swapon(8) — Linux manual page


SWAPON(8)                 System Administration                SWAPON(8)

NAME         top

       swapon, swapoff - enable/disable devices and files for paging and

SYNOPSIS         top

       swapon [options] [specialfile...]
       swapoff [-va] [specialfile...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       swapon is used to specify devices on which paging and swapping
       are to take place.

       The device or file used is given by the specialfile parameter.
       It may be of the form -L label or -U uuid to indicate a device by
       label or uuid.

       Calls to swapon normally occur in the system boot scripts making
       all swap devices available, so that the paging and swapping
       activity is interleaved across several devices and files.

       swapoff disables swapping on the specified devices and files.
       When the -a flag is given, swapping is disabled on all known swap
       devices and files (as found in /proc/swaps or /etc/fstab).

OPTIONS         top

       -a, --all
              All devices marked as ``swap'' in /etc/fstab are made
              available, except for those with the ``noauto'' option.
              Devices that are already being used as swap are silently

       -d, --discard[=policy]
              Enable swap discards, if the swap backing device supports
              the discard or trim operation.  This may improve
              performance on some Solid State Devices, but often it does
              not.  The option allows one to select between two
              available swap discard policies: --discard=once to perform
              a single-time discard operation for the whole swap area at
              swapon; or --discard=pages to asynchronously discard freed
              swap pages before they are available for reuse.  If no
              policy is selected, the default behavior is to enable both
              discard types.  The /etc/fstab mount options discard,
              discard=once, or discard=pages may also be used to enable
              discard flags.

       -e, --ifexists
              Silently skip devices that do not exist.  The /etc/fstab
              mount option nofail may also be used to skip non-existing

       -f, --fixpgsz
              Reinitialize (exec mkswap) the swap space if its page size
              does not match that of the current running kernel.
              mkswap(8) initializes the whole device and does not check
              for bad blocks.

       -h, --help
              Display help text and exit.

       -L label
              Use the partition that has the specified label.  (For
              this, access to /proc/partitions is needed.)

       -o, --options opts
              Specify swap options by an fstab-compatible comma-
              separated string.  For example:

                     swapon -o pri=1,discard=pages,nofail /dev/sda2

              The opts string is evaluated last and overrides all other
              command line options.

       -p, --priority priority
              Specify the priority of the swap device.  priority is a
              value between -1 and 32767.  Higher numbers indicate
              higher priority.  See swapon(2) for a full description of
              swap priorities.  Add pri=value to the option field of
              /etc/fstab for use with swapon -a.  When no priority is
              defined, it defaults to -1.

       -s, --summary
              Display swap usage summary by device.  Equivalent to "cat
              /proc/swaps".  This output format is DEPRECATED in favour
              of --show that provides better control on output data.

              Display a definable table of swap areas.  See the --help
              output for a list of available columns.

              Output all available columns.

              Do not print headings when displaying --show output.

       --raw  Display --show output without aligning table columns.

              Display swap size in bytes in --show output instead of in
              user-friendly units.

       -U uuid
              Use the partition that has the specified uuid.

       -v, --verbose
              Be verbose.

       -V, --version
              Display version information and exit.

EXIT STATUS         top

       swapoff has the following exit status values since v2.36:

       0      success

       2      system has insufficient memory to stop swapping (OOM)

       4      swapoff syscall failed for another reason

       8      non-swapoff syscall system error (out of memory, ...)

       16     usage or syntax error

       32     all swapoff failed on --all

       64     some swapoff succeeded on --all

              The command swapoff --all returns 0 (all succeeded), 32
              (all failed), or 64 (some failed, some succeeded).

              The old versions before v2.36 has no documented exit
              status, 0 means success in all versions.

ENVIRONMENT         top

              enables libmount debug output.

              enables libblkid debug output.

FILES         top

       /dev/sd??  standard paging devices
       /etc/fstab ascii filesystem description table

NOTES         top

   Files with holes
       The swap file implementation in the kernel expects to be able to
       write to the file directly, without the assistance of the
       filesystem.  This is a problem on files with holes or on copy-on-
       write files on filesystems like Btrfs.

       Commands like cp(1) or truncate(1) create files with holes.
       These files will be rejected by swapon.

       Preallocated files created by fallocate(1) may be interpreted as
       files with holes too depending of the filesystem.  Preallocated
       swap files are supported on XFS since Linux 4.18.

       The most portable solution to create a swap file is to use dd(1)
       and /dev/zero.

       Swap files on Btrfs are supported since Linux 5.0 on files with
       nocow attribute.  See the btrfs(5) manual page for more details.

       Swap over NFS may not work.

       swapon automatically detects and rewrites a swap space signature
       with old software suspend data (e.g., S1SUSPEND, S2SUSPEND, ...).
       The problem is that if we don't do it, then we get data
       corruption the next time an attempt at unsuspending is made.

HISTORY         top

       The swapon command appeared in 4.0BSD.

SEE ALSO         top

       swapoff(2), swapon(2), fstab(5), init(8), fallocate(1),
       mkswap(8), mount(8), rc(8)

AVAILABILITY         top

       The swapon command is part of the util-linux package and is
       available from

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the util-linux (a random collection of Linux
       utilities) project.  Information about the project can be found
       at ⟨https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/⟩.  If you
       have a bug report for this manual page, send it to
       util-linux@vger.kernel.org.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/utils/util-linux/util-linux.git⟩ on
       2021-03-21.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit
       that was found in the repository was 2021-03-19.)  If you
       discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page,
       or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for
       the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original
       manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

util-linux                    October 2014                     SWAPON(8)

Pages that refer to this page: swapon(2)fstab(5)org.freedesktop.systemd1(5)proc(5)systemd.swap(5)mkswap(8)mount(8)swaplabel(8)