gettext(3) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | ERRORS | BUGS | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

GETTEXT(3)              Library Functions Manual              GETTEXT(3)

NAME         top

       gettext, dgettext, dcgettext - translate message

SYNOPSIS         top

       #include <libintl.h>

       char * gettext (const char * msgid);
       char * dgettext (const char * domainname, const char * msgid);
       char * dcgettext (const char * domainname, const char * msgid,
                         int category);

DESCRIPTION         top

       The gettext, dgettext and dcgettext functions attempt to
       translate a text string into the user's native language, by
       looking up the translation in a message catalog.

       The msgid argument identifies the message to be translated. By
       convention, it is the English version of the message, with non-
       ASCII characters replaced by ASCII approximations. This choice
       allows the translators to work with message catalogs, called PO
       files, that contain both the English and the translated versions
       of each message, and can be installed using the msgfmt utility.

       A message domain is a set of translatable msgid messages.
       Usually, every software package has its own message domain. The
       domain name is used to determine the message catalog where the
       translation is looked up; it must be a non-empty string. For the
       gettext function, it is specified through a preceding textdomain
       call. For the dgettext and dcgettext functions, it is passed as
       the domainname argument; if this argument is NULL, the domain
       name specified through a preceding textdomain call is used
       instead.

       Translation lookup operates in the context of the current locale.
       For the gettext and dgettext functions, the LC_MESSAGES locale
       facet is used. It is determined by a preceding call to the
       setlocale function. setlocale(LC_ALL,"") initializes the
       LC_MESSAGES locale based on the first nonempty value of the three
       environment variables LC_ALL, LC_MESSAGES, LANG; see
       setlocale(3). For the dcgettext function, the locale facet is
       determined by the category argument, which should be one of the
       LC_xxx constants defined in the <locale.h> header, excluding
       LC_ALL. In both cases, the functions also use the LC_CTYPE locale
       facet in order to convert the translated message from the
       translator's codeset to the current locale's codeset, unless
       overridden by a prior call to the bind_textdomain_codeset
       function.

       The message catalog used by the functions is at the pathname
       dirname/locale/category/domainname.mo. Here dirname is the
       directory specified through bindtextdomain. Its default is system
       and configuration dependent; typically it is prefix/share/locale,
       where prefix is the installation prefix of the package. locale is
       the name of the current locale facet; the GNU implementation also
       tries generalizations, such as the language name without the
       territory name. category is LC_MESSAGES for the gettext and
       dgettext functions, or the argument passed to the dcgettext
       function.

       If the LANGUAGE environment variable is set to a nonempty value,
       and the locale is not the "C" locale, the value of LANGUAGE is
       assumed to contain a colon separated list of locale names. The
       functions will attempt to look up a translation of msgid in each
       of the locales in turn. This is a GNU extension.

       In the "C" locale, or if none of the used catalogs contain a
       translation for msgid, the gettext, dgettext and dcgettext
       functions return msgid.

RETURN VALUE         top

       If a translation was found in one of the specified catalogs, it
       is converted to the locale's codeset and returned. The resulting
       string is statically allocated and must not be modified or freed.
       Otherwise msgid is returned.

ERRORS         top

       errno is not modified.

BUGS         top

       The return type ought to be const char *, but is char * to avoid
       warnings in C code predating ANSI C.

       When an empty string is used for msgid, the functions may return
       a nonempty string.

SEE ALSO         top

       ngettext(3), dngettext(3), dcngettext(3), setlocale(3),
       textdomain(3), bindtextdomain(3), bind_textdomain_codeset(3),
       msgfmt(1)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the gettext (message translation) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/⟩.  If you have a bug report
       for this manual page, see
       ⟨http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/gettext/⟩.  This page was
       obtained from the tarball gettext-0.21.tar.gz fetched from
       ⟨https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gettext/⟩ on 2021-04-01.  If you
       discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page,
       or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for
       the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original
       manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

GNU gettext 0.20.1.124-32cf     May 2001                      GETTEXT(3)

Pages that refer to this page: bindtextdomain(3)bind_textdomain_codeset(3)ngettext(3)textdomain(3)wprintf(3)environ(7)locale(7)