kernel-install(8) — Linux manual page


KERNEL-INSTALL(8)            kernel-install            KERNEL-INSTALL(8)

NAME         top

       kernel-install - Add and remove kernel and initrd images to and
       from /boot

SYNOPSIS         top

       kernel-install [OPTIONS...] add KERNEL-VERSION KERNEL-IMAGE

       kernel-install [OPTIONS...] add-all

       kernel-install [OPTIONS...] remove KERNEL-VERSION

       kernel-install [OPTIONS...] inspect [KERNEL-VERSION]
                      [KERNEL-IMAGE] [INITRD-FILE...]

       kernel-install [OPTIONS...] list

DESCRIPTION         top

       kernel-install is used to install and remove kernel and initrd
       images [1] to and from the boot loader partition, referred to as
       $BOOT here. It will usually be one of /boot/, /efi/, or
       /boot/efi/, see below.

       kernel-install will run the executable files ("plugins") located
       in the directory /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/ and the local
       administration directory /etc/kernel/install.d/. All files are
       collectively sorted and executed in lexical order, regardless of
       the directory in which they live. However, files with identical
       filenames replace each other. Files in /etc/kernel/install.d/
       take precedence over files with the same name in
       /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/. This can be used to override a
       system-supplied executables with a local file if needed; a
       symbolic link in /etc/kernel/install.d/ with the same name as an
       executable in /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/, pointing to /dev/null,
       disables the executable entirely. Executables must have the
       extension ".install"; other extensions are ignored.

       An executable placed in these directories should return 0 on
       success. It may also return 77 to cause the whole operation to
       terminate (executables later in lexical order will be skipped).

COMMANDS         top

       The following commands are understood:

           This command takes a kernel version string and a path to a
           kernel image file as arguments. If the former is omitted,
           specified as an empty string or as "-" it defaults to the
           current kernel version, i.e. the same string uname -r
           returns. If the latter is omitted, specified as an empty
           string or as "-" defaults to
           /usr/lib/modules/KERNEL_VERSION/vmlinuz. Optionally, one or
           more initrd images may be specified as well (note that
           plugins might generate additional ones).

           The executable files from /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/*.install
           and /etc/kernel/install.d/*.install (i.e. the plugins) are
           called with the following arguments:

                         [INITRD-FILE ...]

           The third argument directly refers to the path where to place
           kernel images, initrd images and other resources for Boot
           Loader Specification[2] Type #1 entries (the "entry
           directory"). If other boot loader schemes are used the
           parameter may be ignored.

           The ENTRY-TOKEN string is typically the machine ID and is
           supposed to identify the local installation on the system.
           For details see below.

           Two default plugins execute the following operations in this

           •   kernel-install creates $BOOT/ENTRY-TOKEN/KERNEL-VERSION,
               if enabled (see $KERNEL_INSTALL_LAYOUT).

           •   50-depmod.install runs depmod(8) for the KERNEL-VERSION.

           •   90-loaderentry.install copies KERNEL-IMAGE to
               are provided, it also copies them to
               also be used to prepend microcode before the actual
               initrd. It also creates a boot loader entry according to
               the Boot Loader Specification[2] (Type #1) in
               $BOOT/loader/entries/ENTRY-TOKEN-KERNEL-VERSION.conf. The
               title of the entry is the PRETTY_NAME parameter specified
               in /etc/os-release or /usr/lib/os-release (if the former
               is missing), or "Linux KERNEL-VERSION", if unset.

               If $KERNEL_INSTALL_LAYOUT is not "bls", this plugin does

           •   90-uki-copy.install copies a file uki.efi from
               $KERNEL_INSTALL_STAGING_AREA or if it does not exist the
               KERNEL-IMAGE argument, only if it has a ".efi" extension,
               to $BOOT/EFI/Linux/ENTRY-TOKEN-KERNEL-VERSION.efi.

               If $KERNEL_INSTALL_LAYOUT is not "uki", this plugin does

           Added in version 198.

           This is the same as add (see above), but invokes the
           operation iteratively for every installed kernel in
           /usr/lib/modules/. This operation is only supported on
           systems where the kernel image is installed in

           Added in version 255.

       remove KERNEL-VERSION
           This command expects a kernel version string as single

           The executable files from /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/*.install
           and /etc/kernel/install.d/*.install (i.e. the plugins) are
           called with the following arguments:


           Afterwards, kernel-install removes the entry directory
           $BOOT/ENTRY-TOKEN/KERNEL-VERSION/ and its contents, if it

           Two default plugins execute the following operations in this

           •   50-depmod.install removes the files generated by depmod
               for this kernel again.

           •   90-loaderentry.install removes the file

           •   90-uki-copy.install removes the file

           Added in version 198.

