernel
          configuration option.

   Clean Command
       Command: clean

       Performs cleanup of temporary files kept for repositories. This
       includes any such data left behind from disabled or removed
       repositories as well as for different distribution release
       versions.

       dnf clean dbcache
              Removes cache files generated from the repository
              metadata. This forces DNF to regenerate the cache files
              the next time it is run.

       dnf clean expire-cache
              Marks the repository metadata expired. DNF will
              re-validate the cache for each repository the next time it
              is used.

       dnf clean metadata
              Removes repository metadata. Those are the files which DNF
              uses to determine the remote availability of packages.
              Using this option will make DNF download all the metadata
              the next time it is run.

       dnf clean packages
              Removes any cached packages from the system.

       dnf clean all
              Does all of the above.

   Deplist Command
       dnf [options] deplist [<select-options>] [<query-options>]
       [<package-spec>]
              Deprecated alias for dnf repoquery –deplist.

   Distro-Sync Command
       Command: distro-sync
       Aliases: dsync
       Deprecated aliases: distrosync, distribution-synchronization

       dnf distro-sync [<package-spec>...]
              As necessary upgrades, downgrades or keeps selected
              installed packages to match the latest version available
              from any enabled repository. If no package is given, all
              installed packages are considered.

              See also Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Downgrade Command
       Command: downgrade
       Aliases: dg

       dnf [options] downgrade <package-spec>...
              Downgrades the specified packages to the highest
              installable package of all known lower versions if
              possible. When version is given and is lower than version
              of installed package then it downgrades to target version.

   Group Command
       Command: group
       Aliases: grp
       Deprecated aliases: groups, grouplist, groupinstall, groupupdate, groupremove, grouperase, groupinfo

       Groups are virtual collections of packages. DNF keeps track of
       groups that the user selected (“marked”) installed and can
       manipulate the comprising packages with simple commands.

       dnf [options] group [summary] <group-spec>
              Display overview of how many groups are installed and
              available. With a spec, limit the output to the matching
              groups. summary is the default groups subcommand.

       dnf [options] group info <group-spec>
              Display package lists of a group. Shows which packages are
              installed or available from a repository when -v is used.

       dnf [options] group install [--with-optional] <group-spec>...
              Mark the specified group installed and install packages it
              contains. Also include optional packages of the group if
              --with-optional is specified. All mandatory and Default
              packages will be installed whenever possible.  Conditional
              packages are installed if they meet their requirement.  If
              the group is already (partially) installed, the command
              installs the missing packages from the group.  Depending
              on the value of obsoletes configuration option group
              installation takes obsoletes into account.

       dnf [options] group list <group-spec>...
              List all matching groups, either among installed or
              available groups. If nothing is specified, list all known
              groups. --installed and --available options narrow down
              the requested list.  Records are ordered by the
              display_order tag defined in comps.xml file.  Provides a
              list of all hidden groups by using option --hidden.
              Provides group IDs when the -v or --ids options are used.

       dnf [options] group remove <group-spec>...
              Mark the group removed and remove those packages in the
              group from the system which do not belong to another
              installed group and were not installed explicitly by the
              user.

       dnf [options] group upgrade <group-spec>...
              Upgrades the packages from the group and upgrades the
              group itself. The latter comprises of installing packages
              that were added to the group by the distribution and
              removing packages that got removed from the group as far
              as they were not installed explicitly by the user.

       Groups can also be marked installed or removed without physically
       manipulating any packages:

       dnf [options] group mark install <group-spec>...
              Mark the specified group installed. No packages will be
              installed by this command, but the group is then
              considered installed.

       dnf [options] group mark remove <group-spec>...
              Mark the specified group removed. No packages will be
              removed by this command.

       See also Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Help Command
       Command: help

       dnf help [<command>]
              Displays the help text for all commands. If given a
              command name then only displays help for that particular
              command.

   History Command
       Command: history
       Aliases: hist

       The history command allows the user to view what has happened in
       past transactions and act according to this information (assuming
       the history_record configuration option is set).

       dnf history [list] [--reverse] [<spec>...]
              The default history action is listing information about
              given transactions in a table. Each <spec> can be either a
              <transaction-spec>, which specifies a transaction
              directly, or a <transaction-spec>..<transaction-spec>,
              which specifies a range of transactions, or a
              <package-name-spec>, which specifies a transaction by a
              package which it manipulated. When no transaction is
              specified, list all known transactions.

              --reverse
                     The order of history list output is printed in
                     reverse order.

       dnf history info [<spec>...]
              Describe the given transactions. The meaning of <spec> is
              the same as in the History List Command. When no
              transaction is specified, describe what happened during
              the latest transaction.

       dnf history redo <transaction-spec>|<package-file-spec>
              Repeat the specified transaction. Uses the last
              transaction (with the highest ID) if more than one
              transaction for given <package-file-spec> is found. If it
              is not possible to redo some operations due to the current
              state of RPMDB, it will not redo the transaction.

       dnf history replay [--ignore-installed] [--ignore-extras]
       [--skip-unavailable] <filename>
              Replay a transaction stored in file <filename> by History
              Store Command. The replay will perform the exact same
              operations on the packages as in the original transaction
              and will return with an error if case of any differences
              in installed packages or their versions. See also the
              Transaction JSON Format specification of the file format.

              --ignore-installed
                     Don’t check for the installed packages being in the
                     same state as those recorded in the transaction.
                     E.g. in case there is an upgrade foo-1.0 -> foo-2.0
                     stored in the transaction, but there is foo-1.1
                     installed on the target system.

