dnf(8) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | SPECIFYING PACKAGES | SPECIFYING PROVIDES | SPECIFYING GROUPS | SPECIFYING MODULES | SPECIFYING TRANSACTIONS | PACKAGE FILTERING | METADATA SYNCHRONIZATION | CONFIGURATION FILES REPLACEMENT POLICY | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | COPYRIGHT | COLOPHON

DNF(8)                               DNF                              DNF(8)

NAME         top

       dnf - DNF Command Reference

SYNOPSIS         top

       dnf [options] <command> [<args>...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       DNF is the next upcoming major version of YUM, a package manager for
       RPM-based Linux distributions. It roughly maintains CLI compatibility
       with YUM and defines a strict API for extensions and plugins.

       Plugins can modify or extend features of DNF or provide additional
       CLI commands on top of those mentioned below. If you know the name of
       such a command (including commands mentioned below), you may
       find/install the package which provides it using the appropriate
       virtual provide in the form of dnf-command(<alias>), where <alias> is
       the name of the command; e.g.``dnf install
       ‘dnf-command(versionlock)’`` installs a versionlock plugin. This
       approach also applies to specifying dependencies of packages that
       require a particular DNF command.

       Return values:

       · 0  : Operation was successful.

       · 1  : An error occurred, which was handled by dnf.

       · 3  : An unknown unhandled error occurred during operation.

       · 100: See check-update

       · 200: There was a problem with acquiring or releasing of locks.

       Available commands:

       · alias

       · autoremove

       · check

       · check-update

       · clean

       · deplist

       · distro-sync

       · downgrade

       · group

       · help

       · history

       · info

       · install

       · list

       · makecache

       · mark

       · module

       · provides

       · reinstall

       · remove

       · repoinfo

       · repolist

       · repoquery

       · repository-packages

       · search

       · shell

       · swap

       · updateinfo

       · upgrade

       · upgrade-minimal

       Additional information:

       · Options

       · Specifying Packages

       · Specifying Provides

       · Specifying Groups

       · Specifying Transactions

       · Metadata Synchronization

       · Configuration Files Replacement Policy

       · Files

       · See Also

OPTIONS         top

       -4     Resolve to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6     Resolve to IPv6 addresses only.

       --advisory=<advisory>, --advisories=<advisory>
              Include packages corresponding to the advisory ID, Eg.
              FEDORA-2201-123.  Applicable for the install, repoquery,
              updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       --allowerasing
              Allow erasing of installed packages to resolve dependencies.
              This option could be used as an alternative to the yum swap
              command where packages to remove are not explicitly defined.

       --assumeno
              Automatically answer no for all questions.

       -b, --best
              Try the best available package versions in transactions.
              Specifically during dnf upgrade, which by default skips over
              updates that can not be installed for dependency reasons, the
              switch forces DNF to only consider the latest packages. When
              running into packages with broken dependencies, DNF will fail
              giving a reason why the latest version can not be installed.

       --bugfix
              Include packages that fix a bugfix issue. Applicable for the
              install, repoquery, updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       --bz=<bugzilla>, --bzs=<bugzilla>
              Include packages that fix a Bugzilla ID, Eg. 123123.
              Applicable for the install, repoquery, updateinfo and upgrade
              commands.

       -C, --cacheonly
              Run entirely from system cache, don’t update the cache and use
              it even in case it is expired.

              DNF uses a separate cache for each user under which it
              executes. The cache for the root user is called the system
              cache. This switch allows a regular user read-only access to
              the system cache, which usually is more fresh than the user’s
              and thus he does not have to wait for metadata sync.

       --color=<color>
              Control whether color is used in terminal output. Valid values
              are always, never and auto (default).

       --comment=<comment>
              Add a comment to the transaction history.

       -c <config file>, --config=<config file>
              Configuration file location.

       --cve=<cves>, --cves=<cves>
              Include packages that fix a CVE (Common Vulnerabilities and
              Exposures) ID (http://cve.mitre.org/about/ ), Eg.
              CVE-2201-0123. Applicable for the install, repoquery,
              updateinfo, and upgrade commands.

       -d <debug level>, --debuglevel=<debug level>
              Debugging output level. This is an integer value between 0 (no
              additional information strings) and 10 (shows all debugging
              information, even that not understandable to the user),
              default is 2. Deprecated, use -v instead.

       --debugsolver
              Dump data aiding in dependency solver debugging into
              ./debugdata.

       --disableexcludes=[all|main|<repoid>],
       --disableexcludepkgs=[all|main|<repoid>]
          Disable the configuration file excludes. Takes one of the
          following three options:

          · all, disables all configuration file excludes

          · main, disables excludes defined in the [main] section

          · repoid, disables excludes defined for the given repository

       --disable, --set-disabled
              Disable specified repositories (automatically saves). The
              option has to be used together with the config-manager command
              (dnf-plugins-core).

       --disableplugin=<plugin names>
              Disable the listed plugins specified by names or globs.

       --disablerepo=<repoid>
              Disable specific repositories by an id or a glob. This option
              is mutually exclusive with --repo.

       --downloaddir=<path>, --destdir=<path>
              Redirect downloaded packages to provided directory. The option
              has to be used together with the --downloadonly command line
              option, with the download command (dnf-plugins-core) or with
              the system-upgrade command (dnf-plugins-extras).

       --downloadonly
              Download the resolved package set without performing any rpm
              transaction (install/upgrade/erase).

       -e <error level>, --errorlevel=<error level>
              Error output level. This is an integer value between 0 (no
              error output) and 10 (shows all error messages), default is 3.
              Deprecated, use -v instead.

       --enable, --set-enabled
              Enable specified repositories (automatically saves). The
              option has to be used together with the config-manager command
              (dnf-plugins-core).

       --enableplugin=<plugin names>
              Enable the listed plugins specified by names or globs.

       --enablerepo=<repoid>
              Enable additional repositories by an id or a glob.

       --enhancement
              Include enhancement relevant packages. Applicable for the
              install, repoquery, updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       -x <package-file-spec>, --exclude=<package-file-spec>
              Exclude packages specified by <package-file-spec> from the
              operation.

       --excludepkgs=<package-file-spec>
              Deprecated option. It was replaced by the --exclude option.

       --forcearch=<arch>
              Force the use of an architecture. Any architecture can be
              specified.  However, use of an architecture not supported
              natively by your CPU will require emulation of some kind. This
              is usually through QEMU. The behavior of --forcearch can be
              configured by using the arch and ignorearch configuration
              options with values <arch> and True respectively.

       -h, --help, --help-cmd
              Show the help.

       --installroot=<path>
              Specifies an alternative installroot, relative to where all
              packages will be installed. Think of this like doing chroot
              <root> dnf, except using --installroot allows dnf to work
              before the chroot is created. It requires absolute path.

       · cachedir, log files, releasever, and gpgkey are taken from or
         stored in the installroot. Gpgkeys are imported into the
         installroot from a path relative to the host which can be specified
         in the repository section of configuration files.

       · configuration file and reposdir are searched inside the installroot
         first. If they are not present, they are taken from the host
         system.  Note:  When a path is specified within a command line
         argument (--config=<config file> in case of configuration file and
         --setopt=reposdir=<reposdir> for reposdir) then this path is always
         relative to the host with no exceptions.

       · vars are taken from the host system or installroot according to
         reposdir installroot. When varsdir paths are specified within a
         command line argument (--setopt=varsdir=<reposdir>) then those path
         are always relative to the host with no exceptions.