           Takes the same parameters as add.

           Shows the various paths and parameters configured or
           auto-detected. In particular shows the values of the various
           $KERNEL_INSTALL_* environment variables listed below, as they
           would be passed to plugins. The --json option can be used to
           get the output of this verb as a JSON object.

           Added in version 251.

           Shows the various installed kernels. This enumerates the
           subdirectories of /usr/lib/modules/, and shows whether a
           kernel image is installed there.

           Added in version 255.


       installkernel [OPTIONS...] VERSION VMLINUZ [MAP]

       When invoked as installkernel, this program accepts arguments as
       specified by the kernel build system's make install command. The
       VERSION and VMLINUZ parameters specify the kernel version and the
       kernel binary. The other two parameters (MAP and
       INSTALLATION-DIR) are currently ignored.


       The partition where the kernels and Boot Loader Specification[2]
       snippets are located is called $BOOT.  kernel-install determines
       the location of this partition by checking /efi/, /boot/, and
       /boot/efi/ in turn. The first location where
       $BOOT/loader/entries/ or $BOOT/ENTRY-TOKEN/ exists is used.

OPTIONS         top

       The following options are understood:

           Path to the EFI System Partition (ESP). If not specified,
           /efi/, /boot/, and /boot/efi/ are checked in turn. It is
           recommended to mount the ESP to /efi/, if possible.

           Path to the Extended Boot Loader partition, as defined in the
           Boot Loader Specification[2]. If not specified, /boot/ is
           checked. It is recommended to mount the Extended Boot Loader
           partition to /boot/, if possible.

           Controls creation and deletion of the Boot Loader
           Specification[2] Type #1 entry directory on the file system
           containing resources such as kernel and initrd images during
           add and remove, respectively. The directory is named after
           the entry token, and is placed immediately below the boot
           root directory. When "auto", the directory is created or
           removed only when the install layout is "bls". Defaults to

           Added in version 254.

           Controls how to name and identify boot loader entries for
           this kernel installation or deletion. Takes one of "auto",
           "machine-id", "os-id", "os-image-id", or an arbitrary string
           prefixed by "literal:" as argument.

           If set to machine-id the entries are named after the machine
           ID of the running system (e.g.
           "b0e793a9baf14b5fa13ecbe84ff637ac"). See machine-id(5) for
           details about the machine ID concept and file.

           If set to os-id the entries are named after the OS ID of the
           running system, i.e. the ID= field of os-release(5) (e.g.
           "fedora"). Similarly, if set to os-image-id the entries are
           named after the OS image ID of the running system, i.e. the
           IMAGE_ID= field of os-release (e.g.

           If set to auto (the default), the /etc/kernel/entry-token (or
           $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT/entry-token) file will be read if
           it exists, and the stored value used. Otherwise if the local
           machine ID is initialized it is used. Otherwise IMAGE_ID=
           from os-release will be used, if set. Otherwise, ID= from
           os-release will be used, if set. Otherwise a randomly
           generated machine ID is used.

           Using the machine ID for naming the entries is generally
           preferable, however there are cases where using the other
           identifiers is a good option. Specifically: if the
           identification data that the machine ID entails shall not be
           stored on the (unencrypted) $BOOT_ROOT partition, or if the
           ID shall be generated on first boot and is not known when the
           entries are prepared. Note that using the machine ID has the
           benefit that multiple parallel installations of the same OS
           can coexist on the same medium, and they can update their
           boot loader entries independently. When using another
           identifier (such as the OS ID or the OS image ID), parallel
           installations of the same OS would try to use the same entry
           name. To support parallel installations, the installer must
           use a different entry token when adding a second

           Added in version 254.

       -v, --verbose
           Output additional information about operations being

           Added in version 242.

           Takes a directory path as an argument. All paths will be
           prefixed with the given alternate root path, including config
           search paths. This is useful to operate on a system image
           mounted to the specified directory instead of the host system

           Added in version 255.

           Takes a path to a disk image file or block device node. If
           specified, all operations are applied to the file system in
           the indicated disk image. This option is similar to --root=,
           but operates on file systems stored in disk images or block
           devices. The disk image should either contain just a file
           system or a set of file systems within a GPT partition table,
           following the Discoverable Partitions Specification[3]. For
           further information on supported disk images, see
           systemd-nspawn(1)'s switch of the same name.

           Added in version 255.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.

           Shows output formatted as JSON. Expects one of "short" (for
           the shortest possible output without any redundant whitespace
           or line breaks), "pretty" (for a pretty version of the same,
           with indentation and line breaks) or "off" (to turn off JSON
           output, the default).