              --ignore-extras
                     Don’t check for extra packages pulled into the
                     transaction on the target system. E.g. the target
                     system may not have some dependency, which was
                     installed on the source system. The replay errors
                     out on this by default, as the transaction would
                     not be the same.

              --skip-unavailable
                     In case some packages stored in the transaction are
                     not available on the target system, skip them
                     instead of erroring out.

       dnf history rollback <transaction-spec>|<package-file-spec>
              Undo all transactions performed after the specified
              transaction. Uses the last transaction (with the highest
              ID) if more than one transaction for given
              <package-file-spec> is found.  If it is not possible to
              undo some transactions due to the current state of RPMDB,
              it will not undo any transaction.

       dnf history store [--output <output-file>] <transaction-spec>
              Store a transaction specified by <transaction-spec>. The
              transaction can later be replayed by the History Replay
              Command.

              Warning: The stored transaction format is considered
              unstable and may change at any time. It will work if the
              same version of dnf is used to store and replay (or
              between versions as long as it stays the same).

              -o <output-file>, --output=<output-file> Store the
              serialized transaction into <output-file. Default is
              transaction.json.

       dnf history undo <transaction-spec>|<package-file-spec>
              Perform the opposite operation to all operations performed
              in the specified transaction.  Uses the last transaction
              (with the highest ID) if more than one transaction for
              given <package-file-spec> is found. If it is not possible
              to undo some operations due to the current state of RPMDB,
              it will not undo the transaction.

       dnf history userinstalled
              Show all installonly packages, packages installed outside
              of DNF and packages not installed as dependency. I.e. it
              lists packages that will stay on the system when
              Autoremove Command or Remove Command along with
              clean_requirements_on_remove configuration option set to
              True is executed. Note the same results can be
              accomplished with dnf repoquery --userinstalled, and the
              repoquery command is more powerful in formatting of the
              output.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired
       metadata, except for the redo, rollback, and undo subcommands.
       See also Metadata Synchronization and Configuration Files
       Replacement Policy.

   Info Command
       Command: info

       dnf [options] info [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists description and summary information about installed
              and available packages.

       The info command limits the displayed packages the same way as
       the list command.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired
       metadata. See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Install Command
       Command: install
       Aliases: in
       Aliases for explicit NEVRA matching: install-n, install-na, install-nevra
       Deprecated aliases: localinstall

       dnf [options] install <spec>...
              Makes sure that the given packages and their dependencies
              are installed on the system. Each <spec> can be either a
              <package-spec>, or a @<module-spec>, or a @<group-spec>.
              See Install Examples.  If a given package or provide
              cannot be (and is not already) installed, the exit code
              will be non-zero.  If the <spec> matches both a @‐
              <module-spec> and a @<group-spec>, only the module is
              installed.

              When <package-spec> to specify the exact version of the
              package is given, DNF will install the desired version, no
              matter which version of the package is already installed.
              The former version of the package will be removed in the
              case of non-installonly package.

              There are also a few specific install commands install-n,
              install-na and install-nevra that allow the specification
              of an exact argument in the NEVRA format.

              See also Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Install Examples
       dnf install tito
              Install the tito package (tito is the package name).

       dnf install ~/Downloads/tito-0.6.2-1.fc22.noarch.rpm
              Install a local rpm file tito-0.6.2-1.fc22.noarch.rpm from
              the ~/Downloads/ directory.

       dnf install tito-0.5.6-1.fc22
              Install the package with a specific version. If the
              package is already installed it will automatically try to
              downgrade or upgrade to the specific version.

       dnf --best install tito
              Install the latest available version of the package. If
              the package is already installed it will try to
              automatically upgrade to the latest version. If the latest
              version of the package cannot be installed, the
              installation will fail.

       dnf install vim
              DNF will automatically recognize that vim is not a package
              name, but will look up and install a package that provides
              vim with all the required dependencies. Note: Package name
              match has precedence over package provides match.

       dnf install
       https://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org//packages/tito/0.6.0/1.fc22/noarch/tito-0.6.0-1.fc22.noarch.rpm 
              Install a package directly from a URL.

       dnf install '@docker'
              Install all default profiles of module ‘docker’ and their
              RPMs. Module streams get enabled accordingly.

       dnf install '@Web Server'
              Install the ‘Web Server’ environmental group.

       dnf install /usr/bin/rpmsign
              Install a package that provides the /usr/bin/rpmsign file.

       dnf -y install tito --setopt=install_weak_deps=False
              Install the tito package (tito is the package name)
              without weak deps. Weak deps are not required for core
              functionality of the package, but they enhance the
              original package (like extended documentation, plugins,
              additional functions, etc.).

       dnf install --advisory=FEDORA-2018-b7b99fe852 \*
              Install all packages that belong to the
              “FEDORA-2018-b7b99fe852” advisory.

   List Command
       Command: list
       Aliases: ls

       Prints lists of packages depending on the packages’ relation to
       the system. A package is installed if it is present in the RPMDB,
       and it is available if it is not installed but is present in a
       repository that DNF knows about.

