git-init(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-INIT(1)                    Git Manual                    GIT-INIT(1)

NAME         top

       git-init - Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an
       existing one

SYNOPSIS         top

       git init [-q | --quiet] [--bare] [--template=<template_directory>]
                 [--separate-git-dir <git dir>] [--object-format=<format>]
                 [-b <branch-name> | --initial-branch=<branch-name>]
                 [--shared[=<permissions>]] [directory]

DESCRIPTION         top

       This command creates an empty Git repository - basically a .git
       directory with subdirectories for objects, refs/heads, refs/tags,
       and template files. An initial branch without any commits will be
       created (see the --initial-branch option below for its name).

       If the $GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a
       path to use instead of ./.git for the base of the repository.

       If the object storage directory is specified via the
       $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY environment variable then the sha1
       directories are created underneath - otherwise the default
       $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

       Running git init in an existing repository is safe. It will not
       overwrite things that are already there. The primary reason for
       rerunning git init is to pick up newly added templates (or to
       move the repository to another place if --separate-git-dir is

OPTIONS         top

       -q, --quiet
           Only print error and warning messages; all other output will
           be suppressed.

           Create a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment is not set,
           it is set to the current working directory.

           Specify the given object format (hash algorithm) for the
           repository. The valid values are sha1 and (if enabled)
           sha256.  sha1 is the default.

           THIS OPTION IS EXPERIMENTAL! SHA-256 support is experimental
           and still in an early stage. A SHA-256 repository will in
           general not be able to share work with "regular" SHA-1
           repositories. It should be assumed that, e.g., Git internal
           file formats in relation to SHA-256 repositories may change
           in backwards-incompatible ways. Only use
           --object-format=sha256 for testing purposes.

           Specify the directory from which templates will be used. (See
           the "TEMPLATE DIRECTORY" section below.)

       --separate-git-dir=<git dir>
           Instead of initializing the repository as a directory to
           either $GIT_DIR or ./.git/, create a text file there
           containing the path to the actual repository. This file acts
           as filesystem-agnostic Git symbolic link to the repository.

           If this is reinitialization, the repository will be moved to
           the specified path.

       -b <branch-name>, --initial-branch=<branch-name>
           Use the specified name for the initial branch in the newly
           created repository. If not specified, fall back to the
           default name (currently master, but this is subject to change
           in the future; the name can be customized via the
           init.defaultBranch configuration variable).

           Specify that the Git repository is to be shared amongst
           several users. This allows users belonging to the same group
           to push into that repository. When specified, the config
           variable "core.sharedRepository" is set so that files and
           directories under $GIT_DIR are created with the requested
           permissions. When not specified, Git will use permissions
           reported by umask(2).

           The option can have the following values, defaulting to group
           if no value is given:

           umask (or false)
               Use permissions reported by umask(2). The default, when
               --shared is not specified.

           group (or true)
               Make the repository group-writable, (and g+sx, since the
               git group may be not the primary group of all users).
               This is used to loosen the permissions of an otherwise
               safe umask(2) value. Note that the umask still applies to
               the other permission bits (e.g. if umask is 0022, using
               group will not remove read privileges from other
               (non-group) users). See 0xxx for how to exactly specify
               the repository permissions.

           all (or world or everybody)
               Same as group, but make the repository readable by all

               0xxx is an octal number and each file will have mode
               0xxx.  0xxx will override users' umask(2) value (and not
               only loosen permissions as group and all does).  0640
               will create a repository which is group-readable, but not
               group-writable or accessible to others.  0660 will create
               a repo that is readable and writable to the current user
               and group, but inaccessible to others.

       By default, the configuration flag receive.denyNonFastForwards is
       enabled in shared repositories, so that you cannot force a non
       fast-forwarding push into it.

       If you provide a directory, the command is run inside it. If this
       directory does not exist, it will be created.


       Files and directories in the template directory whose name do not
       start with a dot will be copied to the $GIT_DIR after it is

       The template directory will be one of the following (in order):

       •   the argument given with the --template option;

       •   the contents of the $GIT_TEMPLATE_DIR environment variable;

       •   the init.templateDir configuration variable; or

       •   the default template directory:

       The default template directory includes some directory structure,
       suggested "exclude patterns" (see gitignore(5)), and sample hook

       The sample hooks are all disabled by default. To enable one of
       the sample hooks rename it by removing its .sample suffix.

       See githooks(5) for more general info on hook execution.

EXAMPLES         top

       Start a new Git repository for an existing code base

               $ cd /path/to/my/codebase
               $ git init      (1)
               $ git add .     (2)
               $ git commit    (3)

           1. Create a /path/to/my/codebase/.git directory.
           2. Add all existing files to the index.
           3. Record the pristine state as the first commit in the

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control
       system) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2021-08-27.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2021-08-24.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git         08/27/2021                    GIT-INIT(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-clone(1)git-config(1)git-init-db(1)git-worktree(1)githooks(5)gitrepository-layout(5)giteveryday(7)