rsync(1) — Linux manual page


rsync(1)                        User Commands                       rsync(1)

NAME         top

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS         top

           rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source
       files instead of copying.

DESCRIPTION         top

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It
       can copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large number of options
       that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its
       delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between the source files
       and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or in last-modified time.  Any changes in the other preserved
       attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data does not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal
              for mirroring)

GENERAL         top

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
       current host (it does not support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:
       using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell
       transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains a
       single colon (:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an
       rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination path
       contains a double colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR
       when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON
       FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to
       this latter rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
       destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to
       "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a
       remote host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only

       Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side as
       the server.  Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is
       always a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-
       shell spawned process.

SETUP         top

       See the file for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the
       rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync
       uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured to
       use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the
       -e command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination

USAGE         top

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

           rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the
       current directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If any of
       the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-
       update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the
       differences in the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the
       command-line (*.c) into a list of files is handled by the shell
       before it runs rsync and not by rsync itself (exactly the same as all
       other Posix-style programs).

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar
       on the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local
       machine.  The files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures
       that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships,
       etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will
       be used to reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid
       creating an additional directory level at the destination.  You can
       think of a trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of
       this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in
       both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred
       to the containing directory on the destination.  In other words, each
       of the following commands copies the files in the same way, including
       their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

           rsync -av /src/foo /dest
           rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example,
       both of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

           rsync -av host: /dest
           rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves
       like an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
       particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

ADVANCED USAGE         top

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done
       by specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the
       first, or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

           rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

           rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
           rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to
       escape the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand.
       For instance:

           rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest


       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the
       transport.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync
       daemon, typically using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the
       daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
       AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information
       on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync://

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
              specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since that
              overrides the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid
       the password prompt by setting the environment variable
       RSYNC_PASSWORD to the password you want to use or using the
       --password-file option.  This may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
       users.  On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
       environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
       your web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must
       support proxy connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the
       commands you wish to run in place of making a direct socket
       connection.  The string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the
       hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a
       single "%" in your string).  For example:

           export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
           rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
           rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a
       proxyhost, which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on
       the targethost (%H).

       Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set, that
       program will be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
       using the default shell of the system() call.


       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon
       (such as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket
       connections into a system (other than what is already required to
       allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host
       using a remote shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server
       that expects to read its config file in the home dir of the remote
       user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style
       transfer's data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by the
       remote user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or
       change the uid used by the daemon. (For another way to encrypt a
       daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a local port to a
       remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote
       host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
       connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
       rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must
       explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
       --rsh=COMMAND option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will
       not turn on this functionality.) For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind
       that the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-
       user value (for a module that requires user-based authentication).
       This means that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when
       specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short
       version of the --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will
       be used to log-in to the "module".


       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to
       have a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured
       something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming
       connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to
       start a daemon that will handling incoming socket connections, see
       the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is the config file for the
       daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
       (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.


       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of
       identically named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate
       filenames, and may confuse someone when the files are transferred in
       a different order than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider
       using --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted transfer
       order, but does make the final file-updating phase happen much more

EXAMPLES         top

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

           rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my
       machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile

               rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
               rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       This allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection.  I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which
       saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the

           rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTION SUMMARY         top

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Please
       refer to the detailed description below for a complete description.

       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
       --debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
       --stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
       --quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
       --no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
       --checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
       --archive, -a            archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
       --no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       --recursive, -r          recurse into directories
       --relative, -R           use relative path names
       --no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
       --backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
       --backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
       --suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       --update, -u             skip files that are newer on the receiver
       --inplace                update destination files in-place
       --append                 append data onto shorter files
       --append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
       --dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
       --mkpath                 create the destination's path component
       --links, -l              copy symlinks as symlinks
       --copy-links, -L         transform symlink into referent file/dir
       --copy-unsafe-links      only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
       --safe-links             ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
       --munge-links            munge symlinks to make them safe & unusable
       --copy-dirlinks, -k      transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       --keep-dirlinks, -K      treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
       --hard-links, -H         preserve hard links
       --perms, -p              preserve permissions
       --executability, -E      preserve executability
       --chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
       --acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
       --xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
       --owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
       --group, -g              preserve group
       --devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
       --specials               preserve special files
       -D                       same as --devices --specials
       --times, -t              preserve modification times
       --atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
       --open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
       --crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
       --omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
       --omit-link-times, -J    omit symlinks from --times
       --super                  receiver attempts super-user activities
       --fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       --sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
       --preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
       --write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
       --dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
       --whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
       --checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
       --one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
       --block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
       --rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
       --rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
       --existing               skip creating new files on receiver
       --ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
       --remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
       --del                    an alias for --delete-during
       --delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
       --delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
       --delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
       --delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
       --delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
       --delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
       --ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
       --delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
       --ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
       --force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
       --max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
       --max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
       --min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
       --max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
       --partial                keep partially transferred files
       --partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
       --delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
       --prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
       --numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
       --usermap=STRING         custom username mapping
       --groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
       --chown=USER:GROUP       simple username/groupname mapping
       --timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
       --contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       --ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
       --size-only              skip files that match in size
       --modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       --temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
       --fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
       --compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
       --copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
       --link-dest=DIR          hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       --compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
       --compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
       --compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
       --skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       --cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       --filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
       -F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
       --exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
       --exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
       --include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
       --include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
       --files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
       --from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
       --protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
       --address=ADDRESS        bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
       --port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
       --outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
       --stats                  give some file-transfer stats
       --8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       --human-readable, -h     output numbers in a human-readable format
       --progress               show progress during transfer
       -P                       same as --partial --progress
       --itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
       --remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
       --out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
       --log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
       --log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
       --password-file=FILE     read daemon-access password from FILE
       --early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
       --list-only              list the files instead of copying them
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
       --write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
       --only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
       --read-batch=FILE        read a batched update from FILE
       --protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
       --checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
       --help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following
       options are accepted:

       --daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
       --address=ADDRESS        bind to the specified address
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
       --no-detach              do not detach from the parent
       --port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
       --log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
       --log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)

OPTIONS         top

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
       letter) options.  The full list of the available options are
       described below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way,
       the choices are comma-separated.  Some options only have a long
       variant, not a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter
       is only listed after the long variant, even though it must also be
       specified for the short.  When specifying a parameter, you can either
       use the form --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The
       parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the
       shell's command-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~)
       in a filename is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo will
       not change the tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for

       --help, -h (*)
              Print a short help page describing the options available in
              rsync and exit.  (*) The -h short option will only invoke
              --help when used without other options since it normally means

       --version, -V
              Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

              The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms,
              the default list of compression algorithms, a list of
              compiled-in capabilities, a link to the rsync web site, and
              some license/copyright info.