       The list command also limits the displayed packages according to
       specific criteria, e.g. to only those that update an installed
       package (respecting the repository priority). The exclude option
       in the configuration file can influence the result, but if the -‐
       -disableexcludes command line option is used, it ensures that all
       installed packages will be listed.

       dnf [options] list [--all] [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists all packages, present in the RPMDB, in a repository
              or both.

       dnf [options] list --installed [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists installed packages.

       dnf [options] list --available [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists available packages.

       dnf [options] list --extras [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists extras, that is packages installed on the system
              that are not available in any known repository.

       dnf [options] list --obsoletes [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages installed on the system that are obsoleted
              by packages in any known repository.

       dnf [options] list --recent [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages recently added into the repositories.

       dnf [options] list --upgrades [<package-file-spec>...]
              List upgrades available for the installed packages.

       dnf [options] list --autoremove
              List packages which will be removed by the dnf autoremove
              command.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired
       metadata. See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Makecache Command
       Command: makecache
       Aliases: mc

       dnf [options] makecache
              Downloads and caches metadata for all known repos. Tries
              to avoid downloading whenever possible (e.g. when the
              local metadata hasn’t expired yet or when the metadata
              timestamp hasn’t changed).

       dnf [options] makecache --timer
              Like plain makecache, but instructs DNF to be more
              resource-aware, meaning it will not do anything if running
              on battery power and will terminate immediately if it’s
              too soon after the last successful makecache run (see
              dnf.conf(5), metadata_timer_sync).

   Mark Command
       Command: mark

       dnf mark install <package-spec>...
              Marks the specified packages as installed by user. This
              can be useful if any package was installed as a dependency
              and is desired to stay on the system when Autoremove
              Command or Remove Command along with
              clean_requirements_on_remove configuration option set to
              True is executed.

       dnf mark remove <package-spec>...
              Unmarks the specified packages as installed by user.
              Whenever you as a user don’t need a specific package you
              can mark it for removal. The package stays installed on
              the system but will be removed when Autoremove Command or
              Remove Command along with clean_requirements_on_remove
              configuration option set to True is executed. You should
              use this operation instead of Remove Command if you’re not
              sure whether the package is a requirement of other user
              installed packages on the system.

       dnf mark group <package-spec>...
              Marks the specified packages as installed by group. This
              can be useful if any package was installed as a dependency
              or a user and is desired to be protected and handled as a
              group member like during group remove.

   Module Command
       Command: module

       Modularity overview is available at man page dnf.modularity(7).
       Module subcommands take <module-spec>… arguments that specify
       modules or profiles.

       dnf [options] module install <module-spec>...
              Install module profiles, including their packages.  In
              case no profile was provided, all default profiles get
              installed.  Module streams get enabled accordingly.

              This command cannot be used for switching module streams.
              Use the dnf module switch-to command for that.

       dnf [options] module update <module-spec>...
              Update packages associated with an active module stream,
              optionally restricted to a profile.  If the profile_name
              is provided, only the packages referenced by that profile
              will be updated.

       dnf [options] module switch-to <module-spec>...
              Switch to or enable a module stream, change versions of
              installed packages to versions provided by the new stream,
              and remove packages from the old stream that are no longer
              available. It also updates installed profiles if they are
              available for the new stream. When a profile was provided,
              it installs that profile and does not update any already
              installed profiles.

              This command can be used as a stronger version of the dnf
              module enable command, which not only enables modules, but
              also does a distrosync to all modular packages in the
              enabled modules.

              It can also be used as a stronger version of the dnf
              module install command, but it requires to specify
              profiles that are supposed to be installed, because
              switch-to command does not use default profiles. The
              switch-to command doesn’t only install profiles, it also
              makes a distrosync to all modular packages in the
              installed module.

       dnf [options] module remove <module-spec>...
              Remove installed module profiles, including packages that
              were installed with the dnf module install command. Will
              not remove packages required by other installed module
              profiles or by other user-installed packages.  In case no
              profile was provided, all installed profiles get removed.

       dnf [options] module remove --all <module-spec>...
              Remove installed module profiles, including packages that
              were installed with the dnf module install command.  With
              –all option it additionally removes all packages whose
              names are provided by specified modules. Packages required
              by other installed module profiles and packages whose
              names are also provided by any other module are not
              removed.

       dnf [options] module enable <module-spec>...
              Enable a module stream and make the stream RPMs available
              in the package set.

              Modular dependencies are resolved, dependencies checked
              and also recursively enabled. In case of modular
              dependency issue the operation will be rejected. To
              perform the action anyway please use --skip-broken option.

              This command cannot be used for switching module streams.
              Use the dnf module switch-to command for that.

       dnf [options] module disable <module-name>...
              Disable a module. All related module streams will become
              unavailable.  Consequently, all installed profiles will be
              removed and the module RPMs will become unavailable in the
              package set. In case of modular dependency issue the
              operation will be rejected. To perform the action anyway
              please use --skip-broken option.

       dnf [options] module reset <module-name>...
              Reset module state so it’s no longer enabled or disabled.
              Consequently, all installed profiles will be removed and
              only RPMs from the default stream will be available in the
              package set.

       dnf [options] module provides <package-name-spec>...
              Lists all modular packages matching <package-name-spec>
              from all modules (including disabled), along with the
              modules and streams they belong to.

       dnf [options] module list [--all] [module_name...]
              Lists all module streams, their profiles and states
              (enabled, disabled, default).

       dnf [options] module list --enabled [module_name...]
              Lists module streams that are enabled.

       dnf [options] module list --disabled [module_name...]
              Lists module streams that are disabled.

       dnf [options] module list --installed [module_name...]
              List module streams with installed profiles.

       dnf [options] module info <module-spec>...
              Print detailed information about given module stream.

       dnf [options] module info --profile <module-spec>...
              Print detailed information about given module profiles.

       dnf [options] module repoquery <module-spec>...
              List all available packages belonging to selected modules.

       dnf [options] module repoquery --available <module-spec>...
              List all available packages belonging to selected modules.

       dnf [options] module repoquery --installed <module-spec>...
              List all installed packages with same name like packages
              belonging to selected modules.