       · The pluginpath and pluginconfpath are relative to the host.
          Note: You may also want to use the command-line option
          --releasever=<release> when creating the installroot, otherwise
          the $releasever value is taken from the rpmdb within the
          installroot (and thus it is empty at the time of creation and the
          transaction will fail). If --releasever=/ is used, the releasever
          will be detected from the host (/) system. The new installroot
          path at the time of creation does not contain the repository,
          releasever and dnf.conf files.

          On a modular system you may also want to use the
          --setopt=module_platform_id=<module_platform_name:stream>
          command-line option when creating the installroot, otherwise the
          module_platform_id value will be taken from the /etc/os-release
          file within the installroot (and thus it will be empty at the time
          of creation, the modular dependency could be unsatisfied and
          modules content could be excluded).

          Installroot examples:

          dnf --installroot=<installroot> --releasever=<release> install
          system-release
                 Permanently sets the releasever of the system in the
                 <installroot> directory to <release>.

          dnf --installroot=<installroot> --setopt=reposdir=<path> --config
          /path/dnf.conf upgrade
                 Upgrades packages inside the installroot from a repository
                 described by --setopt using configuration from
                 /path/dnf.conf.

       --newpackage
              Include newpackage relevant packages. Applicable for the
              install, repoquery, updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       --noautoremove
              Disable removal of dependencies that are no longer used. It
              sets clean_requirements_on_remove configuration option to
              False.

       --nobest
              Set best option to False, so that transactions are not limited
              to best candidates only.

       --nodocs
              Do not install documentation. Sets the rpm flag
              ‘RPMTRANS_FLAG_NODOCS’.

       --nogpgcheck
              Skip checking GPG signatures on packages (if RPM policy
              allows).

       --noplugins
              Disable all plugins.

       --obsoletes
              This option has an effect on an install/update, it enables
              dnf’s obsoletes processing logic. For more information see the
              obsoletes option.

              This option also displays capabilities that the package
              obsoletes when used together with the repoquery command.

              Configuration Option: obsoletes

       -q, --quiet
              In combination with a non-interactive command, shows just the
              relevant content. Suppresses messages notifying about the
              current state or actions of DNF.

       -R <minutes>, --randomwait=<minutes>
              Maximum command wait time.

       --refresh
              Set metadata as expired before running the command.

       --releasever=<release>
              Configure DNF as if the distribution release was <release>.
              This can affect cache paths, values in configuration files and
              mirrorlist URLs.

       --repofrompath <repo>,<path/url>
              Specify a repository to add to the repositories for this
              query.  This option can be used multiple times.

       · The repository label is specified by <repo>.

       · The path or url to the repository is specified by <path/url>.  It
         is the same path as a baseurl and can be also enriched by the repo
         variables.

       · The configuration for the repository can be adjusted using -‐
         -setopt=<repo>.<option>=<value>.

       · If you want to view only packages from this repository, combine
         this with the --repo=<repo> or --disablerepo="*" switches.

       --repo=<repoid>, --repoid=<repoid>
              Enable just specific repositories by an id or a glob. Can be
              used multiple times with accumulative effect. It is basically
              a shortcut for --disablerepo="*" --enablerepo=<repoid> and is
              mutually exclusive with the --disablerepo option.

       --rpmverbosity=<name>
              RPM debug scriptlet output level. Sets the debug level to
              <name> for RPM scriptlets.  For available levels, see the
              rpmverbosity configuration option.

       --sec-severity=<severity>, --secseverity=<severity>
              Includes packages that provide a fix for an issue of the
              specified severity.  Applicable for the install, repoquery,
              updateinfo and upgrade commands.

       --security
              Includes packages that provide a fix for a security issue.
              Applicable for the upgrade command.

       --setopt=<option>=<value>
              Override a configuration option from the configuration file.
              To override configuration options for repositories, use
              repoid.option for the <option>. Values for configuration
              options like excludepkgs, includepkgs, installonlypkgs and
              tsflags are appended to the original value, they do not
              override it. However, specifying an empty value (e.g.
              --setopt=tsflags=) will clear the option.

       --skip-broken
              Resolve depsolve problems by removing packages that are
              causing problems from the transaction.  It is an alias for the
              strict configuration option with value False.  Additionally,
              with the enable and disable module subcommands it allows one
              to perform an action even in case of broken modular
              dependencies.

       --showduplicates
              Show duplicate packages in repositories. Applicable for the
              list and search commands.

       -v, --verbose
              Verbose operation, show debug messages.

       --version
              Show DNF version and exit.

       -y, --assumeyes
              Automatically answer yes for all questions.

       List options are comma-separated. Command-line options override
       respective settings from configuration files.

COMMANDS         top

       For an explanation of <package-spec>, <package-file-spec> and
       <package-name-spec> see Specifying Packages.

       For an explanation of <provide-spec> see Specifying Provides.

       For an explanation of <group-spec> see Specifying Groups.

       For an explanation of <module-spec> see Specifying Modules.

       For an explanation of <transaction-spec> see Specifying Transactions.

   Alias Command
       Command: alias

       Allows the user to define and manage a list of aliases (in the form
       <name=value>), which can be then used as dnf commands to abbreviate
       longer command sequences. For examples on using the alias command,
       see Alias Examples. For examples on the alias processing, see Alias
       Processing Examples.

       To use an alias (name=value), the name must be placed as the first
       “command” (e.g. the first argument that is not an option). It is then
       replaced by its value and the resulting sequence is again searched
       for aliases. The alias processing stops when the first found command
       is not a name of any alias.

       In case the processing would result in an infinite recursion, the
       original arguments are used instead.

       Also, like in shell aliases, if the result starts with a \, the alias
       processing will stop.

       All aliases are defined in configuration files in the
       /etc/dnf/aliases.d/ directory in the [aliases] section, and aliases
       created by the alias command are written to the USER.conf file. In
       case of conflicts, the USER.conf has the highest priority, and
       alphabetical ordering is used for the rest of the configuration
       files.

       Optionally, there is the enabled option in the [main] section
       defaulting to True. This can be set for each file separately in the
       respective file, or globally for all aliases in the ALIASES.conf
       file.

       dnf alias [options] [list] [<name>...]
          List aliases with their final result. The [<alias>...] parameter
          further limits the result to only those aliases matching it.

       dnf alias [options] add <name=value>...
          Create new aliases.

       dnf alias [options] delete <name>...
          Delete aliases.

   Alias Examples
       dnf alias list
              Lists all defined aliases.

       dnf alias add rm=remove
              Adds a new command alias called rm which works the same as the
              remove command.

       dnf alias add upgrade="\upgrade --skip-broken --disableexcludes=all
       --obsoletes"
              Adds a new command alias called upgrade which works the same
              as the upgrade command, with additional options. Note that the
              original upgrade command is prefixed with a \ to prevent an
              infinite loop in alias processing.

   Alias Processing Examples
       If there are defined aliases in=install and FORCE="--skip-broken
       --disableexcludes=all":

       · dnf FORCE in will be replaced with dnf --skip-broken
         --disableexcludes=all install

       · dnf in FORCE will be replaced with dnf install FORCE (which will
         fail)

       If there is defined alias in=install:

       · dnf in will be replaced with dnf install

       · dnf --repo updates in will be replaced with dnf --repo updates in
         (which will fail)

   Autoremove Command
       Command: autoremove
       Aliases for explicit NEVRA matching: autoremove-n, autoremove-na, autoremove-nevra

       dnf [options] autoremove
          Removes all “leaf” packages from the system that were originally
          installed as dependencies of user-installed packages, but which
          are no longer required by any such package.