           Takes an image policy string as argument, as per
           systemd.image-policy(7). The policy is enforced when
           operating on the disk image specified via --image=, see
           above. If not specified defaults to the "*" policy, i.e. all
           recognized file systems in the image are used.

           Do not print the legend, i.e. column headers and the footer
           with hints.


   Environment variables exported for plugins
       If --verbose is used, $KERNEL_INSTALL_VERBOSE=1 will be exported
       for plugins. They may output additional logs in this case.

       $KERNEL_INSTALL_IMAGE_TYPE=uki|pe|unknown is set for the plugins
       to specify the type of the kernel image.

           Unified kernel image.

           Added in version 254.

           PE binary.

           Added in version 254.

           Unknown type.

           Added in version 254.

       $KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID is set for the plugins to the desired
       machine-id to use. It's always a 128-bit ID. Normally it's read
       from /etc/machine-id, but it can also be overridden via
       $MACHINE_ID (see below). If not specified via these methods, a
       fallback value will generated by kernel-install and used only for
       a single invocation.

       $KERNEL_INSTALL_ENTRY_TOKEN is set for the plugins to the desired
       entry "token" to use. It's an identifier that shall be used to
       identify the local installation, and is often the machine ID,
       i.e. same as $KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID, but might also be a
       different type of identifier, for example a fixed string or the
       ID=, IMAGE_ID= values from /etc/os-release. The string passed
       here will be used to name Boot Loader Specification entries, or
       the directories the kernel image and initial RAM disk images are
       placed into.

       Note that while $KERNEL_INSTALL_ENTRY_TOKEN and
       $KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID are often set to the same value, the
       latter is guaranteed to be a valid 32 character ID in lowercase
       hexadecimals while the former can be any short string. The entry
       token to use is read from /etc/kernel/entry-token, if it exists.
       Otherwise a few possible candidates below $BOOT are checked for
       Boot Loader Specification Type 1 entry directories, and if found
       the entry token is derived from that. If that is not successful,
       $KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID is used as fallback.

       $KERNEL_INSTALL_BOOT_ROOT is set for the plugins to the absolute
       path of the root directory (mount point, usually) of the
       hierarchy where boot loader entries, kernel images, and
       associated resources should be placed. This usually is the path
       where the XBOOTLDR partition or the ESP (EFI System Partition)
       are mounted, and also conceptually referred to as $BOOT. Can be
       overridden by setting $BOOT_ROOT (see below).

       $KERNEL_INSTALL_LAYOUT=auto|bls|uki|other|...  is set for the
       plugins to specify the installation layout. Additional layout
       names may be defined by convention. If a plugin uses a special
       layout, it's encouraged to declare its own layout name and
       configure layout= in install.conf upon initial installation. The
       following values are currently understood:

           Standard Boot Loader Specification[2] Type #1 layout,
           compatible with systemd-boot(7): entries in
           kernel and initrds under $BOOT/ENTRY-TOKEN/KERNEL-VERSION/

           Implemented by 90-loaderentry.install.

           Added in version 250.

           Standard Boot Loader Specification[2] Type #2 layout,
           compatible with systemd-boot(7): unified kernel images under
           $BOOT/EFI/Linux as

           Implemented by 90-uki-copy.install.

           Added in version 253.

           Some other layout not understood natively by kernel-install.

           Added in version 250.

           Pick the layout automatically. If the kernel is a UKI set
           layout to uki. If not default to bls if
           $BOOT/loader/entries.srel with content "type1" or
           $BOOT/ENTRY-TOKEN exists, or other otherwise.

           Leaving layout blank has the same effect. This is the

           Added in version 254.

       $KERNEL_INSTALL_UKI_GENERATOR are set for plugins to select the
       initrd and/or UKI generator. This may be configured as
       initrd_generator= and uki_generator= in install.conf, see below.

       $KERNEL_INSTALL_STAGING_AREA is set for plugins to a path to a
       directory. Plugins may drop files in that directory, and they
       will be installed as part of the loader entry, based on the file
       name and extension: Files named initrd* will be installed as
       INITRD-FILEs, and files named microcode* will be prepended before

   Environment variables understood by kernel-install
       $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT can be set to override the location of
       the configuration files read by kernel-install. When set,
       install.conf, entry-token, and other files will be read from this
       directory only. Note that this path is relative to the host, and
       in particular symlinks in this directory are resolved relative to
       the host, even if --root=root is used. This means that it is
       generally not correct to use this variable to specify a directory
       underneath root if symlinks are used there.

       $KERNEL_INSTALL_PLUGINS can be set to override the list of
       plugins executed by kernel-install. The argument is a
       whitespace-separated list of paths.  "KERNEL_INSTALL_PLUGINS=:"
       may be used to prevent any plugins from running.

       $MACHINE_ID can be set for kernel-install to override
       $KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID, the machine ID.