   Provides Command
       Command: provides
       Aliases: prov, whatprovides

       dnf [options] provides <provide-spec>
              Finds the packages providing the given <provide-spec>.
              This is useful when one knows a filename and wants to find
              what package (installed or not) provides this file.  The
              <provide-spec> is gradually looked for at following
              locations:

              1. The <provide-spec> is matched with all file provides of
                 any available package:

                    $ dnf provides /usr/bin/gzip
                    gzip-1.9-9.fc29.x86_64 : The GNU data compression program
                    Matched from:
                    Filename    : /usr/bin/gzip

              2. Then all provides of all available packages are
                 searched:

                    $ dnf provides "gzip(x86-64)"
                    gzip-1.9-9.fc29.x86_64 : The GNU data compression program
                    Matched from:
                    Provide     : gzip(x86-64) = 1.9-9.fc29

              3. DNF assumes that the <provide-spec> is a system
                 command, prepends it with /usr/bin/, /usr/sbin/
                 prefixes (one at a time) and does the file provides
                 search again. For legacy reasons (packages that didn’t
                 do UsrMove) also /bin and /sbin prefixes are being
                 searched:

                    $ dnf provides zless
                    gzip-1.9-9.fc29.x86_64 : The GNU data compression program
                    Matched from:
                    Filename    : /usr/bin/zless

              4. If this last step also fails, DNF returns “Error: No
                 Matches found”.

              This command by default does not force a sync of expired
              metadata. See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Reinstall Command
       Command: reinstall
       Aliases: rei

       dnf [options] reinstall <package-spec>...
              Installs the specified packages, fails if some of the
              packages are either not installed or not available (i.e.
              there is no repository where to download the same RPM).

   Remove Command
       Command: remove
       Aliases: rm
       Aliases for explicit NEVRA matching: remove-n, remove-na, remove-nevra
       Deprecated aliases: erase, erase-n, erase-na, erase-nevra

       dnf [options] remove <package-spec>...
              Removes the specified packages from the system along with
              any packages depending on the packages being removed. Each
              <spec> can be either a <package-spec>, which specifies a
              package directly, or a @<group-spec>, which specifies an
              (environment) group which contains it. If
              clean_requirements_on_remove is enabled (the default),
              also removes any dependencies that are no longer needed.

       dnf [options] remove --duplicates
              Removes older versions of duplicate packages. To ensure
              the integrity of the system it reinstalls the newest
              package. In some cases the command cannot resolve
              conflicts. In such cases the dnf shell command with remove
              --duplicates and upgrade dnf-shell sub-commands could
              help.

       dnf [options] remove --oldinstallonly
              Removes old installonly packages, keeping only latest
              versions and version of running kernel.

              There are also a few specific remove commands remove-n,
              remove-na and remove-nevra that allow the specification of
              an exact argument in the NEVRA format.

   Remove Examples
       dnf remove acpi tito
              Remove the acpi and tito packages.

       dnf remove $(dnf repoquery --extras --exclude=tito,acpi)
              Remove packages not present in any repository, but don’t
              remove the tito and acpi packages (they still might be
              removed if they depend on some of the removed packages).

       Remove older versions of duplicated packages (an equivalent of
       yum’s package-cleanup –cleandups):

          dnf remove --duplicates

   Repoinfo Command
       Command: repoinfo

          An alias for the repolist command that provides more detailed
          information like dnf repolist -v.

   Repolist Command
       Command: repolist

       dnf [options] repolist [--enabled|--disabled|--all]
              Depending on the exact command lists enabled, disabled or
              all known repositories. Lists all enabled repositories by
              default. Provides more detailed information when -v option
              is used.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired
       metadata. See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Repoquery Command
       Command: repoquery
       Aliases: rq
       Aliases for explicit NEVRA matching: repoquery-n, repoquery-na, repoquery-nevra

       dnf [options] repoquery [<select-options>] [<query-options>]
       [<package-file-spec>]
              Searches available DNF repositories for selected packages
              and displays the requested information about them. It is
              an equivalent of rpm -q for remote repositories.

       dnf [options] repoquery --querytags
              Provides the list of tags recognized by the --queryformat
              repoquery option.

              There are also a few specific repoquery commands
              repoquery-n, repoquery-na and repoquery-nevra that allow
              the specification of an exact argument in the NEVRA format
              (does not affect arguments of options like –whatprovides
              <arg>, …).

   Select Options
       Together with <package-file-spec>, control what packages are
       displayed in the output. If <package-file-spec> is given, limits
       the resulting set of packages to those matching the
       specification. All packages are considered if no
       <package-file-spec> is specified.

       <package-file-spec>
              Package specification in the NEVRA format
              (name[-[epoch:]version[-release]][.arch]), a package
              provide or a file provide. See Specifying Packages.

       -a, --all
              Query all packages (for rpmquery compatibility, also a
              shorthand for repoquery ‘*’ or repoquery without
              arguments).

       --arch <arch>[,<arch>...], --archlist <arch>[,<arch>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages of selected
              architectures (default is all architectures). In some
              cases the result is affected by the basearch of the
              running system, therefore to run repoquery for an arch
              incompatible with your system use the --forcearch=<arch>
              option to change the basearch.

       --duplicates
              Limit the resulting set to installed duplicate packages
              (i.e. more package versions for the same name and
              architecture). Installonly packages are excluded from this
              set.

       --unneeded
              Limit the resulting set to leaves packages that were
              installed as dependencies so they are no longer needed.
              This switch lists packages that are going to be removed
              after executing the dnf autoremove command.