       Packages listed in installonlypkgs are never automatically removed by
       this command.

       dnf [options] autoremove <spec>...
          This is an alias for the Remove Command command with
          clean_requirements_on_remove set to True. It removes the specified
          packages from the system along with any packages depending on the
          packages being removed. Each <spec> can be either a
          <package-spec>, which specifies a package directly, or a
          @<group-spec>, which specifies an (environment) group which
          contains it. It also removes any dependencies that are no longer
          needed.

          There are also a few specific autoremove commands autoremove-n,
          autoremove-na and autoremove-nevra that allow the specification of
          an exact argument in the NEVRA
          (name-epoch:version-release.architecture) format.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired metadata.
       See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Check Command
       Command: check

       dnf [options] check [--dependencies] [--duplicates] [--obsoleted]
       [--provides]
          Checks the local packagedb and produces information on any
          problems it finds. You can limit the checks to be performed by
          using the --dependencies, --duplicates, --obsoleted and --provides
          options (the default is to check everything).

   Check-Update Command
       Command: check-update
       Aliases: check-upgrade

       dnf [options] check-update [--changelogs] [<package-file-spec>...]
          Non-interactively checks if updates of the specified packages are
          available. If no <package-file-spec> is given, checks whether any
          updates at all are available for your system. DNF exit code will
          be 100 when there are updates available and a list of the updates
          will be printed, 0 if not and 1 if an error occurs. If
          --changelogs option is specified, also changelog delta of packages
          about to be updated is printed.

          Please note that having a specific newer version available for an
          installed package (and reported by check-update) does not imply
          that subsequent dnf upgrade will install it. The difference is
          that dnf upgrade has restrictions (like package dependencies being
          satisfied) to take into account.

          The output is affected by the autocheck_running_kernel
          configuration option.

   Clean Command
       Command: clean

       Performs cleanup of temporary files kept for repositories. This
       includes any such data left behind from disabled or removed
       repositories as well as for different distribution release versions.

       dnf clean dbcache
              Removes cache files generated from the repository metadata.
              This forces DNF to regenerate the cache files the next time it
              is run.

       dnf clean expire-cache
              Marks the repository metadata expired. DNF will re-validate
              the cache for each repository the next time it is used.

       dnf clean metadata
              Removes repository metadata. Those are the files which DNF
              uses to determine the remote availability of packages. Using
              this option will make DNF download all the metadata the next
              time it is run.

       dnf clean packages
              Removes any cached packages from the system.

       dnf clean all
              Does all of the above.

   Deplist Command
       dnf [options] deplist [<select-options>] [<query-options>]
       [<package-spec>]
              Alias for dnf repoquery –deplist.

   Distro-Sync Command
       Command: distro-sync
       Aliases: dsync
       Deprecated aliases: distrosync, distribution-synchronization

       dnf distro-sync [<package-spec>...]
              As necessary upgrades, downgrades or keeps selected installed
              packages to match the latest version available from any
              enabled repository. If no package is given, all installed
              packages are considered.

              See also Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Downgrade Command
       Command: downgrade
       Aliases: dg

       dnf [options] downgrade <package-spec>...
              Downgrades the specified packages to the highest installable
              package of all known lower versions if possible. When version
              is given and is lower than version of installed package then
              it downgrades to target version.

   Group Command
       Command: group
       Aliases: grp
       Deprecated aliases: groups, grouplist, groupinstall, groupupdate, groupremove, grouperase, groupinfo

       Groups are virtual collections of packages. DNF keeps track of groups
       that the user selected (“marked”) installed and can manipulate the
       comprising packages with simple commands.

       dnf [options] group [summary] <group-spec>
              Display overview of how many groups are installed and
              available. With a spec, limit the output to the matching
              groups. summary is the default groups subcommand.

       dnf [options] group info <group-spec>
              Display package lists of a group. Shows which packages are
              installed or available from a repository when -v is used.

       dnf [options] group install [--with-optional] <group-spec>...
              Mark the specified group installed and install packages it
              contains. Also include optional packages of the group if
              --with-optional is specified. All mandatory and Default
              packages will be installed whenever possible.  Conditional
              packages are installed if they meet their requirement.  If the
              group is already (partially) installed, the command installs
              the missing packages from the group.  Depending on the value
              of obsoletes configuration option group installation takes
              obsoletes into account.

       dnf [options] group list <group-spec>...
              List all matching groups, either among installed or available
              groups. If nothing is specified, list all known groups.
              --installed and --available options narrow down the requested
              list.  Records are ordered by the display_order tag defined in
              comps.xml file.  Provides a list of all hidden groups by using
              option --hidden.  Provides group IDs when the -v or --ids
              options are used.

       dnf [options] group remove <group-spec>...
              Mark the group removed and remove those packages in the group
              from the system which do not belong to another installed group
              and were not installed explicitly by the user.

       dnf [options] group upgrade <group-spec>...
              Upgrades the packages from the group and upgrades the group
              itself. The latter comprises of installing packages that were
              added to the group by the distribution and removing packages
              that got removed from the group as far as they were not
              installed explicitly by the user.

       Groups can also be marked installed or removed without physically
       manipulating any packages:

       dnf [options] group mark install <group-spec>...
              Mark the specified group installed. No packages will be
              installed by this command, but the group is then considered
              installed.

       dnf [options] group mark remove <group-spec>...
              Mark the specified group removed. No packages will be removed
              by this command.

       See also Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Help Command
       Command: help

       dnf help [<command>]
              Displays the help text for all commands. If given a command
              name then only displays help for that particular command.

   History Command
       Command: history
       Aliases: hist

       The history command allows the user to view what has happened in past
       transactions and act according to this information (assuming the
       history_record configuration option is set).

       dnf history [list] [--reverse] [<spec>...]
              The default history action is listing information about given
              transactions in a table. Each <spec> can be either a
              <transaction-spec>, which specifies a transaction directly, or
              a <transaction-spec>..<transaction-spec>, which specifies a
              range of transactions, or a <package-name-spec>, which
              specifies a transaction by a package which it manipulated.
              When no transaction is specified, list all known transactions.

              --reverse
                     The order of history list output is printed in reverse
                     order.

       dnf history info [<spec>...]
              Describe the given transactions. The meaning of <spec> is the
              same as in the History List Command. When no transaction is
              specified, describe what happened during the latest
              transaction.

       dnf history redo <transaction-spec>|<package-file-spec>
              Repeat the specified transaction. Uses the last transaction
              (with the highest ID) if more than one transaction for given
              <package-file-spec> is found. If it is not possible to redo
              some operations due to the current state of RPMDB, it will not
              redo the transaction.

       dnf history replay [--ignore-installed] [--ignore-extras]
       [--skip-unavailable] <filename>
              Replay a transaction stored in file <filename> by History
              Store Command. The replay will perform the exact same
              operations on the packages as in the original transaction and
              will return with an error if case of any differences in
              installed packages or their versions. See also the Transaction
              JSON Format specification of the file format.

              --ignore-installed
                     Don’t check for the installed packages being in the
                     same state as those recorded in the transaction. E.g.
                     in case there is an upgrade foo-1.0 -> foo-2.0 stored
                     in the transaction, but there is foo-1.1 installed on
                     the target system.

              --ignore-extras
                     Don’t check for extra packages pulled into the
                     transaction on the target system. E.g. the target
                     system may not have some dependency, which was
                     installed on the source system. The replay errors out
                     on this by default, as the transaction would not be the
                     same.