       $BOOT_ROOT can be set for kernel-install to override
       $KERNEL_INSTALL_BOOT_ROOT, the installation location for boot

       The last two variables may also be set in install.conf. Variables
       set in the environment take precedence over the values specified
       in the config file.

EXIT STATUS         top

       If every executable returns 0 or 77, 0 is returned, and a
       non-zero failure code otherwise.

FILES         top

           Drop-in files which are executed by kernel-install.

           Added in version 198.

       /etc/kernel/cmdline, /usr/lib/kernel/cmdline, /proc/cmdline
           Specifies the kernel command line to use. The first of the
           files that is found will be used.  $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT
           may be used to override the search path; see below for

           Added in version 198.

       /etc/kernel/devicetree, /usr/lib/kernel/devicetree
           Specifies the partial path to the file containing the device
           tree blob to install with the kernel and use at boot. The
           first of the files that is found will be used.
           $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT may be used to override the search
           path; see below for details.

           The devicetree file contains a path, and this path specifies
           a location relative to the kernel install tree. A set of
           locations is checked, including in particular
           /usr/lib/modules/KERNEL_VERSION/dtb/, which is the
           recommended location to place the dtb files under. For
           example, with "broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb" in the
           devicetree file, the device tree blob for the Raspberry Pi 4
           Model B would be installed, and the actual file would be

           Added in version 255.

           Read by 90-loaderentry.install and 90-uki-copy.install. If
           this file exists, a numeric value is read from it and the
           naming of the generated entry file or UKI is altered to
           include it as
           $BOOT/loader/entries/ENTRY-TOKEN-KERNEL-VERSION+TRIES.conf or
           respectively. This is useful for boot loaders such as
           systemd-boot(7) which implement boot attempt counting with a
           counter embedded in the entry file name.
           $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT may be used to override the search
           path; see below for details.

           Added in version 240.

           If this file exists it is read and used as "entry token" for
           this system, i.e. is used for naming Boot Loader
           Specification entries. See $KERNEL_INSTALL_ENTRY_TOKEN above
           for details.  $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT may be used to
           override the search path; see below for details.

           Added in version 251.

           The content of this file specifies the machine identification

           Added in version 198.

       /etc/os-release, /usr/lib/os-release
           Read by 90-loaderentry.install. If available, PRETTY_NAME= is
           read from these files and used as the title of the boot menu
           entry. Otherwise, "Linux KERNEL-VERSION" will be used.

           Added in version 198.

       /etc/kernel/install.conf, /run/kernel/install.conf,
       /usr/local/lib/kernel/install.conf, /usr/lib/kernel/install.conf,
           Configuration file with options for kernel-install, as a
           series of KEY=VALUE assignments, compatible with shell
           syntax, following the same rules as described in
           os-release(5). The first of the files that is found will be
           used.  $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT may be used to override the
           search path; see below for details. Drop-in files may also be
           used to extend the configuration with overrides, see

           Currently, the following keys are supported: MACHINE_ID=,
           BOOT_ROOT=, layout=, initrd_generator=, uki_generator=. See
           the Environment variables section above for details.

           Added in version 250.

           Ini-style configuration file for ukify(1) which is only
           effective when $KERNEL_INSTALL_LAYOUT or layout= in
           install.conf is set to uki and $KERNEL_INSTALL_UKI_GENERATOR
           or uki_generator= in install.conf is set to ukify, or is
           unset.  $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT may be used to override the
           search path; see below for details.

           Added in version 255.

           Location for installed kernel modules and other kernel
           related resources. For each locally installed kernel a
           directory named after the kernel version (uname -r) is kept.

           Added in version 255.

           Location for installed kernel images. This is the recommended
           location for OS package managers to install kernel images
           into (as applicable), from which kernel-install add then
           copies it into the final boot partition.

           Added in version 255.

       For various cases listed above, if the $KERNEL_INSTALL_CONF_ROOT
       environment variable is set, it will override the search path.
       The files will be loaded only from the directory specified by the
       environment variable. When the variable is not set, the listed
       paths are tried in turn, and the first file that exists is used.

SEE ALSO         top

       machine-id(5), os-release(5), depmod(8), systemd-boot(7),
       ukify(1), Boot Loader Specification[2]

NOTES         top

        1. Nowadays actually CPIO archives used as an "initramfs",
           rather than "initrd". See bootup(7) for an explanation.

        2. Boot Loader Specification

        3. Discoverable Partitions Specification

COLOPHON         top

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systemd 257~devel                                      KERNEL-INSTALL(8)

Pages that refer to this page: bootctl(1)systemd-firstboot(1)ukify(1)systemd-boot(7)systemd.directives(7)systemd.index(7)