       --available
              Limit the resulting set to available packages only (set by
              default).

       --disable-modular-filtering
              Disables filtering of modular packages, so that packages
              of inactive module streams are included in the result.

       --extras
              Limit the resulting set to packages that are not present
              in any of the available repositories.

       -f <file>, --file <file>
              Limit the resulting set only to the package that owns
              <file>.

       --installed
              Limit the resulting set to installed packages only. The
              exclude option in the configuration file might influence
              the result, but if the command line option  -‐
              -disableexcludes is used, it ensures that all installed
              packages will be listed.

       --installonly
              Limit the resulting set to installed installonly packages.

       --latest-limit <number>
              Limit the resulting set to <number> of latest packages for
              every package name and architecture.  If <number> is
              negative, skip <number> of latest packages. For a negative
              <number> use the --latest-limit=<number> syntax.

       --recent
              Limit the resulting set to packages that were recently
              edited.

       --repo <repoid>
              Limit the resulting set only to packages from a repository
              identified by <repoid>.  Can be used multiple times with
              accumulative effect.

       --unsatisfied
              Report unsatisfied dependencies among installed packages
              (i.e. missing requires and and existing conflicts).

       --upgrades
              Limit the resulting set to packages that provide an
              upgrade for some already installed package.

       --userinstalled
              Limit the resulting set to packages installed by the user.
              The exclude option in the configuration file might
              influence the result, but if the command line option  -‐
              -disableexcludes is used, it ensures that all installed
              packages will be listed.

       --whatdepends <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that require,
              enhance, recommend, suggest or supplement any of
              <capabilities>.

       --whatconflicts <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that conflict
              with any of <capabilities>.

       --whatenhances <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that enhance any
              of <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to list
              all depending packages.

       --whatobsoletes <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that obsolete any
              of <capabilities>.

       --whatprovides <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that provide any
              of <capabilities>.

       --whatrecommends <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that recommend
              any of <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to
              list all depending packages.

       --whatrequires <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that require any
              of <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to list
              all depending packages.

       --whatsuggests <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that suggest any
              of <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to list
              all depending packages.

       --whatsupplements <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that supplement
              any of <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to
              list all depending packages.

       --alldeps
              This option is stackable with --whatrequires or -‐
              -whatdepends only. Additionally it adds all packages
              requiring the package features to the result set (used as
              default).

       --exactdeps
              This option is stackable with --whatrequires or -‐
              -whatdepends only. Limit the resulting set only to
              packages that require <capability> specified by
              –whatrequires.

       --srpm Operate on the corresponding source RPM.

   Query Options
       Set what information is displayed about each package.

       The following are mutually exclusive, i.e. at most one can be
       specified. If no query option is given, matching packages are
       displayed in the standard NEVRA notation.

       -i, --info
              Show detailed information about the package.

       -l, --list
              Show the list of files in the package.

       -s, --source
              Show the package source RPM name.

       --changelogs
              Print the package changelogs.

       --conflicts
              Display capabilities that the package conflicts with. Same
              as --qf "%{conflicts}.

       --depends
              Display capabilities that the package depends on,
              enhances, recommends, suggests or supplements.

       --enhances
              Display capabilities enhanced by the package. Same as --qf
              "%{enhances}"".

       --location
              Show a location where the package could be downloaded
              from.

       --obsoletes
              Display capabilities that the package obsoletes. Same as
              --qf "%{obsoletes}".

       --provides
              Display capabilities provided by the package. Same as --qf
              "%{provides}".

       --recommends
              Display capabilities recommended by the package. Same as
              --qf "%{recommends}".

       --requires
              Display capabilities that the package depends on. Same as
              --qf "%{requires}".

       --requires-pre
              Display capabilities that the package depends on for
              running a %pre script.  Same as --qf "%{requires-pre}".

       --suggests
              Display capabilities suggested by the package. Same as
              --qf "%{suggests}".

       --supplements
              Display capabilities supplemented by the package. Same as
              --qf "%{supplements}".

       --tree Display a recursive tree of packages with capabilities
              specified by one of the following supplementary options:
              --whatrequires, --requires, --conflicts, --enhances,
              --suggests, --provides, --supplements, --recommends.

       --deplist
              Produce a list of all direct dependencies and what
              packages provide those dependencies for the given
              packages. The result only shows the newest providers
              (which can be changed by using –verbose).

       --nvr  Show found packages in the name-version-release format.
              Same as --qf "%{name}-%{version}-%{release}".

       --nevra
              Show found packages in the
              name-epoch:version-release.architecture format. Same as
              --qf "%{name}-%{epoch}:%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}"
              (default).

       --envra
              Show found packages in the
              epoch:name-version-release.architecture format. Same as
              --qf "%{epoch}:%{name}-%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}"

       --qf <format>, --queryformat <format>
              Custom display format. <format> is the string to output
              for each matched package. Every occurrence of %{<tag>}
              within is replaced by the corresponding attribute of the
              package. The list of recognized tags can be displayed by
              running dnf repoquery --querytags.

       --recursive
              Query packages recursively. Has to be used with
              --whatrequires <REQ> (optionally with --alldeps, but not
              with --exactdeps) or with --requires <REQ> --resolve.

       --resolve
              resolve capabilities to originating package(s).