       --verbose, -v
              This option increases the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently.  A
              single -v will give you information about what files are being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options
              will give you information on what files are being skipped and
              slightly more information at the end.  More than two -v
              options should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting
              of groups of --info and --debug options.  You can choose to
              use these newer options in addition to, or in place of using
              --verbose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied
              settings of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for
              help that tells you exactly what flags are set for each
              increase in verbosity.

              However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity"
              setting will limit how high of a level the various individual
              flags can be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max
              is 2, then any info and/or debug flag that is set to a higher
              value than what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the
              -vv level in the daemon's logging.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
              information output you want to see.  An individual flag name
              may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence
              that output, 1 being the default output level, and higher
              numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those that
              support higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the
              available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
              are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format
              and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for
              more information on what is output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the
              server side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control
              (if one or more flags needed to be send to the server and the
              server was too old to understand them).  See also the
              "max verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug
              output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be
              followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that
              output, 1 being the default output level, and higher numbers
              increasing the output of that flag (for those that support
              higher levels).  Use --debug=help to see all the available
              flag names, what they output, and what flag names are added
              for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note that some debug messages will only be output when
              --stderr=all is specified, especially those pertaining to I/O
              and buffer debugging.

              Beginning in 3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to
              the server side in order to allow you to specify different
              debug values for each side of the transfer, as well as to
              specify a new debug option that is only present in one of the
              rsync versions.  If you want to duplicate the same option on
              both sides, using brace expansion is an easy way to save you
              some typing.  This works in zsh and bash:

                  rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

              This option controls which processes output to stderr and if
              info messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings
              can be abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.
              The 3 possible choices are:

              o      errors - (the default) causes all the rsync processes
                     to send an error directly to stderr, even if the
                     process is on the remote side of the transfer.  Info
                     messages are sent to the client side via the protocol
                     stream.  If stderr is not available (i.e. when directly
                     connecting with a daemon via a socket) errors fall back
                     to being sent via the protocol stream.

              o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error) to get
                     written directly to stderr from all (possible)
                     processes.  This causes stderr to become line-buffered
                     (instead of raw) and eliminates the ability to divide
                     up the info and error messages by file handle.  For
                     those doing debugging or using several levels of
                     verbosity, this option can help to avoid clogging up
                     the transfer stream (which should prevent any chance of
                     a deadlock bug hanging things up).  It also enables the
                     outputting of some I/O related debug messages.

              o      client - causes all rsync messages to be sent to the
                     client side via the protocol stream.  One client
                     process outputs all messages, with errors on stderr and
                     info messages on stdout.  This was the default in older
                     rsync versions, but can cause error delays when a lot
                     of transfer data is ahead of the messages.  If you're
                     pushing files to an older rsync, you may want to use
                     --stderr=all since that idiom has been around for
                     several releases.

              This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began
              the forwarding of a non-default setting to the remote side,
              though rsync uses the backward-compatible options
              --msgs2stderr and --no-msgs2stderr to represent the all and
              client settings, respectively.  A newer rsync will continue to
              accept these older option names to maintain compatibility.

       --quiet, -q
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
              from the remote server.  This option is useful when invoking
              rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the
              client at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the
              message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list
              of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync
              host::" request (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol),
              so omit this option if you want to request the list of modules
              from the daemon.

       --ignore-times, -I
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same
              size and have the same modification timestamp.  This option
              turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be

              This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding
              files that need to be transferred, changing it from the
              default of transferring files with either a changed size or a
              changed last-modified time to just looking for files that have
              changed in size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync
              after using another mirroring system which may not preserve
              timestamps exactly.

       --modify-window=NUM, -@
              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
              value.  The default is 0, which matches just integer seconds.
              If you specify a negative value (and the receiver is at least
              version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into
              account.  Specifying 1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows
              FAT filesystems, because FAT represents times with a 2-second
              resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up
              to 1 second).

              If you want all your transfers to default to comparing
              nanoseconds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these lines
              in it:

                  rsync alias -a -a@-1
                  rsync alias -t -t@-1

              With that as the default, you'd need to specify --modify-
              window=0 (aka -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g.
              if you're copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving
              rsync is older than 3.1.3.

       --checksum, -c
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been
              changed and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option,
              rsync uses a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each
              file's size and time of last modification match between the
              sender and receiver.  This option changes this to compare a
              128-bit checksum for each file that has a matching size.
              Generating the checksums means that both sides will expend a
              lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the
              transfer, so this can slow things down significantly (and this
              is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed

              The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the
              file-system scan that builds the list of the available files.
              The receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same
              size as the corresponding sender's file: files with either a
              changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
              correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a
              whole-file checksum that is generated as the file is
              transferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer
              verification has nothing to do with this option's before-the-
              transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.

              The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and
              the server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-
              choice (--cc) option or an environment variable that is
              discussed in that option's section.

       --archive, -a
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying
              you want recursion and want to preserve almost everything
              (with -H being a notable omission).  The only exception to the
              above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which
              case -r is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding
              multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately
              specify -H.

              You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the
              option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with
              a "no-": only options that are implied by other options (e.g.
              --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various
              circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-
              dirs).  You may specify either the short or the long option
              name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want
              -o (--owner), instead of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important: if you specify --no-
              r -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite
              of -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-
              from option are NOT positional, as it affects the default
              state of several options and slightly changes the meaning of
              -a (see the --files-from option for more details).

