NAME | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

LVMSYSTEMID(7)                                                LVMSYSTEMID(7)

NAME         top

       lvmsystemid — LVM system ID

DESCRIPTION         top

       The lvm(8) system ID restricts Volume Group (VG) access to one host.
       This is useful when a VG is placed on shared storage devices, or when
       local devices are visible to both host and guest operating systems.
       In cases like these, a VG can be visible to multiple hosts at once,
       and some mechanism is needed to protect it from being used by more
       than one host at a time.

       A VG's system ID identifies one host as the VG owner.  The host with
       a matching system ID can use the VG and its LVs, while LVM on other
       hosts will ignore it.  This protects the VG from being accidentally
       used from other hosts.

       The system ID is a string that uniquely identifies a host.  It can be
       configured as a custom value, or it can be assigned automatically by
       LVM using some unique identifier already available on the host, e.g.
       machine-id or uname.

       When a new VG is created, the system ID of the local host is recorded
       in the VG metadata.  The creating host then owns the new VG, and LVM
       on other hosts will ignore it.  When an existing, exported VG is
       imported (vgimport), the system ID of the local host is saved in the
       VG metadata, and the importing host owns the VG.

       A VG without a system ID can be used by LVM on any host where the
       VG's devices are visible.  When system IDs are not used, device
       filters should be configured on all hosts to exclude the VG's devices
       from all but one host.

       A foreign VG is a VG seen by a host with an unmatching system ID,
       i.e. the system ID in the VG metadata does not match the system ID
       configured on the host.  If the host has no system ID, and the VG
       does, the VG is foreign and LVM will ignore it.  If the VG has no
       system ID, access is unrestricted, and LVM can access it from any
       host, whether the host has a system ID or not.

       Changes to a host's system ID and a VG's system ID can be made in
       limited circumstances (see vgexport and vgimport).  Improper changes
       can result in a host losing access to its VG, or a VG being
       accidentally damaged by access from an unintended host.  Even limited
       changes to the VG system ID may not be perfectly reflected across
       hosts.  A more coherent view of shared storage requires an inter-host
       locking system to coordinate access and update caches.

       Valid system ID characters are the same as valid VG name characters.
       If a system ID contains invalid characters, those characters are
       omitted and remaining characters are used.  If a system ID is longer
       than the maximum name length, the characters up to the maximum length
       are used.  The maximum length of a system ID is 128 characters.

       Print the system ID of a VG to check if it is set:

       vgs -o systemid VG

       Print the system ID of the local host to check if it is configured:

       lvm systemid

   Limitations and warnings
       To benefit fully from system ID, all hosts should have a system ID
       configured, and all VGs should have a system ID set.  Without any
       method to restrict access, e.g. system ID or device filters, a VG
       that is visible to multiple hosts can be accidentally damaged or
       destroyed.

       · A VG without a system ID can be used without restriction from any
         host where it is visible, even from hosts that have a system ID.

       · Many VGs will not have a system ID set because LVM has not enabled
         it by default, and even when enabled, many VGs were created before
         the feature was added to LVM or enabled.  A system ID can be
         assigned to these VGs by using vgchange --systemid (see below).

       · Two hosts should not be assigned the same system ID.  Doing so
         defeats the purpose of distinguishing different hosts with this
         value.

       · Orphan PVs (or unused devices) on shared storage are unprotected by
         the system ID feature.  Commands that use these PVs, such as
         vgcreate or vgextend, are not prevented from performing conflicting
         operations and corrupting the PVs.  See the orphans section for
         more information.

       · The system ID does not protect devices in a VG from programs other
         than LVM.

       · A host using an old LVM version (without the system ID feature)
         will not recognize a system ID set in VGs.  The old LVM can read a
         VG with a system ID, but is prevented from writing to the VG (or
         its LVs).  The system ID feature changes the write mode of a VG,
         making it appear read-only to previous versions of LVM.

