SYSTEMD-TMPFILES(8) systemd-tmpfiles SYSTEMD-TMPFILES(8)
systemd-tmpfiles, systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service, systemd- tmpfiles-setup-dev.service, systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service, systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer - Creates, deletes and cleans up volatile and temporary files and directories
systemd-tmpfiles [OPTIONS...] [CONFIGFILE...] System units: systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer User units: systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer
systemd-tmpfiles creates, deletes, and cleans up volatile and temporary files and directories, based on the configuration file format and location specified in tmpfiles.d(5). If invoked with no arguments, it applies all directives from all configuration files. When invoked with --replace=PATH, arguments specified on the command line are used instead of the configuration file PATH. Otherwise, if one or more absolute filenames are passed on the command line, only the directives in these files are applied. If "-" is specified instead of a filename, directives are read from standard input. If only the basename of a configuration file is specified, all configuration directories as specified in tmpfiles.d(5) are searched for a matching file and the file found that has the highest priority is executed. System services (systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service, systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service, systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service) invoke systemd-tmpfiles to create system files and to perform system wide cleanup. Those services read administrator-controlled configuration files in tmpfiles.d/ directories. User services (systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service, systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service) also invoke systemd-tmpfiles, but it reads a separate set of files, which includes user-controlled files under ~/.config/user-tmpfiles.d/ and ~/.local/share/user-tmpfiles.d/, and administrator-controlled files under /usr/share/user-tmpfiles.d/. Users may use this to create and clean up files under their control, but the system instance performs global cleanup and is not influenced by user configuration. Note that this means a time-based cleanup configured in the system instance, such as the one typically configured for /tmp/, will thus also affect files created by the user instance if they are placed in /tmp/, even if the user instance's time-based cleanup is turned off.
The following options are understood: --create If this option is passed, all files and directories marked with f, F, w, d, D, v, p, L, c, b, m in the configuration files are created or written to. Files and directories marked with z, Z, t, T, a, and A have their ownership, access mode and security labels set. --clean If this option is passed, all files and directories with an age parameter configured will be cleaned up. --remove If this option is passed, the contents of directories marked with D or R, and files or directories themselves marked with r or R are removed. --user Execute "user" configuration, i.e. tmpfiles.d files in user configuration directories. --boot Also execute lines with an exclamation mark. --prefix=path Only apply rules with paths that start with the specified prefix. This option can be specified multiple times. --exclude-prefix=path Ignore rules with paths that start with the specified prefix. This option can be specified multiple times. -E A shortcut for "--exclude-prefix=/dev --exclude-prefix=/proc --exclude-prefix=/run --exclude-prefix=/sys", i.e. exclude the hierarchies typically backed by virtual or memory file systems. This is useful in combination with --root=, if the specified directory tree contains an OS tree without these virtual/memory file systems mounted in, as it is typically not desirable to create any files and directories below these subdirectories if they are supposed to be overmounted during runtime. --root=root Takes a directory path as an argument. All paths will be prefixed with the given alternate root path, including config search paths. When this option is used, the libc Name Service Switch (NSS) is bypassed for resolving users and groups. Instead the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group inside the alternate root are read directly. This means that users/groups not listed in these files will not be resolved, i.e. LDAP NIS and other complex databases are not considered. Consider combining this with -E to ensure the invocation does not create files or directories below mount points in the OS image operated on that are typically overmounted during runtime. --image=image Takes a path to a disk image file or block device node. If specified all operations are applied to file system in the indicated disk image. This is similar to --root= but operates on file systems stored in disk images or block devices. The disk image should either contain just a file system or a set of file systems within a GPT partition table, following the Discoverable Partitions Specification. For further information on supported disk images, see systemd-nspawn(1)'s switch of the same name. Implies -E. --replace=PATH When this option is given, one ore more positional arguments must be specified. All configuration files found in the directories listed in tmpfiles.d(5) will be read, and the configuration given on the command line will be handled instead of and with the same priority as the configuration file PATH. This option is intended to be used when package installation scripts are running and files belonging to that package are not yet available on disk, so their contents must be given on the command line, but the admin configuration might already exist and should be given higher priority. --cat-config Copy the contents of config files to standard output. Before each file, the filename is printed as a comment. --no-pager Do not pipe output into a pager. -h, --help Print a short help text and exit. --version Print a short version string and exit. It is possible to combine --create, --clean, and --remove in one invocation (in which case removal and cleanup are executed before creation of new files). For example, during boot the following command line is executed to ensure that all temporary and volatile directories are removed and created according to the configuration file: systemd-tmpfiles --remove --create
systemd-tmpfiles tries to avoid changing the access and modification times on the directories it accesses, which requires CAP_FOWNER privileges. When running as non-root, directories which are checked for files to clean up will have their access time bumped, which might prevent their cleanup.
On success, 0 is returned. If the configuration was syntactically invalid (syntax errors, missing arguments, ...), so some lines had to be ignored, but no other errors occurred, 65 is returned (EX_DATAERR from /usr/include/sysexits.h). If the configuration was syntactically valid, but could not be executed (lack of permissions, creation of files in missing directories, invalid contents when writing to /sys/ values, ...), 73 is returned (EX_CANTCREAT from /usr/include/sysexits.h). Otherwise, 1 is returned (EXIT_FAILURE from /usr/include/stdlib.h).
1. Discoverable Partitions Specification https://systemd.io/DISCOVERABLE_PARTITIONS
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Pages that refer to this page: coredump.conf(5), systemd.exec(5), tmpfiles.d(5), systemd.directives(7), systemd.index(7), systemd-coredump(8)