       --recursive, -r
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is
              now an incremental scan that uses much less memory than before
              and begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few
              directories have been completed.  This incremental scan only
              affects our recursion algorithm, and does not change a non-
              recursive transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends
              of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so
              these options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These
              include: --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs,
              and --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode
              when you specify --delete is now --delete-during when both
              ends of the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or
              --delete-during to request this improved deletion mode
              explicitly).  See also the --delete-delay option that is a
              better choice than using --delete-after.

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-
              recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       --relative, -R
              Use relative paths.  This means that the full path names
              specified on the command line are sent to the server rather
              than just the last parts of the filenames.  This is
              particularly useful when you want to send several different
              directories at the same time.  For example, if you used this

                  rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine.  If instead you used

                  rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path
              elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and
              the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a
              path element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This
              prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the
              full path of a file that you didn't realize had a symlink in
              its path.  If you want to duplicate a server-side symlink,
              include both the symlink via its path, and referent directory
              via its real path.  If you're dealing with an older rsync on
              the sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information
              that is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.
              With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with
              2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path,
              like this:

                  rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note
              that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would
              not be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need
              to use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when
              pushing files:

                  (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,
              so that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future
              commands.) If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use
              this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                       remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects the default behavior of the --relative
              option.  When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the
              transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on
              the destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and
              any missing implied directories are created with default
              attributes.  This even allows these implied path elements to
              have big differences, such as being a symlink to a directory
              on the receiving side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories
              "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
              the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo",
              recreate it as a directory, and receive the file into the new
              directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync
              updates "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements,
              which means that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".
              Another way to accomplish this link preservation is to use the
              --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may
              need to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in
              the path you request and you wish the implied directories to
              be transferred as normal directories.

       --backup, -b
              With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where
              the backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended
              using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-
              dir-times option will be forced on, and (2) if --delete is
              also in effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
              "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent
              previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if
              you are supplying your own filter rules, you may need to
              manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher
              up in the list so that it has a high enough priority to be
              effective (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing
              inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-added rule would never be

              This implies the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
              backups in the specified directory on the receiving side.
              This can be used for incremental backups.  You can
              additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option
              (otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will
              keep their original filenames).

              Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
              will be relative to the destination directory, so you probably
              want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts
              with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup
              dir cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take
              extra care not to delete it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is a ~
              if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty

       --update, -u
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the
              destination and have a modified time that is newer than the
              source file. (If an existing destination file has a
              modification time equal to the source file's, it will be
              updated if the sizes are different.)

              Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks,
              or other special files.  Also, a difference of file format
              between the sender and receiver is always considered to be
              important enough for an update, no matter what date is on the
              objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory where
              the destination has a file, the transfer would occur
              regardless of the timestamps.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating
              a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is
              complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to
              the destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data
                     will be visible through other hard links to the
                     destination file.  Moreover, attempts to copy differing
                     source files onto a multiply-linked destination file
                     will result in a "tug of war" with the destination data
                     changing back and forth.

              o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will
                     prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt
                     to swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during
                     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer
                     is interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.
                     While a super user can update any file, a normal user
                     needs to be granted write permission for the open of
                     the file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may
                     be reduced if some data in the destination file is
                     overwritten before it can be copied to a position later
                     in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup,
                     since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as
                     the basis file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that
              are being accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to
              use this for a copy.

              This option is useful for transferring large files with block-
              based changes or appended data, and also on systems that are
              disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-
              on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire
              contents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer
              does not delete the file), but conflicts with --partial-dir
              and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also
              incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This special copy mode only works to efficiently update files
              that are known to be growing larger where any existing content
              on the receiving side is also known to be the same as the
              content on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous
              if you aren't 100% sure that all the files in the transfer are
              shared, growing files.  You should thus use filter rules to
              ensure that you weed out any files that do not fit this

              Rsync updates these growing file in-place without verifying
              any of the existing content in the file (it only verifies the
              content that it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that
              exist on the receiving side that are not shorter than the
              associated file on the sending side (which means that new
              files are trasnferred).

              This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-
              content attributes (e.g.  permissions, ownership, etc.) when
              the file does not need to be transferred, nor does it affect
              the updating of any directories or non-regular files.

              This special copy mode works like --append except that all the
              data in the file is included in the checksum verification
              (making it much less efficient but also potentially safer).
              This option can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all
              the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.  See the
              --append option for more details.

              Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like
              --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an older rsync
              (or the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify

       --dirs, -d
              Tell the sending side to include any directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are
              not copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends
              with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).
              Without this option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip
              all directories it encounters (and output a message to that
              effect for each one).  If you specify both --dirs and
              --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the
              --list-only option (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories are seen in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to
              turn this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-
              dirs (or --old-d) that tells rsync to use a hack of
              -r --exclude='/*/*' to get an older rsync to list a single
              directory without recursing.

              Create a missing path component of the destination arg.  This
              allows rsync to create multiple levels of missing destination
              dirs and to create a path in which to put a single renamed
              file.  Keep in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing
              slash if you want the entire destination path to be treated as
              a directory when copying a single arg (making rsync behave the
              same way that it would if the path component of the
              destination had already existed).

              For example, the following creates a copy of file foo as bar
              in the sub/dir directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir" if
              either do not yet exist:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

              If you instead ran the following, it would have created file
              foo in the sub/dir/bar directory:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

       --links, -l
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the

       --copy-links, -L
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to
              (the referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older
              versions of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of
              telling the receiving side to follow symlinks, such as
              symlinks to directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one,
              you'll need to specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra
              behavior.  The only exception is when sending files to an
              rsync that is too old to understand -K -- in that case, the -L
              option will still have the side-effect of -K on that older
              receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that
              point outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
              source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has
              no additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which
              is the part of the path that rsync isn't mentioning in the
              verbose output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then
              the "subdir" directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not
              the top of the transfer (which is /src) so it is legal for
              created relative symlinks to refer to other names inside the
              /src and /dest directories.  If you instead copy
              "/src/subdir/" (with a trailing slash) to "/dest/subdir" that
              would not allow symlinks to any files outside of "subdir".

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point
              outside the copied tree.  All absolute symlinks are also
              ignored. Using this option in conjunction with --relative may
              give unexpected results.