              --skip-unavailable
                     In case some packages stored in the transaction are not
                     available on the target system, skip them instead of
                     erroring out.

       dnf history rollback <transaction-spec>|<package-file-spec>
              Undo all transactions performed after the specified
              transaction. Uses the last transaction (with the highest ID)
              if more than one transaction for given <package-file-spec> is
              found.  If it is not possible to undo some transactions due to
              the current state of RPMDB, it will not undo any transaction.

       dnf history store [--output <output-file>] <transaction-spec>
              Store a transaction specified by <transaction-spec>. The
              transaction can later be replayed by the History Replay
              Command.

              Warning: The stored transaction format is considered unstable
              and may change at any time. It will work if the same version
              of dnf is used to store and replay (or between versions as
              long as it stays the same).

              -o <output-file>, --output=<output-file> Store the serialized
              transaction into <output-file. Default is transaction.json.

       dnf history undo <transaction-spec>|<package-file-spec>
              Perform the opposite operation to all operations performed in
              the specified transaction.  Uses the last transaction (with
              the highest ID) if more than one transaction for given
              <package-file-spec> is found. If it is not possible to undo
              some operations due to the current state of RPMDB, it will not
              undo the transaction.

       dnf history userinstalled
              Show all installonly packages, packages installed outside of
              DNF and packages not installed as dependency. I.e. it lists
              packages that will stay on the system when Autoremove Command
              or Remove Command along with clean_requirements_on_remove
              configuration option set to True is executed. Note the same
              results can be accomplished with dnf repoquery
              --userinstalled, and the repoquery command is more powerful in
              formatting of the output.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired metadata,
       except for the redo, rollback, and undo subcommands.  See also
       Metadata Synchronization and Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Info Command
       Command: info

       dnf [options] info [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists description and summary information about installed and
              available packages.

       The info command limits the displayed packages the same way as the
       list command.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired metadata.
       See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Install Command
       Command: install
       Aliases: in
       Aliases for explicit NEVRA matching: install-n, install-na, install-nevra
       Deprecated aliases: localinstall

       dnf [options] install <spec>...
              Makes sure that the given packages and their dependencies are
              installed on the system. Each <spec> can be either a
              <package-spec>, or a @<module-spec>, or a @<group-spec>.  See
              Install Examples.  If a given package or provide cannot be
              (and is not already) installed, the exit code will be
              non-zero.  If the <spec> matches both a @<module-spec> and a
              @<group-spec>, only the module is installed.

              When <package-spec> to specify the exact version of the
              package is given, DNF will install the desired version, no
              matter which version of the package is already installed. The
              former version of the package will be removed in the case of
              non-installonly package.

              There are also a few specific install commands install-n,
              install-na and install-nevra that allow the specification of
              an exact argument in the NEVRA format.

              See also Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Install Examples
       dnf install tito
              Install the tito package (tito is the package name).

       dnf install ~/Downloads/tito-0.6.2-1.fc22.noarch.rpm
              Install a local rpm file tito-0.6.2-1.fc22.noarch.rpm from the
              ~/Downloads/ directory.

       dnf install tito-0.5.6-1.fc22
              Install the package with a specific version. If the package is
              already installed it will automatically try to downgrade or
              upgrade to the specific version.

       dnf --best install tito
              Install the latest available version of the package. If the
              package is already installed it will try to automatically
              upgrade to the latest version. If the latest version of the
              package cannot be installed, the installation will fail.

       dnf install vim
              DNF will automatically recognize that vim is not a package
              name, but will look up and install a package that provides vim
              with all the required dependencies. Note: Package name match
              has precedence over package provides match.

       dnf install
       https://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org//packages/tito/0.6.0/1.fc22/noarch/tito-0.6.0-1.fc22.noarch.rpm 
              Install a package directly from a URL.

       dnf install '@docker'
              Install all default profiles of module ‘docker’ and their
              RPMs. Module streams get enabled accordingly.

       dnf install '@Web Server'
              Install the ‘Web Server’ environmental group.

       dnf install /usr/bin/rpmsign
              Install a package that provides the /usr/bin/rpmsign file.

       dnf -y install tito --setopt=install_weak_deps=False
              Install the tito package (tito is the package name) without
              weak deps. Weak deps are not required for core functionality
              of the package, but they enhance the original package (like
              extended documentation, plugins, additional functions, etc.).

       dnf install --advisory=FEDORA-2018-b7b99fe852 \*
              Install all packages that belong to the
              “FEDORA-2018-b7b99fe852” advisory.

   List Command
       Command: list
       Aliases: ls

       Prints lists of packages depending on the packages’ relation to the
       system. A package is installed if it is present in the RPMDB, and it
       is available if it is not installed but is present in a repository
       that DNF knows about.

       The list command also limits the displayed packages according to
       specific criteria, e.g. to only those that update an installed
       package (respecting the repository priority). The exclude option in
       the configuration file can influence the result, but if the -‐
       -disableexcludes command line option is used, it ensures that all
       installed packages will be listed.

       dnf [options] list [--all] [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists all packages, present in the RPMDB, in a repository or
              both.

       dnf [options] list --installed [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists installed packages.

       dnf [options] list --available [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists available packages.

       dnf [options] list --extras [<package-file-spec>...]
              Lists extras, that is packages installed on the system that
              are not available in any known repository.

       dnf [options] list --obsoletes [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages installed on the system that are obsoleted by
              packages in any known repository.

       dnf [options] list --recent [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages recently added into the repositories.

       dnf [options] list --upgrades [<package-file-spec>...]
              List upgrades available for the installed packages.

       dnf [options] list --autoremove
              List packages which will be removed by the dnf autoremove
              command.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired metadata.
       See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Makecache Command
       Command: makecache
       Aliases: mc

       dnf [options] makecache
              Downloads and caches metadata for all known repos. Tries to
              avoid downloading whenever possible (e.g. when the local
              metadata hasn’t expired yet or when the metadata timestamp
              hasn’t changed).

       dnf [options] makecache --timer
              Like plain makecache, but instructs DNF to be more
              resource-aware, meaning it will not do anything if running on
              battery power and will terminate immediately if it’s too soon
              after the last successful makecache run (see dnf.conf(5),
              metadata_timer_sync).

   Mark Command
       Command: mark

       dnf mark install <package-spec>...
              Marks the specified packages as installed by user. This can be
              useful if any package was installed as a dependency and is
              desired to stay on the system when Autoremove Command or
              Remove Command along with clean_requirements_on_remove
              configuration option set to True is executed.

       dnf mark remove <package-spec>...
              Unmarks the specified packages as installed by user. Whenever
              you as a user don’t need a specific package you can mark it
              for removal. The package stays installed on the system but
              will be removed when Autoremove Command or Remove Command
              along with clean_requirements_on_remove configuration option
              set to True is executed. You should use this operation instead
              of Remove Command if you’re not sure whether the package is a
              requirement of other user installed packages on the system.

       dnf mark group <package-spec>...
              Marks the specified packages as installed by group. This can
              be useful if any package was installed as a dependency or a
              user and is desired to be protected and handled as a group
              member like during group remove.

   Module Command
       Command: module

       Modularity overview is available at man page dnf.modularity(7).
       Module subcommands take <module-spec>… arguments that specify modules
       or profiles.

       dnf [options] module install <module-spec>...
              Install module profiles, including their packages.  In case no
              profile was provided, all default profiles get installed.
              Module streams get enabled accordingly.

