The readprofile command uses the /proc/profile information to
print ascii data on standard output. The output is organized in
three columns: the first is the number of clock ticks, the second
is the name of the C function in the kernel where those many
ticks occurred, and the third is the normalized `load' of the
procedure, calculated as a ratio between the number of ticks and
the length of the procedure. The output is filled with blanks to
Print all symbols in the mapfile. By default the procedures
with reported ticks are not printed.
Print individual histogram-bin counts.
Info. This makes readprofile only print the profiling step
used by the kernel. The profiling step is the resolution of
the profiling buffer, and is chosen during kernel
configuration (through make config), or in the kernel’s
command line. If the -t (terse) switch is used together with
-i only the decimal number is printed.
-m, --mapfile mapfile
Specify a mapfile, which by default is
/usr/src/linux/System.map. You should specify the map file on
cmdline if your current kernel isn’t the last one you
compiled, or if you keep System.map elsewhere. If the name of
the map file ends with .gz it is decompressed on the fly.
-M, --multiplier multiplier
On some architectures it is possible to alter the frequency
at which the kernel delivers profiling interrupts to each
CPU. This option allows you to set the frequency, as a
multiplier of the system clock frequency, HZ. Linux 2.6.16
dropped multiplier support for most systems. This option also
resets the profiling buffer, and requires superuser
-p, --profile pro-file
Specify a different profiling buffer, which by default is
/proc/profile. Using a different pro-file is useful if you
want to `freeze' the kernel profiling at some time and read
it later. The /proc/profile file can be copied using cat(1)
or cp(1). There is no more support for compressed profile
buffers, like in readprofile-1.1, because the program needs
to know the size of the buffer in advance.
Reset the profiling buffer. This can only be invoked by root,
because /proc/profile is readable by everybody but writable
only by the superuser. However, you can make readprofile
set-user-ID 0, in order to reset the buffer without gaining
Print individual counters within functions.
Verbose. The output is organized in four columns and filled
with blanks. The first column is the RAM address of a kernel
function, the second is the name of the function, the third
is the number of clock ticks and the last is the normalized
Display version information and exit.
Display help text and exit.
readprofile only works with a 1.3.x or newer kernel, because
/proc/profile changed in the step from 1.2 to 1.3.
This program only works with ELF kernels. The change for a.out
kernels is trivial, and left as an exercise to the a.out user.
To enable profiling, the kernel must be rebooted, because no
profiling module is available, and it wouldn’t be easy to build.
To enable profiling, you can specify profile=2 (or another
number) on the kernel commandline. The number you specify is the
two-exponent used as profiling step.
Profiling is disabled when interrupts are inhibited. This means
that many profiling ticks happen when interrupts are re-enabled.
Watch out for misleading information.
Browse the profiling buffer ordering by clock ticks:
readprofile | sort -nr | less
Print the 20 most loaded procedures:
readprofile | sort -nr +2 | head -20
Print only filesystem profile:
readprofile | grep _ext2
Look at all the kernel information, with ram addresses:
readprofile -av | less
Browse a 'frozen' profile buffer for a non current kernel:
readprofile -p ~/profile.freeze -m /zImage.map.gz
Request profiling at 2kHz per CPU, and reset the profiling
sudo readprofile -M 20
The readprofile command is part of the util-linux package which
can be downloaded from Linux Kernel Archive
<https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/>. This page
is part of the util-linux (a random collection of Linux
utilities) project. Information about the project can be found at
⟨https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/⟩. If you have
a bug report for this manual page, send it to
email@example.com. This page was obtained from the
project's upstream Git repository
2021-08-27. (At that time, the date of the most recent commit
that was found in the repository was 2021-08-24.) If you discover
any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page,
or you have corrections or improvements to the information in
this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page),
send a mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
util-linux 2.37.85-637cc 2021-04-02 READPROFILE(8)