              This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the
              receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but
              recoverable (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the
              sending side that had been stored in a munged state.  This is
              useful if you don't quite trust the source of the data to not
              try to slip in a symlink to a unexpected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each
              one with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the
              links from being used as long as that directory does not
              exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run
              if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if
              you need it to affect the server, specify it via --remote-
              option. (Note that in a local transfer, the client side is the

              This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon
              configures whether it wants munged symlinks via its
              "munge symlinks" parameter.  See also the "munge-symlinks"
              perl script in the support directory of the source code.

       --copy-dirlinks, -k
              This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful
              if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected,
              as they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a
              directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side
              will delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink,
              including a directory hierarchy (as long as --force or
              --delete is in effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the
              receiving side.

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the
              source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks,
              a trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args
              with a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths
              match up right.  For example:

                  rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the
              symlink, giving rise to a directory in the file-list which
              overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       --keep-dirlinks, -K
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this
              option, the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced
              with a real directory.

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that
              contains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory
              "bar" on the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a directory, and
              receives the file into the new directory.  With --keep-
              dirlinks, the receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in

              One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must
              trust all the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory,
              the user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink
              with a real directory and affect the content of whatever
              directory the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are
              better off using something like a bind mount instead of a
              symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the
              sending side.

       --hard-links, -H
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source
              and link together the corresponding files on the destination.
              Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are
              treated as though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of
              hard links on the destination exactly matches that on the
              source.  Cases in which the destination may end up with extra
              hard links include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
                     linking than what is present in the source file list),
                     the copying algorithm will not break them explicitly.
                     However, if one or more of the paths have content
                     differences, the normal file-update process will break
                     those extra links (unless you are using the --inplace

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains
                     hard links, the linking of the destination files
                     against the --link-dest files can cause some paths in
                     the destination to become linked together due to the
                     --link-dest associations.

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that
              are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
              extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,
              that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the
              --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that
              you know how your files are being updated so that you are
              certain that no unintended changes happen due to lingering
              hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync
              may transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that
              another link for that contents exists elsewhere in the
              hierarchy.  This does not affect the accuracy of the transfer
              (i.e. which files are hard-linked together), just its
              efficiency (i.e. copying the data for a new, early copy of a
              hard-linked file that could have been found later in the
              transfer in another member of the hard-linked set of files).
              One way to avoid this inefficiency is to disable incremental
              recursion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

       --perms, -p
              This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See
              also the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync
              considers to be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the
                     source file's permissions masked with the receiving
                     directory's default permissions (either the receiving
                     process's umask, or the permissions specified via the
                     destination directory's default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
                     directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent

              Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled,
              rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy
              utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the
              destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get
              enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier
              to type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting
              this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z
              option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the
              destination dir):

                  rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this

                  rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-
              enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-
              created directories when --perms is off was added in rsync
              2.6.7.  Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three
              special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms
              was off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting
              on a newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance was
              added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-
              enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are
              present.  (Keep in mind that it is the version of the
              receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.)

       --executability, -E
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or
              non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not
              enabled.  A regular file is considered to be executable if at
              least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When an
              existing destination file's executability differs from that of
              the corresponding source file, rsync modifies the destination
              file's permissions as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x'
                     permission that has a corresponding 'r' permission

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --acls, -A
              This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL
              entries for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-
              super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not

       --xattrs, -X
              This option causes rsync to update the destination extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
              being done by a super-user copies all namespaces except
              system.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To
              be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
              user, see the --fake-super option.

              The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or
              more filter options with the x modifier.  When you specify an
              xattr-affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your
              own system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering
              for what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to
              be deleted.  For example, to skip the system namespace, you
              could specify:

                  --filter='-x system.*'

              To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could
              specify a negated-user match:

                  --filter='-x! user.*'

              To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could
              specify a receiver-only rule that excludes all names:

                  --filter='-xr *'

              Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr
              values (e.g.  those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat
              the option (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be
              used with --fake-super.

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated
              "chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it were the
              permissions that the sending side supplied for the file, which
              means that this option can seem to have no effect on existing
              files if --perms is not enabled.

              In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only
              apply to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an
              item that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a
              'F'.  For example, the following will ensure that all
              directories get marked set-gid, that no files are other-
              writable, that both are user-writable and group-writable, and
              that both have consistent executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
              additional option is just appended to the list of changes to

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the
              resulting permission value can be applied to the files in the

       --owner, -o
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file, but only if the
              receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the
              --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the
              owner of new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking
              user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
              circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

       --group, -g
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file.  If the receiving
              program is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was
              specified), only groups that the invoking user on the
              receiving side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this
              option, the group is set to the default group of the invoking
              user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a
              full discussion).

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block
              device files to the remote system to recreate these devices.
              This option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as
              the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as
              named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

              This tells rsync to treat a device on the receiving side as a
              regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

              This option implies the --inplace option.

              Be careful using this, as you should know what devices are
              present on the receiving side of the transfer, especially if
              running rsync as root.

              This option is refused by an rsync daemon.

       --times, -t
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that
              have not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if
              it used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's
              delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient
              if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off
              using -t).

       --atimes, -U
              This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of the
              destination files to the same value as the source files.

              If repeated, it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
              help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the
              same access times on the transferred files without needing to
              run rsync an extra time after a file is transferred.

              Note that some older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have
              been built with a pre-release --atimes patch that does not
              imply --open-noatime when this option is repeated.

              This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on
              systems that support it) to avoid changing the access time of
              the files that are being transferred.  If your OS does not
              support the O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore
              this option.  Note also that some filesystems are mounted to
              avoid updating the atime on read access even without the
              O_NOATIME flag being set.

       --crtimes, -N,
              This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the
              destination files to the same value as the source files.

       --omit-dir-times, -O
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving
              modification times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the
              directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use
              -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without

              This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early
              creation of directories in incremental recursion copies.  The
              default --inc-recursive copying normally does an early-create
              pass of all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order
              for it to be able to then set the modify time of the parent
              directory right away (without having to delay that until a
              bunch of recursive copying has finished).  This early-create
              idiom is not necessary if directory modify times are not being
              preserved, so it is skipped.  Since early-create directories
              don't have accurate mode, mtime, or ownership, the use of this
              option can help when someone wants to avoid these partially-
              finished directories.