              This command cannot be used for switching module streams. It
              is recommended to remove all installed content from the module
              and reset the module using the reset command. After you reset
              the module, you can install the other stream.

       dnf [options] module update <module-spec>...
              Update packages associated with an active module stream,
              optionally restricted to a profile.  If the profile_name is
              provided, only the packages referenced by that profile will be
              updated.

       dnf [options] module remove <module-spec>...
              Remove installed module profiles, including packages that were
              installed with the dnf module install command. Will not remove
              packages required by other installed module profiles or by
              other user-installed packages.  In case no profile was
              provided, all installed profiles get removed.

       dnf [options] module remove --all <module-spec>...
              Remove installed module profiles, including packages that were
              installed with the dnf module install command.  With –all
              option it additionally removes all packages whose names are
              provided by specified modules. Packages required by other
              installed module profiles and packages whose names are also
              provided by any other module are not removed.

       dnf [options] module enable <module-spec>...
              Enable a module stream and make the stream RPMs available in
              the package set.

              Modular dependencies are resolved, dependencies checked and
              also recursively enabled. In case of modular dependency issue
              the operation will be rejected. To perform the action anyway
              please use --skip-broken option.

              This command cannot be used for switching module streams. It
              is recommended to remove all installed content from the
              module, and reset the module using the reset command. After
              you reset the module, you can enable the other stream.

       dnf [options] module disable <module-name>...
              Disable a module. All related module streams will become
              unavailable.  Consequently, all installed profiles will be
              removed and the module RPMs will become unavailable in the
              package set. In case of modular dependency issue the operation
              will be rejected. To perform the action anyway please use -‐
              -skip-broken option.

       dnf [options] module reset <module-name>...
              Reset module state so it’s no longer enabled or disabled.
              Consequently, all installed profiles will be removed and only
              RPMs from the default stream will be available in the package
              set.

       dnf [options] module provides <package-name-spec>...
              Lists all modular packages matching <package-name-spec> from
              all modules (including disabled), along with the modules and
              streams they belong to.

       dnf [options] module list [--all] [module_name...]
              Lists all module streams, their profiles and states (enabled,
              disabled, default).

       dnf [options] module list --enabled [module_name...]
              Lists module streams that are enabled.

       dnf [options] module list --disabled [module_name...]
              Lists module streams that are disabled.

       dnf [options] module list --installed [module_name...]
              List module streams with installed profiles.

       dnf [options] module info <module-spec>...
              Print detailed information about given module stream.

       dnf [options] module info --profile <module-spec>...
              Print detailed information about given module profiles.

       dnf [options] module repoquery <module-spec>...
              List all available packages belonging to selected modules.

       dnf [options] module repoquery --available <module-spec>...
              List all available packages belonging to selected modules.

       dnf [options] module repoquery --installed <module-spec>...
              List all installed packages with same name like packages
              belonging to selected modules.

   Provides Command
       Command: provides
       Aliases: prov, whatprovides

       dnf [options] provides <provide-spec>
              Finds the packages providing the given <provide-spec>. This is
              useful when one knows a filename and wants to find what
              package (installed or not) provides this file.  The
              <provide-spec> is gradually looked for at following locations:

              1. The <provide-spec> is matched with all file provides of any
                 available package:

                    $ dnf provides /usr/bin/gzip
                    gzip-1.9-9.fc29.x86_64 : The GNU data compression program
                    Matched from:
                    Filename    : /usr/bin/gzip

              2. Then all provides of all available packages are searched:

                    $ dnf provides "gzip(x86-64)"
                    gzip-1.9-9.fc29.x86_64 : The GNU data compression program
                    Matched from:
                    Provide     : gzip(x86-64) = 1.9-9.fc29

              3. DNF assumes that the <provide-spec> is a system command,
                 prepends it with /usr/bin/, /usr/sbin/ prefixes (one at a
                 time) and does the file provides search again. For legacy
                 reasons (packages that didn’t do UsrMove) also /bin and
                 /sbin prefixes are being searched:

                    $ dnf provides zless
                    gzip-1.9-9.fc29.x86_64 : The GNU data compression program
                    Matched from:
                    Filename    : /usr/bin/zless

              4. If this last step also fails, DNF returns “Error: No
                 Matches found”.

              This command by default does not force a sync of expired
              metadata. See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Reinstall Command
       Command: reinstall
       Aliases: rei

       dnf [options] reinstall <package-spec>...
              Installs the specified packages, fails if some of the packages
              are either not installed or not available (i.e. there is no
              repository where to download the same RPM).

   Remove Command
       Command: remove
       Aliases: rm
       Aliases for explicit NEVRA matching: remove-n, remove-na, remove-nevra
       Deprecated aliases: erase, erase-n, erase-na, erase-nevra

       dnf [options] remove <package-spec>...
              Removes the specified packages from the system along with any
              packages depending on the packages being removed. Each <spec>
              can be either a <package-spec>, which specifies a package
              directly, or a @<group-spec>, which specifies an (environment)
              group which contains it. If clean_requirements_on_remove is
              enabled (the default), also removes any dependencies that are
              no longer needed.

       dnf [options] remove --duplicates
              Removes older versions of duplicate packages. To ensure the
              integrity of the system it reinstalls the newest package. In
              some cases the command cannot resolve conflicts. In such cases
              the dnf shell command with remove --duplicates and upgrade
              dnf-shell sub-commands could help.

       dnf [options] remove --oldinstallonly
              Removes old installonly packages, keeping only latest versions
              and version of running kernel.

              There are also a few specific remove commands remove-n,
              remove-na and remove-nevra that allow the specification of an
              exact argument in the NEVRA format.

   Remove Examples
       dnf remove acpi tito
              Remove the acpi and tito packages.

       dnf remove $(dnf repoquery --extras --exclude=tito,acpi)
              Remove packages not present in any repository, but don’t
              remove the tito and acpi packages (they still might be removed
              if they depend on some of the removed packages).

       Remove older versions of duplicated packages (an equivalent of yum’s
       package-cleanup –cleandups):

          dnf remove --duplicates

   Repoinfo Command
       Command: repoinfo

          An alias for the repolist command that provides more detailed
          information like dnf repolist -v.

   Repolist Command
       Command: repolist

       dnf [options] repolist [--enabled|--disabled|--all]
              Depending on the exact command lists enabled, disabled or all
              known repositories. Lists all enabled repositories by default.
              Provides more detailed information when -v option is used.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired metadata.
       See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Repoquery Command
       Command: repoquery
       Aliases: rq
       Aliases for explicit NEVRA matching: repoquery-n, repoquery-na, repoquery-nevra

       dnf [options] repoquery [<select-options>] [<query-options>]
       [<package-file-spec>]
              Searches available DNF repositories for selected packages and
              displays the requested information about them. It is an
              equivalent of rpm -q for remote repositories.

       dnf [options] repoquery --querytags
              Provides the list of tags recognized by the --queryformat
              repoquery option.

              There are also a few specific repoquery commands repoquery-n,
              repoquery-na and repoquery-nevra that allow the specification
              of an exact argument in the NEVRA format (does not affect
              arguments of options like –whatprovides <arg>, …).

   Select Options
       Together with <package-file-spec>, control what packages are
       displayed in the output. If <package-file-spec> is given, limits the
       resulting set of packages to those matching the specification. All
       packages are considered if no <package-file-spec> is specified.

       <package-file-spec>
              Package specification in the NEVRA format
              (name[-[epoch:]version[-release]][.arch]), a package provide
              or a file provide. See Specifying Packages.

       -a, --all
              Query all packages (for rpmquery compatibility, also a
              shorthand for repoquery ‘*’ or repoquery without arguments).

       --arch <arch>[,<arch>...], --archlist <arch>[,<arch>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages of selected
              architectures (default is all architectures). In some cases
              the result is affected by the basearch of the running system,
              therefore to run repoquery for an arch incompatible with your
              system use the --forcearch=<arch> option to change the
              basearch.

