gshadow(5) — Linux manual page


GSHADOW(5)           File Formats and Configuration           GSHADOW(5)

NAME         top

       gshadow - shadowed group file

DESCRIPTION         top

       /etc/gshadow contains the shadowed information for group

       This file must not be readable by regular users if password
       security is to be maintained.

       Each line of this file contains the following colon-separated

       group name
           It must be a valid group name, which exist on the system.

       encrypted password
           Refer to crypt(3) for details on how this string is

           If the password field contains some string that is not a
           valid result of crypt(3), for instance ! or *, users will not
           be able to use a unix password to access the group (but group
           members do not need the password).

           The password is used when a user who is not a member of the
           group wants to gain the permissions of this group (see

           This field may be empty, in which case only the group members
           can gain the group permissions.

           A password field which starts with an exclamation mark means
           that the password is locked. The remaining characters on the
           line represent the password field before the password was

           This password supersedes any password specified in

           It must be a comma-separated list of user names.

           Administrators can change the password or the members of the

           Administrators also have the same permissions as the members
           (see below).

           It must be a comma-separated list of user names.

           Members can access the group without being prompted for a

           You should use the same list of users as in /etc/group.

FILES         top

           Group account information.

           Secure group account information.

SEE ALSO         top

       gpasswd(5), group(5), grpck(8), grpconv(8), newgrp(1).

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the shadow-utils (utilities for managing
       accounts and shadow password files) project.  Information about
       the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug
       report for this manual page, send it to  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2023-12-22.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2023-12-15.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
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       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

shadow-utils 4.11.1            12/22/2023                     GSHADOW(5)

Pages that refer to this page: gpasswd(1)newgrp(1)sg(1)group(5)grpck(8)vipw(8)