       --omit-link-times, -J
              This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving
              modification times (see --times).

              This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.
              These activities include: preserving users via the --owner
              option, preserving all groups (not just the current user's
              groups) via the --groups option, and copying devices via the
              --devices option.  This is useful for systems that allow such
              activities without being the super-user, and also for ensuring
              that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run
              as the super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the
              super-user can use --no-super.

              When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user
              activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via
              special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as
              needed).  This includes the file's owner and group (if it is
              not the default), the file's device info (device & special
              files are created as empty text files), and any permission
              bits that we won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the
              real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the
              owner's access (since the real super-user can always
              access/change a file, the files we create can always be
              accessed/changed by the creating user).  This option also
              handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user extended
              attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option
              is used.  To affect the remote side of a remote-shell
              connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                  rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the
              destination.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option
              just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If
              you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the
              source files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       --sparse, -S
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less
              space on the destination.  If combined with --inplace the file
              created might not end up with sparse blocks with some
              combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If
              --whole-file is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will
              always work because rsync truncates the file prior to writing
              out the updated version.

              Note that versions of rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
              combination of --sparse and --inplace.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to
              its eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will
              only use the real filesystem-level preallocation support
              provided by Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's
              posix_fallocate(3), not the slow glibc implementation that
              writes a null byte into each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely
              contiguous on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will
              probably copy more slowly.  If the destination is not an
              extent-supporting filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.),
              this option may have no positive effect at all.

              If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse
              blocks (as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if
              the kernel version and filesystem type support creating holes
              in the allocated data.

       --dry-run, -n
              This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any
              changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).
              It is most commonly used in combination with the --verbose, -v
              and/or --itemize-changes, -i options to see what an rsync
              command is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring
              intentional trickery and system call failures); if it isn't,
              that's a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but
              may differ in some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send
              the actual data for file transfers, so --progress has no
              effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data",
              and "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup"
              value is equivalent to a run where no file transfers were

       --whole-file, -W
              This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which
              causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer
              may be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth
              between the source and destination machines is higher than the
              bandwidth to disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a
              networked filesystem).  This is the default when both the
              source and destination are specified as local paths, but only
              if no batch-writing option is in effect.

       --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
              This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one
              algorithm name is specified, it is used for both the transfer
              checksums and (assuming --checksum is specified) the pre-
              transfer checksums.  If two comma-separated names are
              supplied, the first name affects the transfer checksums, and
              the second name affects the pre-transfer checksums (-c).

              The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

              o      auto (the default automatic choice)

              o      xxh128

              o      xxh3

              o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

              o      md5

              o      md4

              o      none

              Run rsync --version to see the default checksum list compiled
              into your version (which may differ from the list above).

              If "none" is specified for the first (or only) name, the
              --whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification
              is performed on the transferred data.  If "none" is specified
              for the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot be

              The "auto" option is the default, where rsync bases its
              algorithm choice on a negotiation between the client and the
              server as follows:

              When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync
              chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices
              that is also in the server's list of choices.  If no common
              checksum choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the
              remote rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, a
              value is chosen based on the protocol version (which chooses
              between MD5 and various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age).

              The default order can be customized by setting the environment
              variable RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a space-separated list of
              acceptable checksum names.  If the string contains a "&"
              character, it is separated into the "client string & server
              string", otherwise the same string applies to both.  If the
              string (or string portion) contains no non-whitespace
              characters, the default checksum list is used.  This method
              does not allow you to specify the transfer checksum separately
              from the pre-transfer checksum, and it discards "auto" and all
              unknown checksum names.  A list with only invalid names
              results in a failed negotiation.

              The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this
              environment list.

       --one-file-system, -x
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user's ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's
              recursion through the hierarchy of each directory that the
              user specified, and also the analogous recursion on the
              receiving side during deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync
              treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the same

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point
              directories from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty
              directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the
              attributes of the mounted directory because those of the
              underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links
              or --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another
              device is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-
              directories are unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including
              directories) that do not exist yet on the destination.  If
              this option is combined with the --ignore-existing option, no
              files will be updated (which can be useful if all you want to
              do is delete extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing directories, or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for those doing backups using the
              --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run
              that got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into
              a new directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using
              --ignore-existing will ensure that the already-handled files
              don't get tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the
              hard-linked files).  This does mean that this option is only
              looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy

              This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note that you should only use this option on source files that
              are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show
              up in a particular directory over to another host, make sure
              that the finished files get renamed into the source directory,
              not directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly
              transfer a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't
              first write the files into a different directory, you should
              use a naming idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files
              that are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "" when
              it is written, rename it to "foo" when it is done, and then
              use the option --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal
              (and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has
              not stayed unchanged.

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
              directories that are being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/")
              without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g.
              "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync
              thus gets a request to transfer individual files, not the
              files' parent directory.  Files that are excluded from the
              transfer are also excluded from being deleted unless you use
              the --delete-excluded option or mark the rules as only
              matching on the sending side (see the include/exclude
              modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for
              directories whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very
              good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)
              to see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion
              of any files at the destination will be automatically
              disabled.  This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures
              (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a
              massive deletion of files on the destination.  You can
              override this with the --ignore-errors option.

              The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-
              WHEN options without conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.
              However, if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified,
              rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking
              to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm
              when talking to an older rsync.  See also --delete-delay and

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to
              make the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a
              delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might
              cause the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).
              It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion
              algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the
              transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory
              delete scan is done right before each directory is checked for
              updates, so it behaves like a more efficient --delete-before,
              including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory
              filter files being updated.  This option was first added in
              rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete (which is implied) for more
              details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be
              computed during the transfer (like --delete-during), and then
              removed after the transfer completes.  This is useful when
              combined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more
              efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave
              differently, since --delete-after computes the deletions in a
              separate pass after all updates are done).  If the number of
              removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file
              will be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it is
              removed while open, so you shouldn't see it during the
              transfer).  If the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync
              will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it cannot
              do if --recursive is doing an incremental scan).  See --delete
              (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              after the transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the
              transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the
              delete phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to
              use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires
              rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into memory at
              once (see --recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that
              are not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete
              any files on the receiving side that are excluded (see
              --exclude).  See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make
              individual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for
              a way to protect files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete
              (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source
              files (e.g.  command-line arguments or --files-from entries),
              it is normally an error if the file cannot be found.  This
              option suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the
              file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if
              a file was initially found to be present and later is no
              longer there.

