user-runtime-dir.service(5) — Linux manual page


USER@.SERVICE(5)                user@.service               USER@.SERVICE(5)

NAME         top

       user@.service, user-runtime-dir@.service, systemd-user-runtime-dir -
       System units to start the user manager

SYNOPSIS         top





DESCRIPTION         top

       The systemd(1) system manager (PID 1) starts user manager instances
       as user@UID.service, with the user's numerical UID used as the
       instance identifier. These instances use the same executable as the
       system manager, but running in a mode where it starts a different set
       of units. Each systemd --user instance manages a hierarchy of units
       specific to that user. See systemd(1) for a discussion of units and
       systemd.special(7) for a list of units that form the basis of the
       unit hierarchies of system and user units.

       user@UID.service is accompanied by the system unit
       user-runtime-dir@UID.service, which creates the user's runtime
       directory /run/user/UID, and then removes it when this unit is
       stopped.  user-runtime-dir@UID.service executes the
       systemd-user-runtime-dir binary to do the actual work.

       User processes may be started by the user@.service instance, in which
       case they will be part of that unit in the system hierarchy. They may
       also be started elsewhere, for example by sshd(8) or a display
       manager like gdm, in which case they form a .scope unit (see
       systemd.scope(5)). Both user@UID.service and the scope units are
       collected under the user-UID.slice.

       Individual user-UID.slice slices are collected under user.slice, see


       Options that control resources available to logged-in users can be
       configured at a few different levels. As described in the previous
       section, user.slice contains processes of all users, so any resource
       limits on that slice apply to all users together. The usual way to
       configure them would be through drop-ins, e.g.

       The processes of a single user are collected under user-UID.slice.
       Resource limits for that user can be configured through drop-ins for
       that unit, e.g.
       /etc/systemd/system/user-1000.slice.d/resources.conf. If the limits
       should apply to all users instead, they may be configured through
       drop-ins for the truncated unit name, user-.slice. For example,
       configuration in /etc/systemd/system/user-.slice.d/resources.conf is
       included in all user-UID.slice units, see systemd.unit(5) for a
       discussion of the drop-in mechanism.

       When a user logs in and a .scope unit is created for the session (see
       previous section), the creation of the scope may be managed through
       pam_systemd(8). This PAM module communicates with systemd-logind(8)
       to create the session scope and provide access to hardware resources.
       Resource limits for the scope may be configured through the PAM
       module configuration, see pam_systemd(8). Configuring them through
       the normal unit configuration is also possible, but since the name of
       the slice unit is generally unpredictable, this is less useful.

       In general any resources that apply to units may be set for
       user@UID.service and the slice units discussed above, see
       systemd.resource-control(5) for an overview.

EXAMPLES         top

       Example 1. Hierarchy of control groups with two logged in users

           $ systemd-cgls
           Control group /:
           │ ├─user-1000.slice
           │ │ ├─user@1000.service
           │ │ │ ├─pulseaudio.service
           │ │ │ │ └─2386 /usr/bin/pulseaudio --daemonize=no
           │ │ │ └─gnome-terminal-server.service
           │ │ │   └─init.scope
           │ │ │     ├─ 4127 /usr/libexec/gnome-terminal-server
           │ │ │     └─ 4198 zsh
           │ │ ...
           │ │ └─session-4.scope
           │ │   ├─ 1264 gdm-session-worker [pam/gdm-password]
           │ │   ├─ 2339 /usr/bin/gnome-shell
           │ │   ...
           │ │ ├─session-19.scope
           │ │   ├─6497 sshd: zbyszek [priv]
           │ │   ├─6502 sshd: zbyszek@pts/6
           │ │   ├─6509 -zsh
           │ │   └─6602 systemd-cgls --no-pager
           │ ...
           │ └─user-1001.slice
           │   ├─session-20.scope
           │   │ ├─6675 sshd: guest [priv]
           │   │ ├─6708 sshd: guest@pts/6
           │   │ └─6717 -bash
           │   └─user@1001.service
           │     ├─init.scope
           │     │ ├─6680 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --user
           │     │ └─6688 (sd-pam)
           │     └─sleep.service
           │       └─6706 /usr/bin/sleep 30

       User with UID 1000 is logged in using gdm (session-4.scope) and
       ssh(1) (session-19.scope), and also has a user manager instance
       running (user@1000.service). User with UID 1001 is logged in using
       ssh (session-20.scope) and also has a user manager instance running
       (user@1001.service). Those are all (leaf) system units, and form part
       of the slice hierarchy, with user-1000.slice and user-1001.slice
       below user.slice. User units are visible below the user@.service
       instances (pulseaudio.service, gnome-terminal-server.service,
       init.scope, sleep.service).

       Example 2. Default user resource limits

           $ systemctl cat user-1000.slice
           # /usr/lib/systemd/system/user-.slice.d/10-defaults.conf
           # ...
           Description=User Slice of UID %j


       The user-UID.slice units by default don't have a unit file. The
       resource limits are set through a drop-in, which can be easily
       replaced or extended following standard drop-in mechanisms discussed
       in the first section.

SEE ALSO         top

       systemd(1), systemd.service(5), systemd.slice(5),
       systemd.resource-control(5), systemd.exec(5), systemd.special(7),

COLOPHON         top

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systemd 247                                                 USER@.SERVICE(5)