       --duplicates
              Limit the resulting set to installed duplicate packages (i.e.
              more package versions for the same name and architecture).
              Installonly packages are excluded from this set.

       --unneeded
              Limit the resulting set to leaves packages that were installed
              as dependencies so they are no longer needed. This switch
              lists packages that are going to be removed after executing
              the dnf autoremove command.

       --available
              Limit the resulting set to available packages only (set by
              default).

       --disable-modular-filtering
              Disables filtering of modular packages, so that packages of
              inactive module streams are included in the result.

       --extras
              Limit the resulting set to packages that are not present in
              any of the available repositories.

       -f <file>, --file <file>
              Limit the resulting set only to the package that owns <file>.

       --installed
              Limit the resulting set to installed packages only. The
              exclude option in the configuration file might influence the
              result, but if the command line option  --disableexcludes is
              used, it ensures that all installed packages will be listed.

       --installonly
              Limit the resulting set to installed installonly packages.

       --latest-limit <number>
              Limit the resulting set to <number> of latest packages for
              every package name and architecture.  If <number> is negative,
              skip <number> of latest packages. For a negative <number> use
              the --latest-limit=<number> syntax.

       --recent
              Limit the resulting set to packages that were recently edited.

       --repo <repoid>
              Limit the resulting set only to packages from a repository
              identified by <repoid>.  Can be used multiple times with
              accumulative effect.

       --unsatisfied
              Report unsatisfied dependencies among installed packages (i.e.
              missing requires and and existing conflicts).

       --upgrades
              Limit the resulting set to packages that provide an upgrade
              for some already installed package.

       --userinstalled
              Limit the resulting set to packages installed by the user. The
              exclude option in the configuration file might influence the
              result, but if the command line option  --disableexcludes is
              used, it ensures that all installed packages will be listed.

       --whatdepends <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that require,
              enhance, recommend, suggest or supplement any of
              <capabilities>.

       --whatconflicts <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that conflict with
              any of <capabilities>.

       --whatenhances <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that enhance any of
              <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to list all
              depending packages.

       --whatobsoletes <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that obsolete any of
              <capabilities>.

       --whatprovides <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that provide any of
              <capabilities>.

       --whatrecommends <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that recommend any of
              <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to list all
              depending packages.

       --whatrequires <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that require any of
              <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to list all
              depending packages.

       --whatsuggests <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that suggest any of
              <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to list all
              depending packages.

       --whatsupplements <capability>[,<capability>...]
              Limit the resulting set only to packages that supplement any
              of <capabilities>. Use --whatdepends if you want to list all
              depending packages.

       --alldeps
              This option is stackable with --whatrequires or --whatdepends
              only. Additionally it adds all packages requiring the package
              features to the result set (used as default).

       --exactdeps
              This option is stackable with --whatrequires or --whatdepends
              only. Limit the resulting set only to packages that require
              <capability> specified by –whatrequires.

       --srpm Operate on the corresponding source RPM.

   Query Options
       Set what information is displayed about each package.

       The following are mutually exclusive, i.e. at most one can be
       specified. If no query option is given, matching packages are
       displayed in the standard NEVRA notation.

       -i, --info
              Show detailed information about the package.

       -l, --list
              Show the list of files in the package.

       -s, --source
              Show the package source RPM name.

       --changelogs
              Print the package changelogs.

       --conflicts
              Display capabilities that the package conflicts with. Same as
              --qf "%{conflicts}.

       --depends
              Display capabilities that the package depends on, enhances,
              recommends, suggests or supplements.

       --enhances
              Display capabilities enhanced by the package. Same as --qf
              "%{enhances}"".

       --location
              Show a location where the package could be downloaded from.

       --obsoletes
              Display capabilities that the package obsoletes. Same as --qf
              "%{obsoletes}".

       --provides
              Display capabilities provided by the package. Same as --qf
              "%{provides}".

       --recommends
              Display capabilities recommended by the package. Same as --qf
              "%{recommends}".

       --requires
              Display capabilities that the package depends on. Same as --qf
              "%{requires}".

       --requires-pre
              Display capabilities that the package depends on for running a
              %pre script.  Same as --qf "%{requires-pre}".

       --suggests
              Display capabilities suggested by the package. Same as --qf
              "%{suggests}".

       --supplements
              Display capabilities supplemented by the package. Same as --qf
              "%{supplements}".

       --tree Display a recursive tree of packages with capabilities
              specified by one of the following supplementary options:
              --whatrequires, --requires, --conflicts, --enhances,
              --suggests, --provides, --supplements, --recommends.

       --deplist
              Produce a list of all direct dependencies and what packages
              provide those dependencies for the given packages. The result
              only shows the newest providers (which can be changed by using
              –verbose).

       --nvr  Show found packages in the name-version-release format. Same
              as --qf "%{name}-%{version}-%{release}".

       --nevra
              Show found packages in the
              name-epoch:version-release.architecture format. Same as --qf
              "%{name}-%{epoch}:%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}" (default).

       --envra
              Show found packages in the
              epoch:name-version-release.architecture format. Same as --qf
              "%{epoch}:%{name}-%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}"

       --qf <format>, --queryformat <format>
              Custom display format. <format> is the string to output for
              each matched package. Every occurrence of %{<tag>} within is
              replaced by the corresponding attribute of the package. The
              list of recognized tags can be displayed by running dnf
              repoquery --querytags.

       --recursive
              Query packages recursively. Has to be used with --whatrequires
              <REQ> (optionally with --alldeps, but not with --exactdeps) or
              with --requires <REQ> --resolve.

       --resolve
              resolve capabilities to originating package(s).

   Examples
       Display NEVRAs of all available packages matching light*:

          dnf repoquery 'light*'

       Display NEVRAs of all available packages matching name light* and
       architecture noarch (accepts only arguments in the “<name>.<arch>”
       format):

          dnf repoquery-na 'light*.noarch'

       Display requires of all lighttpd packages:

          dnf repoquery --requires lighttpd

       Display packages providing the requires of python packages:

          dnf repoquery --requires python --resolve

       Display source rpm of ligttpd package:

          dnf repoquery --source lighttpd

       Display package name that owns the given file:

          dnf repoquery --file /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf

       Display name, architecture and the containing repository of all
       lighttpd packages:

          dnf repoquery --queryformat '%{name}.%{arch} : %{reponame}' lighttpd

       Display all available packages providing “webserver”:

          dnf repoquery --whatprovides webserver

       Display all available packages providing “webserver” but only for
       “i686” architecture:

          dnf repoquery --whatprovides webserver --arch i686

       Display duplicate packages:

          dnf repoquery --duplicates

       Display source packages that require a <provide> for a build:

          dnf repoquery --disablerepo="*" --enablerepo="*-source" --arch=src --whatrequires <provide>

   Repository-Packages Command
       Command: repository-packages
       Deprecated aliases: repo-pkgs, repo-packages, repository-pkgs

       The repository-packages command allows the user to run commands on
       top of all packages in the repository named <repoid>. However, any
       dependency resolution takes into account packages from all enabled
       repositories. The <package-file-spec> and <package-spec>
       specifications further limit the candidates to only those packages
       matching at least one of them.