              This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-
              missing-args option a step farther: each missing arg will
              become a deletion request of the corresponding destination
              file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the
              destination file is a non-empty directory, it will only be
              successfully deleted if --force or --delete are in effect.
              Other than that, this option is independent of any other type
              of delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented by special file-list
              entries which display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there
              are I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when
              it is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only
              relevant if deletions are not active (see --delete for

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be
              required when using --delete-after, and it used to be non-
              functional unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or
              directories.  If that limit is exceeded, all further deletions
              are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end,
              rsync outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped
              deletions) and exits with an error code of 25 (unless some
              more important error condition also occurred).

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0
              to be warned about any extraneous files in the destination
              without removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this
              as "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the client
              is, you can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a
              backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be
              allowed (though really old versions didn't warn when the limit
              was exceeded).

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with
              a string to indicate the numeric units or left unqualified to
              specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value along with
              the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo),
              M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
              single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then
              the units are multiples of 1024.  If you use a two-letter
              suffix that ends with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units
              that are multiples of 1000.  The string's letters can be any
              mix of upper and lower-case that you want to use.

              Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is
              offset by one byte in the indicated direction.  The largest
              possible value is usually 8192P-1.

              Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-
              size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is
              smaller than the specified SIZE, which can help in not
              transferring small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for
              a description of SIZE and other information.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-

              By default rsync limits an individual malloc/realloc to about
              1GB in size.  For most people this limit works just fine and
              prevents a protocol error causing rsync to request massive
              amounts of memory.  However, if you have many millions of
              files in a transfer, a large amount of server memory, and you
              don't want to split up your transfer into multiple parts, you
              can increase the per-allocation limit to something larger and
              rsync will consume more memory.

              Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of
              allocated memory.  It is a sanity-check value for each
              individual allocation.

              See the --max-size option for a description of how SIZE can be
              specified.  The default suffix if none is given is bytes.

              Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

              You can set a default value using the environment variable
              RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC using the same SIZE values as supported by
              this option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the
              --max-alloc option, you can override an environmental value by
              specifying --max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending
              the option to the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

       --block-size=SIZE, -B
              This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected based on
              the size of each file being updated.  See the technical report
              for details.

              Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with a suffix as
              detailed in the --max-size option.  Older versions only
              accepted a byte count.

       --rsh=COMMAND, -e
              This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell
              program to use for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on
              the remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket
              connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              CONNECTION" above.

              Beginning with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment
              variable will be set when a daemon connection is being made
              via a remote-shell connection.  It is set to 0 if the default
              daemon port is being assumed, or it is set to the value of the
              rsync port that was specified via either the --port option or
              a non-empty port value in an rsync:// URL.  This allows the
              script to discern if a non-default port is being requested,
              allowing for things such as an SSL or stunnel helper script to
              connect to a default or alternate port.

              Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must
              use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the
              command and args from each other, and you can use single-
              and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but
              not backslashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote inside a
              single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for
              double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which
              quotes your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is
              parsing).  Some examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the
              RSYNC_RSH environment variable, which accepts the same range
              of values as -e.

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this

              Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote
              machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in
              the default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-
              path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run with the
              help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or command
              sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the
              standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

              One tricky example is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       --remote-option=OPTION, -M
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you
              want certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer
              only.  For instance, if you want to pass --log-file=FILE and
              --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a
              transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its
              negation to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option
              that will cause rsync to have a different idea about what data
              to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in
              a cryptic fashion.

              Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for
              each option you want to pass.  This makes your usage
              compatible with the --protect-args option.  If that option is
              off, any spaces in your remote options will be split by the
              remote shell unless you take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the
              sender and the "remote" side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a
              bug in them that prevents you from using an adjacent arg with
              an equal in it next to a short option letter (e.g. -M--log-
              file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of popt, you
              can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

       --cvs-exclude, -C
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of
              files that you often don't want to transfer between systems.
              It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file
              should be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items
              (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the
              FILTER RULES section):

                  RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS
                  .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                  *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe
                  *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable
              (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as
              a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed
              therein.  Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns
              are split on whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you
              should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of
              your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the
              command-line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules
              you specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these
              CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should
              omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of
              --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory
              scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a
              one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       --filter=RULE, -f
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude
              certain files from the list of files to be transferred.  This
              is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as
              you like to build up the list of files to exclude.  If the
              filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the
              shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The text
              below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace
              the space that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for
              this rule:

                  --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their
              rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                  --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it
              specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per
              line).  Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or
              '#' are ignored.  If FILE is '-', the list will be read from
              standard input.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it
              specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per
              line).  Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or
              '#' are ignored.  If FILE is '-', the list will be read from
              standard input.

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of
              files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for
              standard input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync
              to make transferring just the specified files and directories

              o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each item in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to
                     turn that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create
                     directories specified in the list on the destination
                     rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync,
                     so the position of the --files-from option on the
                     command-line has no bearing on how other options are
                     parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-
                     from, as does --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
              references are allowed to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                  rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
              /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the
              remote host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash),
              the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent
              (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file --
              this began in version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r option
              was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be
              transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified
              explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a).
              Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default)
              --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is
              read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the
              source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in
              front of the file (the host must match one end of the
              transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of
              ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer".  For

                  rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and
              the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to
              another, the filenames will be translated from the sending
              host's charset to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input
              helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting
              the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.
              If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied
              directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and
              rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they get turned
              into file-list elements.

       --from0, -0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
              are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-
              from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.  It
              does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       --protect-args, -s
              This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.
              This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-
              wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~, $,
              ;, &, etc.).  Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by
              rsync (instead of the shell doing it).