   Examples
       Display NEVRAs of all available packages matching light*:

          dnf repoquery 'light*'

       Display NEVRAs of all available packages matching name light* and
       architecture noarch (accepts only arguments in the
       “<name>.<arch>” format):

          dnf repoquery-na 'light*.noarch'

       Display requires of all lighttpd packages:

          dnf repoquery --requires lighttpd

       Display packages providing the requires of python packages:

          dnf repoquery --requires python --resolve

       Display source rpm of ligttpd package:

          dnf repoquery --source lighttpd

       Display package name that owns the given file:

          dnf repoquery --file /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf

       Display name, architecture and the containing repository of all
       lighttpd packages:

          dnf repoquery --queryformat '%{name}.%{arch} : %{reponame}' lighttpd

       Display all available packages providing “webserver”:

          dnf repoquery --whatprovides webserver

       Display all available packages providing “webserver” but only for
       “i686” architecture:

          dnf repoquery --whatprovides webserver --arch i686

       Display duplicate packages:

          dnf repoquery --duplicates

       Display source packages that require a <provide> for a build:

          dnf repoquery --disablerepo="*" --enablerepo="*-source" --arch=src --whatrequires <provide>

   Repository-Packages Command
       Command: repository-packages
       Deprecated aliases: repo-pkgs, repo-packages, repository-pkgs

       The repository-packages command allows the user to run commands
       on top of all packages in the repository named <repoid>. However,
       any dependency resolution takes into account packages from all
       enabled repositories. The <package-file-spec> and <package-spec>
       specifications further limit the candidates to only those
       packages matching at least one of them.

       The info subcommand lists description and summary information
       about packages depending on the packages’ relation to the
       repository. The list subcommand just prints lists of those
       packages.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> check-update
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              Non-interactively checks if updates of the specified
              packages in the repository are available. DNF exit code
              will be 100 when there are updates available and a list of
              the updates will be printed.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info [--all]
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List all related packages.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --installed
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages installed from the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --available
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages available in the repository but not
              currently installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --extras
       [<package-file-specs>...]
              List packages installed from the repository that are not
              available in any repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --obsoletes
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages in the repository that obsolete packages
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --recent
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages recently added into the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --upgrades
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages in the repository that upgrade packages
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> install
       [<package-spec>...]
              Install all packages in the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list [--all]
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List all related packages.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --installed
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages installed from the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --available
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages available in the repository but not
              currently installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --extras
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages installed from the repository that are not
              available in any repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --obsoletes
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages in the repository that obsolete packages
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --recent
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages recently added into the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --upgrades
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages in the repository that upgrade packages
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> move-to
       [<package-spec>...]
              Reinstall all those packages that are available in the
              repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> reinstall
       [<package-spec>...]
              Run the reinstall-old subcommand. If it fails, run the
              move-to subcommand.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> reinstall-old
       [<package-spec>...]
              Reinstall all those packages that were installed from the
              repository and simultaneously are available in the
              repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> remove
       [<package-spec>...]
              Remove all packages installed from the repository along
              with any packages depending on the packages being removed.
              If clean_requirements_on_remove is enabled (the default)
              also removes any dependencies that are no longer needed.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> remove-or-distro-sync
       [<package-spec>...]
              Select all packages installed from the repository.
              Upgrade, downgrade or keep those of them that are
              available in another repository to match the latest
              version available there and remove the others along with
              any packages depending on the packages being removed. If
              clean_requirements_on_remove is enabled (the default) also
              removes any dependencies that are no longer needed.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> remove-or-reinstall
       [<package-spec>...]
              Select all packages installed from the repository.
              Reinstall those of them that are available in another
              repository and remove the others along with any packages
              depending on the packages being removed. If
              clean_requirements_on_remove is enabled (the default) also
              removes any dependencies that are no longer needed.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> upgrade
       [<package-spec>...]
              Update all packages to the highest resolvable version
              available in the repository.  When versions are specified
              in the <package-spec>, update to these versions.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> upgrade-to
       [<package-specs>...]
              A deprecated alias for the upgrade subcommand.

   Search Command
       Command: search
       Aliases: se

       dnf [options] search [--all] <keywords>...
              Search package metadata for keywords. Keywords are matched
              as case-insensitive substrings, globbing is supported.  By
              default lists packages that match all requested keys (AND
              operation). Keys are searched in package names and
              summaries.  If the “–all” option is used, lists packages
              that match at least one of the keys (an OR operation).  In
              addition the keys are searched in the package descriptions
              and URLs.  The result is sorted from the most relevant
              results to the least.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired
       metadata. See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Shell Command
       Command: shell
       Aliases: sh

       dnf [options] shell [filename]
              Open an interactive shell for conducting multiple commands
              during a single execution of DNF. These commands can be
              issued manually or passed to DNF from a file. The commands
              are much the same as the normal DNF command line options.
              There are a few additional commands documented below.

              config [conf-option] [value]

                     • Set a configuration option to a requested value.
                       If no value is given it prints the current value.

              repo [list|enable|disable] [repo-id]

                     • list: list repositories and their status

                     • enable: enable repository

                     • disable: disable repository

              transaction [list|reset|solve|run]

                     • list: resolve and list the content of the
                       transaction

                     • reset: reset the transaction

                     • run: resolve and run the transaction

              Note that all local packages must be used in the first
              shell transaction subcommand (e.g.  install
              /tmp/nodejs-1-1.x86_64.rpm /tmp/acpi-1-1.noarch.rpm)
              otherwise an error will occur.  Any disable, enable, and
              reset module operations (e.g. module enable nodejs) must
              also be performed before any other shell transaction
              subcommand is used.

   Swap Command
       Command: swap

       dnf [options] swap <remove-spec> <install-spec>
          Remove spec and install spec in one transaction. Each <spec>
          can be either a <package-spec>, which specifies a package
          directly, or a @<group-spec>, which specifies an (environment)
          group which contains it. Automatic conflict solving is
          provided in DNF by the –allowerasing option that provides the
          functionality of the swap command automatically.