         This also means that if a host downgrades to the old LVM version,
         it would lose access to any VGs it had created with a system ID.
         To avoid this, the system ID should be removed from local VGs
         before downgrading LVM to a version without the system ID feature.

   Types of VG access
       A local VG is meant to be used by a single host.

       A shared or clustered VG is meant to be used by multiple hosts.

       These can be further distinguished as:

       Unrestricted: A local VG that has no system ID.  This VG type is
       unprotected and accessible to any host.

       Owned: A local VG that has a system ID set, as viewed from the host
       with a matching system ID (the owner).  This VG type is acessible to
       the host.

       Foreign: A local VG that has a system ID set, as viewed from any host
       with an unmatching system ID (or no system ID).  It is owned by
       another host.  This VG type is not accessible to the host.

       Exported: A local VG that has been exported with vgexport and has no
       system ID.  This VG type can only be accessed by vgimport which will
       change it to owned.

       Shared: A shared or "lockd" VG has the lock_type set and has no
       system ID.  A shared VG is meant to be used on shared storage from
       multiple hosts, and is only accessible to hosts using lvmlockd.
       Applicable only if LVM is compiled with lvmlockd support.

       Clustered: A clustered or "clvm" VG has the clustered flag set and
       has no system ID.  A clustered VG is meant to be used on shared
       storage from multiple hosts, and is only accessible to hosts using
       clvmd. Applicable only if LVM is compiled with clvm support.

   Host system ID configuration
       A host's own system ID can be defined in a number of ways.  lvm.conf
       global/system_id_source defines the method LVM will use to find the
       local system ID:

       none

              LVM will not use a system ID.  LVM is allowed to access VGs
              without a system ID, and will create new VGs without a system
              ID.  An undefined system_id_source is equivalent to none.

              lvm.conf
              global {
                  system_id_source = "none"
              }

       machineid

              The content of /etc/machine-id is used as the system ID if
              available.  See machine-id(5) and systemd-machine-id-setup(1)
              to check if machine-id is available on the host.

              lvm.conf
              global {
                  system_id_source = "machineid"
              }

       uname

              The string utsname.nodename from uname(2) is used as the
              system ID.  A uname beginning with "localhost" is ignored and
              equivalent to none.

              lvm.conf
              global {
                  system_id_source = "uname"
              }

       lvmlocal

              The system ID is defined in lvmlocal.conf local/system_id.

              lvm.conf
              global {
                  system_id_source = "lvmlocal"
              }

              lvmlocal.conf
              local {
                  system_id = "example_name"
              }

       file

              The system ID is defined in a file specified by lvm.conf
              global/system_id_file.

              lvm.conf
              global {
                  system_id_source = "file"
                  system_id_file = "/path/to/file"
              }

       Changing system_id_source will likely cause the system ID of the host
       to change, which will prevent the host from using VGs that it
       previously used (see extra_system_ids below to handle this.)

       If a system_id_source other than none fails to produce a system ID
       value, it is the equivalent of having none.  The host will be allowed
       to access VGs with no system ID, but will not be allowed to access
       VGs with a system ID set.

   Overriding system ID
       In some cases, it may be necessary for a host to access VGs with
       different system IDs, e.g. if a host's system ID changes, and it
       wants to use VGs that it created with its old system ID.  To allow a
       host to access VGs with other system IDs, those other system IDs can
       be listed in lvmlocal.conf local/extra_system_ids.

       lvmlocal.conf
       local {
           extra_system_ids = [ "my_other_name" ]
       }

       A safer option may be configuring the extra values as needed on the
       command line as:
       --config 'local/extra_system_ids=["id"]'

   vgcreate
       In vgcreate, the host running the command assigns its own system ID
       to the new VG.  To override this and set another system ID:

       vgcreate --systemid SystemID VG PVs

       Overriding the host's system ID makes it possible for a host to
       create a VG that it may not be able to use.  Another host with a
       system ID matching the one specified may not recognize the new VG
       without manually rescanning devices.