              If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the
              remote character-set.  The translation happens before wild-
              cards are expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              environment variable.  If this variable has a non-zero value,
              this option will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be
              disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
              specified positive or negative version of this option (note
              that --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).
              Since this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need
              to make sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact with a
              remote rsync that is older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this
              option enabled by default (with is overridden by both the
              environment and the command-line).  Run rsync --version to
              check if this is the case, as it will display "default
              protect-args" or "optional protect-args" depending on how it
              was compiled.

              This option will eventually become a new default setting at
              some as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

              This option instructs rsync to use the USER and (if specified
              after a colon) the GROUP for the copy operations.  This only
              works if the user that is running rsync has the ability to
              change users.  If the group is not specified then the user's
              default groups are used.

              This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run
              as root into or out of a directory that might have live
              changes happening to it and you want to make sure that root-
              level read or write actions of system files are not possible.
              While you could alternatively run all of rsync as the
              specified user, sometimes you need the root-level host-access
              credentials to be used, so this allows rsync to drop root for
              the copying part of the operation after the remote-shell or
              daemon connection is established.

              The option only affects one side of the transfer unless the
              transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use
              the --remote-option to affect the remote side, such as
              -M--copy-as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or
              support file provides a local-shell helper script that can be
              used to allow a "localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be
              specified without needing to setup any remote shells, allowing
              you to specify remote options that affect the side of the
              transfer that is using the host-spec (and using hostname "lh"
              avoids the overriding of the remote directory to the user's
              home dir).

              For example, the following rsync writes the local files as
              user "joe":

                  sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

              This makes all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to
              those that are available to that user, and makes it impossible
              for the joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a
              change to a file that the joe user has no permissions to

              The following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir
              as user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a
              dir on your $PATH):

                  sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

       --temp-dir=DIR, -T
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
              when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each
              temporary file in the same directory as the associated
              destination file.  Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file
              names inside the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an
              extra dot (though they will still have a random suffix added).

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk
              partition does not have enough free space to hold a copy of
              the largest file in the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the
              scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync
              will not be able to rename each received temporary file over
              the top of the associated destination file, but instead must
              copy it into place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over
              the top of the destination file, which means that the
              destination file will contain truncated data during this copy.
              If this were not done this way (even if the destination file
              were first removed, the data locally copied to a temporary
              file in the destination directory, and then renamed into
              place) it would be possible for the old file to continue
              taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and thus there
              might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at
              the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
              of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-
              updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get
              put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting
              the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to
              duplicate all the arriving files on the destination partition,
              another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned
              about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a
              relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash
              off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination
              hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging area to
              bring over the copied file, and then rename it into place from
              there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does
              not have this side-effect.)

       --fuzzy, -y
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file
              for any destination file that is missing.  The current
              algorithm looks in the same directory as the destination file
              for either a file that has an identical size and modified-
              time, or a similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the
              fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.

              If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
              any matching alternate destination directories that are
              specified via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination
              files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the
              destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is
              identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be
              transferred to the destination directory.  This is useful for
              creating a sparse backup of just files that have changed from
              an earlier backup.  This option is typically used to copy into
              an empty (or newly created) directory.

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest
              directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search
              the list in the order specified for an exact match.  If a
              match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy
              is made and the attributes updated.  If a match is not found,
              a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to
              speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file
              from a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is
              found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end
              result more closely match a fresh copy).

              This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a
              new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then
              doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will
              cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
              hard linked from DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g.
              permissions, possibly ownership) in order for the files to be
              linked together.  An example:

                  rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
              check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single
              user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in
              the order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20
              such directories).  If a match is found that differs only in
              attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.
              If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs
              will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              This option works best when copying into an empty destination
              hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
              and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-
              links.  Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled.
              Note that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact
              match would never be found (nor linked into the destination)
              when a destination file already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,
              rsync will not link any files together because it only links
              identical files together as a substitute for transferring the
              file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
              prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old

       --compress, -z
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
              to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow

              Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will choose
              one for you unless you force the choice using the --compress-
              choice (--zc) option.

              Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled
              into your version.

              When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync
              chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices
              that is also in the server's list of choices.  If no common
              compress choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the
              remote rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, its
              list is assumed to be "zlib".

              The default order can be customized by setting the environment
              variable RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST to a space-separated list of
              acceptable compression names.  If the string contains a "&"
              character, it is separated into the "client string & server
              string", otherwise the same string applies to both.  If the
              string (or string portion) contains no non-whitespace
              characters, the default compress list is used.  Any unknown
              compression names are discarded from the list, but a list with
              only invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

              There are some older rsync versions that were configured to
              reject a -z option and require the use of -zz because their
              compression library was not compatible with the default zlib
              compression method.  You can usually ignore this weirdness
              unless the rsync server complains and tells you to specify

              See also the --skip-compress option for the default list of
              file suffixes that will be transferred with no (or minimal)

       --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
              This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation
              of the compression algorithm that occurs when --compress is
              used.  The option implies --compress unless "none" was
              specified, which instead implies --no-compress.

              The compression options that you may be able to use are:

              o      zstd

              o      lz4

              o      zlibx

              o      zlib

              o      none

              Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled
              into your version (which may differ from the list above).

              Note that if you see an error about an option named --old-
              compress or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the
              --compress-choice=zlib or --compress-choice=zlibx option in a
              backward-compatible manner that more rsync versions
              understand.  This error indicates that the older rsync version
              on the server will not allow you to force the compression

              Note that the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the "zlib"
              algorithm with matched data excluded from the compression
              stream (to try to make it more compatible with an external
              zlib implementation).

       --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress,
              -z) instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is
              implied as long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress"
              level for the compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g.
              zlib compression treats level 0 as "off").

              The level values vary depending on the checksum in effect.
              Because rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default
              (when the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to
              combine this option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option
              unless you're sure of the choice in effect.  For example:

                  rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

              For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are from 1 to 9
              with 6 being the default.  Specifying 0 turns compression off,
              and specifying -1 chooses the default of 6.

              For zstd compression the valid values are from -131072 to 22
              with 3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of

              For lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is
              always 0.