   Updateinfo Command
       Command: updateinfo
       Deprecated aliases: list-updateinfo, list-security, list-sec, info-updateinfo, info-security, info-sec, summary-updateinfo

       dnf [options] updateinfo [--summary|--list|--info]
       [<availability>] [<spec>...]
              Display information about update advisories.

              Depending on the output type, DNF displays just counts of
              advisory types (omitted or --summary), list of advisories
              (--list) or detailed information (--info). The -v option
              extends the output. When used with --info, the information
              is even more detailed. When used with --list, an
              additional column with date of the last advisory update is
              added.

              <availability> specifies whether advisories about newer
              versions of installed packages (omitted or --available),
              advisories about equal and older versions of installed
              packages (--installed), advisories about newer versions of
              those installed packages for which a newer version is
              available (--updates) or advisories about any versions of
              installed packages (--all) are taken into account. Most of
              the time, --available and --updates displays the same
              output. The outputs differ only in the cases when an
              advisory refers to a newer version but there is no enabled
              repository which contains any newer version.

              Note, that --available tooks only the latest installed
              versions of packages into account. In case of the kernel
              packages (when multiple version could be installed
              simultaneously) also packages of the currently running
              version of kernel are added.

              To print only advisories referencing a CVE or a bugzilla
              use --with-cve or --with-bz options. When these switches
              are used also the output of the --list is altered - the ID
              of the CVE or the bugzilla is printed instead of the one
              of the advisory.

              If given and if neither ID, type (bugfix, enhancement,
              security/sec) nor a package name of an advisory matches
              <spec>, the advisory is not taken into account. The
              matching is case-sensitive and in the case of advisory IDs
              and package names, globbing is supported.

              Output of the --summary option is affected by the
              autocheck_running_kernel configuration option.

   Upgrade Command
       Command: upgrade
       Aliases: up
       Deprecated aliases: update, upgrade-to, update-to, localupdate

       dnf [options] upgrade
              Updates each package to the latest version that is both
              available and resolvable.

       dnf [options] upgrade <package-spec>...
              Updates each specified package to the latest available
              version. Updates dependencies as necessary. When versions
              are specified in the <package-spec>, update to these
              versions.

       dnf [options] upgrade @<spec>...
              Alias for the dnf module update command.

       If the main obsoletes configure option is true or the --obsoletes
       flag is present, dnf will include package obsoletes in its
       calculations.  For more information see obsoletes.

       See also Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Upgrade-Minimal Command
       Command: upgrade-minimal
       Aliases: up-min
       Deprecated aliases: update-minimal

       dnf [options] upgrade-minimal
              Updates each package to the latest available version that
              provides a bugfix, enhancement or a fix for a security
              issue (security).

       dnf [options] upgrade-minimal <package-spec>...
              Updates each specified package to the latest available
              version that provides a bugfix, enhancement or a fix for
              security issue (security). Updates dependencies as
              necessary.

SPECIFYING PACKAGES         top

       Many commands take a <package-spec> parameter that selects a
       package for the operation. The <package-spec> argument is matched
       against package NEVRAs, provides and file provides.

       <package-file-spec> is similar to <package-spec>, except provides
       matching is not performed. Therefore, <package-file-spec> is
       matched only against NEVRAs and file provides.

       <package-name-spec> is matched against NEVRAs only.

   Globs
       Package specification supports the same glob pattern matching
       that shell does, in all three above mentioned packages it matches
       against (NEVRAs, provides and file provides).

       The following patterns are supported:

       *      Matches any number of characters.

       ?      Matches any single character.

       []     Matches any one of the enclosed characters. A pair of
              characters separated by a hyphen denotes a range
              expression; any character that falls between those two
              characters, inclusive, is matched. If the first character
              following the [ is a ! or a ^ then any character not
              enclosed is matched.

       {}     Matches any of the comma separated list of enclosed
              strings.

   NEVRA Matching
       When matching against NEVRAs, partial matching is supported. DNF
       tries to match the spec against the following list of NEVRA forms
       (in decreasing order of priority):

       • name-[epoch:]version-release.archname.archnamename-[epoch:]version-releasename-[epoch:]version

       Note that name can in general contain dashes (e.g.
       package-with-dashes).

       The first form that matches any packages is used and the
       remaining forms are not tried. If none of the forms match any
       packages, an attempt is made to match the <package-spec> against
       full package NEVRAs. This is only relevant if globs are present
       in the <package-spec>.

       <package-spec> matches NEVRAs the same way <package-name-spec>
       does, but in case matching NEVRAs fails, it attempts to match
       against provides and file provides of packages as well.

       You can specify globs as part of any of the five NEVRA
       components. You can also specify a glob pattern to match over
       multiple NEVRA components (in other words, to match across the
       NEVRA separators). In that case, however, you need to write the
       spec to match against full package NEVRAs, as it is not possible
       to split such spec into NEVRA forms.

   Specifying NEVRA Matching Explicitly
       Some commands (autoremove, install, remove and repoquery) also
       have aliases with suffixes -n, -na and -nevra that allow to
       explicitly specify how to parse the arguments:

       • Command install-n only matches against name.

       • Command install-na only matches against name.arch.

       • Command install-nevra only matches against
         name-[epoch:]version-release.arch.

SPECIFYING PROVIDES         top

       <provide-spec> in command descriptions means the command operates
       on packages providing the given spec. This can either be an
       explicit provide, an implicit provide (i.e. name of the package)
       or a file provide. The selection is case-sensitive and globbing
       is supported.