       If the --systemid argument is an empty string (""), the VG is created
       with no system ID, making it accessible to other hosts (see warnings
       above.)

   report/display
       The system ID of a VG is displayed with the "systemid" reporting
       option.

       Report/display commands ignore foreign VGs by default.  To report
       foreign VGs, the --foreign option can be used.  This causes the VGs
       to be read from disk.  Because lvmetad caching is not used, this
       option can cause poor performance.

       vgs --foreign -o +systemid

       When a host with no system ID sees foreign VGs, it warns about them
       as they are skipped.  The host should be assigned a system ID, after
       which standard reporting commands will silently ignore foreign VGs.

   vgexport/vgimport
       vgexport clears the system ID.

       Other hosts will continue to see a newly exported VG as foreign
       because of local caching (when lvmetad is used).  Manually updating
       the local lvmetad cache with pvscan --cache will allow a host to
       recognize the newly exported VG.

       vgimport sets the VG system ID to the system ID of the host doing the
       import.  vgimport automatically scans storage for newly exported VGs.

       After vgimport, the exporting host may continue to see the VG as
       exported, and not owned by the new host.  Manually updating the local
       cache with pvscan --cache will allow a host to recognize the newly
       imported VG as foreign.

   vgchange
       A host can change the system ID of its own VGs, but the command
       requires confirmation because the host may lose access to the VG
       being changed:

       vgchange --systemid SystemID VG

       The system ID can be removed from a VG by specifying an empty string
       ("") as the new system ID.  This makes the VG accessible to other
       hosts (see warnings above.)

       A host cannot directly change the system ID of a foreign VG.

       To move a VG from one host to another, vgexport and vgimport should
       be used.

       To forcibly gain ownership of a foreign VG, a host can temporarily
       add the foreign system ID to its extra_system_ids list, and change
       the system ID of the foreign VG to its own.  See Overriding system ID
       above.

   shared VGs
       A shared/lockd VG has no system ID set, allowing multiple hosts to
       use it via lvmlockd.  Changing a VG to a lockd type will clear the
       existing system ID.  Applicable only if LVM is compiled with lockd
       support.

   clustered VGs
       A clustered/clvm VG has no system ID set, allowing multiple hosts to
       use it via clvmd.  Changing a VG to clustered will clear the existing
       system ID.  Changing a VG to not clustered will set the system ID to
       the host running the vgchange command.

   creation_host
       In vgcreate, the VG metadata field creation_host is set by default to
       the host's uname.  The creation_host cannot be changed, and is not
       used to control access.  When system_id_source is "uname", the
       system_id and creation_host fields will be the same.

   orphans
       Orphan PVs are unused devices; they are not currently used in any VG.
       Because of this, they are not protected by a system ID, and any host
       can use them.  Coordination of changes to orphan PVs is beyond the
       scope of system ID.  The same is true of any block device that is not
       a PV.

       The effects of this are especially evident when LVM uses lvmetad
       caching.  For example, if multiple hosts see an orphan PV, and one
       host creates a VG using the orphan, the other hosts will continue to
       report the PV as an orphan.  Nothing would automatically prevent the
       other hosts from using the newly allocated PV and corrupting it.  If
       the other hosts run a command to rescan devices, and update lvmetad,
       they would then recognize that the PV has been used by another host.
       A command that rescans devices could be pvscan --cache, or vgs
       --foreign.

SEE ALSO         top

       vgcreate(8), vgchange(8), vgimport(8), vgexport(8), vgs(8),
       lvmlockd(8), lvm.conf(5), machine-id(5), uname(2)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the lvm2 (Logical Volume Manager 2) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://www.sourceware.org/lvm2/⟩.  If you have a bug report for this
       manual page, send it to linux-lvm@redhat.com.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository 
       ⟨git://sourceware.org/git/lvm2.git⟩ on 2017-07-05.  If you discover
       any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
       believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
       you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail
       to man-pages@man7.org

Red Hat, Inc       LVM TOOLS 2.02.173(2)-git (2017-06-28)     LVMSYSTEMID(7)

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