       The info subcommand lists description and summary information about
       packages depending on the packages’ relation to the repository. The
       list subcommand just prints lists of those packages.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> check-update
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              Non-interactively checks if updates of the specified packages
              in the repository are available. DNF exit code will be 100
              when there are updates available and a list of the updates
              will be printed.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info [--all]
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List all related packages.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --installed
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages installed from the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --available
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages available in the repository but not currently
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --extras
       [<package-file-specs>...]
              List packages installed from the repository that are not
              available in any repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --obsoletes
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages in the repository that obsolete packages
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --recent
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages recently added into the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> info --upgrades
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages in the repository that upgrade packages
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> install
       [<package-spec>...]
              Install all packages in the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list [--all]
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List all related packages.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --installed
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages installed from the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --available
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages available in the repository but not currently
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --extras
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages installed from the repository that are not
              available in any repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --obsoletes
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages in the repository that obsolete packages
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --recent
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages recently added into the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> list --upgrades
       [<package-file-spec>...]
              List packages in the repository that upgrade packages
              installed on the system.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> move-to
       [<package-spec>...]
              Reinstall all those packages that are available in the
              repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> reinstall
       [<package-spec>...]
              Run the reinstall-old subcommand. If it fails, run the move-to
              subcommand.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> reinstall-old
       [<package-spec>...]
              Reinstall all those packages that were installed from the
              repository and simultaneously are available in the repository.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> remove [<package-spec>...]
              Remove all packages installed from the repository along with
              any packages depending on the packages being removed. If
              clean_requirements_on_remove is enabled (the default) also
              removes any dependencies that are no longer needed.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> remove-or-distro-sync
       [<package-spec>...]
              Select all packages installed from the repository. Upgrade,
              downgrade or keep those of them that are available in another
              repository to match the latest version available there and
              remove the others along with any packages depending on the
              packages being removed. If clean_requirements_on_remove is
              enabled (the default) also removes any dependencies that are
              no longer needed.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> remove-or-reinstall
       [<package-spec>...]
              Select all packages installed from the repository. Reinstall
              those of them that are available in another repository and
              remove the others along with any packages depending on the
              packages being removed. If clean_requirements_on_remove is
              enabled (the default) also removes any dependencies that are
              no longer needed.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> upgrade
       [<package-spec>...]
              Update all packages to the highest resolvable version
              available in the repository.  When versions are specified in
              the <package-spec>, update to these versions.

       dnf [options] repository-packages <repoid> upgrade-to
       [<package-specs>...]
              A deprecated alias for the upgrade subcommand.

   Search Command
       Command: search
       Aliases: se

       dnf [options] search [--all] <keywords>...
              Search package metadata for keywords. Keywords are matched as
              case-insensitive substrings, globbing is supported.  By
              default lists packages that match all requested keys (AND
              operation). Keys are searched in package names and summaries.
              If the “–all” option is used, lists packages that match at
              least one of the keys (an OR operation).  In addition the keys
              are searched in the package descriptions and URLs.  The result
              is sorted from the most relevant results to the least.

       This command by default does not force a sync of expired metadata.
       See also Metadata Synchronization.

   Shell Command
       Command: shell
       Aliases: sh

       dnf [options] shell [filename]
              Open an interactive shell for conducting multiple commands
              during a single execution of DNF. These commands can be issued
              manually or passed to DNF from a file. The commands are much
              the same as the normal DNF command line options. There are a
              few additional commands documented below.

              config [conf-option] [value]

                     · Set a configuration option to a requested value. If
                       no value is given it prints the current value.

              repo [list|enable|disable] [repo-id]

                     · list: list repositories and their status

                     · enable: enable repository

                     · disable: disable repository

              transaction [list|reset|solve|run]

                     · list: resolve and list the content of the transaction

                     · reset: reset the transaction

                     · run: resolve and run the transaction

              Note that all local packages must be used in the first shell
              transaction subcommand (e.g.  install
              /tmp/nodejs-1-1.x86_64.rpm /tmp/acpi-1-1.noarch.rpm) otherwise
              an error will occur.  Any disable, enable, and reset module
              operations (e.g. module enable nodejs) must also be performed
              before any other shell transaction subcommand is used.

   Swap Command
       Command: swap

       dnf [options] swap <remove-spec> <install-spec>
          Remove spec and install spec in one transaction. Each <spec> can
          be either a <package-spec>, which specifies a package directly, or
          a @<group-spec>, which specifies an (environment) group which
          contains it. Automatic conflict solving is provided in DNF by the
          –allowerasing option that provides the functionality of the swap
          command automatically.

   Updateinfo Command
       Command: updateinfo
       Deprecated aliases: list-updateinfo, list-security, list-sec, info-updateinfo, info-security, info-sec, summary-updateinfo

       dnf [options] updateinfo [--summary|--list|--info] [<availability>]
       [<spec>...]
              Display information about update advisories.

              Depending on the output type, DNF displays just counts of
              advisory types (omitted or --summary), list of advisories
              (--list) or detailed information (--info). The -v option
              extends the output. When used with --info, the information is
              even more detailed. When used with --list, an additional
              column with date of the last advisory update is added.

              <availability> specifies whether advisories about newer
              versions of installed packages (omitted or --available),
              advisories about equal and older versions of installed
              packages (--installed), advisories about newer versions of
              those installed packages for which a newer version is
              available (--updates) or advisories about any versions of
              installed packages (--all) are taken into account. Most of the
              time, --available and --updates displays the same output. The
              outputs differ only in the cases when an advisory refers to a
              newer version but there is no enabled repository which
              contains any newer version.

              Note, that --available tooks only the latest installed
              versions of packages into account. In case of the kernel
              packages (when multiple version could be installed
              simultaneously) also packages of the currently running version
              of kernel are added.

              To print only advisories referencing a CVE or a bugzilla use
              --with-cve or --with-bz options. When these switches are used
              also the output of the --list is altered - the ID of the CVE
              or the bugzilla is printed instead of the one of the advisory.

              If given and if neither ID, type (bugfix, enhancement,
              security/sec) nor a package name of an advisory matches
              <spec>, the advisory is not taken into account. The matching
              is case-sensitive and in the case of advisory IDs and package
              names, globbing is supported.

              Output of the --summary option is affected by the
              autocheck_running_kernel configuration option.

   Upgrade Command
       Command: upgrade
       Aliases: up
       Deprecated aliases: update, upgrade-to, update-to, localupdate

       dnf [options] upgrade
              Updates each package to the latest version that is both
              available and resolvable.

       dnf [options] upgrade <package-spec>...
              Updates each specified package to the latest available
              version. Updates dependencies as necessary. When versions are
              specified in the <package-spec>, update to these versions.

       dnf [options] upgrade @<spec>...
              Alias for the dnf module update command.

       If the main obsoletes configure option is true or the --obsoletes
       flag is present, dnf will include package obsoletes in its
       calculations.  For more information see obsoletes.

       See also Configuration Files Replacement Policy.

   Upgrade-Minimal Command
       Command: upgrade-minimal
       Aliases: up-min
       Deprecated aliases: update-minimal

       dnf [options] upgrade-minimal
              Updates each package to the latest available version that
              provides a bugfix, enhancement or a fix for a security issue
              (security).

       dnf [options] upgrade-minimal <package-spec>...
              Updates each specified package to the latest available version
              that provides a bugfix, enhancement or a fix for security
              issue (security). Updates dependencies as necessary.

SPECIFYING PACKAGES         top

       Many commands take a <package-spec> parameter that selects a package
       for the operation. The <package-spec> argument is matched against
       package NEVRAs, provides and file provides.

       <package-file-spec> is similar to <package-spec>, except provides
       matching is not performed. Therefore, <package-file-spec> is matched
       only against NEVRAs and file provides.

       <package-name-spec> is matched against NEVRAs only.

   Globs
       Package specification supports the same glob pattern matching that
       shell does, in all three above mentioned packages it matches against
       (NEVRAs, provides and file provides).

       The following patterns are supported:

       *      Matches any number of characters.

       ?      Matches any single character.