SPECIFYING GROUPS         top

       <group-spec> allows one to select (environment) groups a
       particular operation should work on. It is a case insensitive
       string (supporting globbing characters) that is matched against a
       group’s ID, canonical name and name translated into the current
       LC_MESSAGES locale (if possible).

SPECIFYING MODULES         top

       <module-spec> allows one to select modules or profiles a
       particular operation should work on.

       It is in the form of NAME:STREAM:VERSION:CONTEXT:ARCH/PROFILE and
       supported partial forms are the following:

       • NAMENAME:STREAMNAME:STREAM:VERSIONNAME:STREAM:VERSION:CONTEXT

       • all above combinations with ::ARCH (e.g. NAME::ARCH)

       • NAME:STREAM:VERSION:CONTEXT:ARCH

       • all above combinations with /PROFILE (e.g. NAME/PROFILE)

       In case stream is not specified, the enabled or the default
       stream is used, in this order. In case profile is not specified,
       the system default profile or the ‘default’ profile is used.

SPECIFYING TRANSACTIONS         top

       <transaction-spec> can be in one of several forms. If it is an
       integer, it specifies a transaction ID. Specifying last is the
       same as specifying the ID of the most recent transaction. The
       last form is last-<offset>, where <offset> is a positive integer.
       It specifies offset-th transaction preceding the most recent
       transaction.

PACKAGE FILTERING         top

       Package filtering filters packages out from the available package
       set, making them invisible to most of dnf commands. They cannot
       be used in a transaction. Packages can be filtered out by either
       Exclude Filtering or Modular Filtering.

   Exclude Filtering
       Exclude Filtering is a mechanism used by a user or by a DNF
       plugin to modify the set of available packages. Exclude Filtering
       can be modified by either includepkgs or excludepkgs
       configuration options in configuration files. The -‐
       -disableexcludes command line option can be used to override
       excludes from configuration files. In addition to user-configured
       excludes, plugins can also extend the set of excluded packages.
       To disable excludes from a DNF plugin you can use the -‐
       -disableplugin command line option.

       To disable all excludes for e.g. the install command you can use
       the following combination of command line options:

       dnf --disableexcludes=all --disableplugin="*" install bash

   Modular Filtering
       Please see the modularity documentation for details on how
       Modular Filtering works.

       With modularity, only RPM packages from active module streams are
       included in the available package set. RPM packages from inactive
       module streams, as well as non-modular packages with the same
       name or provides as a package from an active module stream, are
       filtered out. Modular filtering is not applied to packages added
       from the command line, installed packages, or packages from
       repositories with module_hotfixes=true in their .repo file.

       Disabling of modular filtering is not recommended, because it
       could cause the system to get into a broken state. To disable
       modular filtering for a particular repository, specify
       module_hotfixes=true in the .repo file or use
       --setopt=<repo_id>.module_hotfixes=true.

       To discover the module which contains an excluded package use dnf
       module provides.

METADATA SYNCHRONIZATION         top

       Correct operation of DNF depends on having access to up-to-date
       data from all enabled repositories but contacting remote mirrors
       on every operation considerably slows it down and costs bandwidth
       for both the client and the repository provider. The
       metadata_expire (see dnf.conf(5)) repository configuration option
       is used by DNF to determine whether a particular local copy of
       repository data is due to be re-synced. It is crucial that the
       repository providers set the option well, namely to a value where
       it is guaranteed that if particular metadata was available in
       time T on the server, then all packages it references will still
       be available for download from the server in time T +
       metadata_expire.

       To further reduce the bandwidth load, some of the commands where
       having up-to-date metadata is not critical (e.g. the list
       command) do not look at whether a repository is expired and
       whenever any version of it is locally available to the user’s
       account, it will be used. For non-root use, see also the
       --cacheonly switch. Note that in all situations the user can
       force synchronization of all enabled repositories with the
       --refresh switch.

CONFIGURATION FILES REPLACEMENT POLICY         top

       The updated packages could replace the old modified configuration
       files with the new ones or keep the older files. Neither of the
       files are actually replaced.  To the conflicting ones RPM gives
       additional suffix to the origin name. Which file should maintain
       the true name after transaction is not controlled by package
       manager but is specified by each package itself, following
       packaging guideline.

FILES         top

       Cache Files
              /var/cache/dnf

       Main Configuration
              /etc/dnf/dnf.conf

       Repository
              /etc/yum.repos.d/

SEE ALSO         top

dnf.conf(5), DNF Configuration Reference

       • dnf-PLUGIN(8) for documentation on DNF plugins.

       • dnf.modularity(7), Modularity overview.

       • dnf-transaction-json(5), Stored Transaction JSON Format
         Specification.

       • DNF project homepage (‐
         https://github.com/rpm-software-management/dnf/ )

       • How to report a bug (‐
         https://github.com/rpm-software-management/dnf/wiki/Bug-Reporting )

       • YUM project homepage (http://yum.baseurl.org/ )

AUTHOR         top

       See AUTHORS in DNF source distribution.

COPYRIGHT         top

       2012-2020, Red Hat, Licensed under GPLv2+

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the dnf (DNF Package Manager) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://github.com/rpm-software-management/dnf⟩.  It is not known
       how to report bugs for this man page; if you know, please send a
       mail to man-pages@man7.org.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/rpm-software-management/dnf.git⟩ on
       2020-12-18.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit
       that was found in the repository was 2020-12-16.)  If you
       discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page,
       or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for
       the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original
       manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

4.5.2                         Dec 18, 2020                        YUM(8)

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