       []     Matches any one of the enclosed characters. A pair of
              characters separated by a hyphen denotes a range expression;
              any character that falls between those two characters,
              inclusive, is matched. If the first character following the [
              is a ! or a ^ then any character not enclosed is matched.

       {}     Matches any of the comma separated list of enclosed strings.

   NEVRA Matching
       When matching against NEVRAs, partial matching is supported. DNF
       tries to match the spec against the following list of NEVRA forms (in
       decreasing order of priority):

       · name-[epoch:]version-release.arch

       · name.arch

       · name

       · name-[epoch:]version-release

       · name-[epoch:]version

       Note that name can in general contain dashes (e.g.
       package-with-dashes).

       The first form that matches any packages is used and the remaining
       forms are not tried. If none of the forms match any packages, an
       attempt is made to match the <package-spec> against full package
       NEVRAs. This is only relevant if globs are present in the
       <package-spec>.

       <package-spec> matches NEVRAs the same way <package-name-spec> does,
       but in case matching NEVRAs fails, it attempts to match against
       provides and file provides of packages as well.

       You can specify globs as part of any of the five NEVRA components.
       You can also specify a glob pattern to match over multiple NEVRA
       components (in other words, to match across the NEVRA separators). In
       that case, however, you need to write the spec to match against full
       package NEVRAs, as it is not possible to split such spec into NEVRA
       forms.

   Specifying NEVRA Matching Explicitly
       Some commands (autoremove, install, remove and repoquery) also have
       aliases with suffixes -n, -na and -nevra that allow to explicitly
       specify how to parse the arguments:

       · Command install-n only matches against name.

       · Command install-na only matches against name.arch.

       · Command install-nevra only matches against
         name-[epoch:]version-release.arch.

SPECIFYING PROVIDES         top

       <provide-spec> in command descriptions means the command operates on
       packages providing the given spec. This can either be an explicit
       provide, an implicit provide (i.e. name of the package) or a file
       provide. The selection is case-sensitive and globbing is supported.

SPECIFYING GROUPS         top

       <group-spec> allows one to select (environment) groups a particular
       operation should work on. It is a case insensitive string (supporting
       globbing characters) that is matched against a group’s ID, canonical
       name and name translated into the current LC_MESSAGES locale (if
       possible).

SPECIFYING MODULES         top

       <module-spec> allows one to select modules or profiles a particular
       operation should work on.

       It is in the form of NAME:STREAM:VERSION:CONTEXT:ARCH/PROFILE and
       supported partial forms are the following:

       · NAME

       · NAME:STREAM

       · NAME:STREAM:VERSION

       · NAME:STREAM:VERSION:CONTEXT

       · all above combinations with ::ARCH (e.g. NAME::ARCH)

       · NAME:STREAM:VERSION:CONTEXT:ARCH

       · all above combinations with /PROFILE (e.g. NAME/PROFILE)

       In case stream is not specified, the enabled or the default stream is
       used, in this order. In case profile is not specified, the system
       default profile or the ‘default’ profile is used.

SPECIFYING TRANSACTIONS         top

       <transaction-spec> can be in one of several forms. If it is an
       integer, it specifies a transaction ID. Specifying last is the same
       as specifying the ID of the most recent transaction. The last form is
       last-<offset>, where <offset> is a positive integer. It specifies
       offset-th transaction preceding the most recent transaction.

PACKAGE FILTERING         top

       Package filtering filters packages out from the available package
       set, making them invisible to most of dnf commands. They cannot be
       used in a transaction. Packages can be filtered out by either Exclude
       Filtering or Modular Filtering.

   Exclude Filtering
       Exclude Filtering is a mechanism used by a user or by a DNF plugin to
       modify the set of available packages. Exclude Filtering can be
       modified by either includepkgs or excludepkgs configuration options
       in configuration files. The --disableexcludes command line option can
       be used to override excludes from configuration files. In addition to
       user-configured excludes, plugins can also extend the set of excluded
       packages. To disable excludes from a DNF plugin you can use the -‐
       -disableplugin command line option.

       To disable all excludes for e.g. the install command you can use the
       following combination of command line options:

       dnf --disableexcludes=all --disableplugin="*" install bash

   Modular Filtering
       Please see the modularity documentation for details on how Modular
       Filtering works.

       With modularity, only RPM packages from active module streams are
       included in the available package set. RPM packages from inactive
       module streams, as well as non-modular packages with the same name or
       provides as a package from an active module stream, are filtered out.
       Modular filtering is not applied to packages added from the command
       line, installed packages, or packages from repositories with
       module_hotfixes=true in their .repo file.

       Disabling of modular filtering is not recommended, because it could
       cause the system to get into a broken state. To disable modular
       filtering for a particular repository, specify module_hotfixes=true
       in the .repo file or use --setopt=<repo_id>.module_hotfixes=true.

       To discover the module which contains an excluded package use dnf
       module provides.

METADATA SYNCHRONIZATION         top

       Correct operation of DNF depends on having access to up-to-date data
       from all enabled repositories but contacting remote mirrors on every
       operation considerably slows it down and costs bandwidth for both the
       client and the repository provider. The metadata_expire (see
       dnf.conf(5)) repository configuration option is used by DNF to
       determine whether a particular local copy of repository data is due
       to be re-synced. It is crucial that the repository providers set the
       option well, namely to a value where it is guaranteed that if
       particular metadata was available in time T on the server, then all
       packages it references will still be available for download from the
       server in time T + metadata_expire.

       To further reduce the bandwidth load, some of the commands where
       having up-to-date metadata is not critical (e.g. the list command) do
       not look at whether a repository is expired and whenever any version
       of it is locally available to the user’s account, it will be used.
       For non-root use, see also the --cacheonly switch. Note that in all
       situations the user can force synchronization of all enabled
       repositories with the --refresh switch.

CONFIGURATION FILES REPLACEMENT POLICY         top

       The updated packages could replace the old modified configuration
       files with the new ones or keep the older files. Neither of the files
       are actually replaced.  To the conflicting ones RPM gives additional
       suffix to the origin name. Which file should maintain the true name
       after transaction is not controlled by package manager but is
       specified by each package itself, following packaging guideline.

FILES         top

       Cache Files
              /var/cache/dnf

       Main Configuration
              /etc/dnf/dnf.conf

       Repository
              /etc/yum.repos.d/

SEE ALSO         top

       · dnf.conf(5), DNF Configuration Reference

       · dnf-PLUGIN(8) for documentation on DNF plugins.

       · dnf.modularity(7), Modularity overview.

       · dnf-transaction-json(5), Stored Transaction JSON Format
         Specification.

       · DNF project homepage (‐
         https://github.com/rpm-software-management/dnf/ )

       · How to report a bug (‐
         https://github.com/rpm-software-management/dnf/wiki/Bug-Reporting )

       · YUM project homepage (http://yum.baseurl.org/ )

AUTHOR         top

       See AUTHORS in DNF source distribution.

COPYRIGHT         top

       2012-2020, Red Hat, Licensed under GPLv2+

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the dnf (DNF Package Manager) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://github.com/rpm-software-management/dnf⟩.  It is not known how
       to report bugs for this man page; if you know, please send a mail to
       man-pages@man7.org.  This page was obtained from the project's
       upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/rpm-software-management/dnf.git⟩ on 2020-09-18.
       (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in
       the repository was 2020-09-18.)  If you discover any rendering prob‐
       lems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a bet‐
       ter or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections
       or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not
       part of the original manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

4.3.0                           Sep 18, 2020                          DNF(8)

Pages that refer to this page: systemd-nspawn(1)dnf.conf(5)yum.conf(5)