              If you specify a too-large or too-small value, the number is
              silently limited to a valid value.  This allows you to specify
              something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll end
              up with the maximum compression level no matter what algorithm
              was chosen.

              If you want to know the compression level that is in effect,
              specify --debug=nstr to see the "negotiated string" results.
              This will report something like
              "Client compress: zstd (level 3)" (along with the checksum
              choice in effect).

              Override the list of file suffixes that will be compressed as
              little as possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on a
              per-file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression
              algorithm has an "off" level (such as zlib/zlibx) then no
              compression occurs for those files.  Other algorithms that
              support changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have the
              level minimized to reduces the CPU usage as much as possible
              for a matching file.  At this time, only zlib & zlibx
              compression support this changing of levels on a per-file

              The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).  You may specify an empty string to
              indicate that no files should be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported: each must
              consist of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g.
              no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and
              '-' has no special meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no
              special meaning.

              Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1
              of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this
              version of rsync are:

                  3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv
                  gpg gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a
                  m2ts m2v m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4
                  mpa mpeg mpg mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga
                  ogg ogm ogv ogx opus otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt rar
                  rpm rz rzip spx squashfs sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2
                  tgz tlz ts txz tzo vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all
              but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its
              list may be configured to a different default).

              With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user
              IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them at
              both ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to
              determine what ownership to give files.  The special uid 0 and
              the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even
              if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has
              no match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from
              the source system is used instead.  See also the comments on
              the "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for
              information on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability
              to look up the names of the users and groups and what you can
              do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These options allow you to specify users and groups that
              should be mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The
              STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by
              commas.  Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced
              with a TO value from the receiver.  You may specify usernames
              or user IDs for the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may
              also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the
              sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers,
              though see below for why a '*' matches everything).  You may
              instead specify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range:
              LOW-HIGH.  For example:

                  --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You
              should specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap
              option, and/or all your group mappings using a single
              --groupmap option.

              Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not
              transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these
              values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
              side (typically "root").  All other FROM names match those in
              use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on
              the receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are
              treated as having an empty name for the purpose of matching.
              This allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty
              name.  For instance:

                  --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not
              send any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty
              name.  This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM
              values if you want to map these nameless IDs to different

              For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
              option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need
              to be running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super
              option).  For the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g
              (--groups) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver
              will need to have permissions to set that group.

              If your shell complains about the wildcards, use --protect-
              args (-s).

              This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group
              GROUP.  This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and
              --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options
              internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or
              GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will
              occur.  If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted,
              but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

              If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly the same as
              specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.
              If your shell complains about the wildcards, use --protect-
              args (-s).

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in
              seconds.  If no data is transferred for the specified time
              then rsync will exit.  The default is 0, which means no

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync
              will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.
              If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
              connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
              See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
              the default of 873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon
              (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part
              of the URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to
              tune their systems to the utmost degree.  You can set all
              sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or
              slower!).  Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call
              for details on some of the options you may be able to set.  By
              default no special socket options are set.  This only affects
              direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon.

              This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote
              shell transport.  If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking

              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None
              (aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify
              as little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or
              lower case.

              The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to
              Line buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       --itemize-changes, -i
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is
              exactly the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you
              repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but
              only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can
              use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on
              the output of other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
              The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by
              the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that
              may be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the
                     remote host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for
                     the item (such as the creation of a directory or the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area
                     contains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string indicate if some attributes of
              the file have changed, as follows:

              o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

              o      "+" - the file is newly created.

              o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn
                     to spaces).

              o      "?" - the change is unknown (when the remote rsync is

              o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as

              o      A c means either that a regular file has a different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink,
                     device, or special file has a changed value.  Note that
                     if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1,
                     this change flag will be present only for checksum-
                     differing regular files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is
                     being updated to the sender's value (requires --times).
                     An alternate value of T means that the modification
                     time will be set to the transfer time, which happens
                     when a file/symlink/device is updated without --times
                     and when a symlink is changed and the receiver can't
                     set its time. (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client,
                     you might see the s flag combined with t instead of the
                     proper T flag for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated
                     to the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated
                     to the sender's value (requires --group and the
                     authority to set the group).

              o      A u|n|b indicates the following information: u  means
                     the access (use) time is different and is being updated
                     to the sender's value (requires --atimes); n means the
                     create time (newness) is different and is being updated
                     to the sender's value (requires --crtimes); b means
                     that both the access and create times are being

              o      The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

              o      The x means that the extended attribute information is
                     being changed.

              One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i"
              will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being
              removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough
              rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a
              verbose message).

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client
              outputs to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a
              text string containing embedded single-character escape
              sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character.  A default
              format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is
              specified (this tells you just the name of the file and, if
              the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list of the
              possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in
              the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name
              option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets
              updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated
              symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addition, if the
              itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if
              the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names
              increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as
              long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the
              --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's
              transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is
              requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the
              file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and
              --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name
              of the file being transferred prior to its progress
              information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
              requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-
              daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".
              See the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log
              what is happening:

                  rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which
              must also be specified for this option to have any effect).
              If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be
              mentioned in the log file.  For a list of the possible escape
              characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf

              The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this
              option is not is '%i %n%L'.

              This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's
              delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.  This option is
              equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v
              options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the
                     generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks,
                     etc.  The total count will be followed by a list of
                     counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For
                     example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special:
                     1)" lists the totals for regular files, directories,
                     symlinks, devices, and special files.  If any of value
                     is 0, it is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how many
                     "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to
                     updated).  The total count will be followed by a list
                     of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number of deleted files is the count of how many
                     "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to
                     updated).  The total count will be followed by a list
                     of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note
                     that this line is only output if deletions are in
                     effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the
                     default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of
                     normal files that were updated via rsync's delta-
                     transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs,
                     symlinks, etc.  Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word
                     "regular" into this heading.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in
                     the transfer.  This does not count any size for
                     directories or special files, but does include the size
                     of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all
                     files sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when
                     the sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller
                     than the in-memory size for the file list due to some
                     compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the

              o      File list generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires
                     a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that
                     rsync sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is the count of all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the client side from the
                     server side. "Non-message" bytes means that we don't
                     count the bytes for a verbose message that the server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       --8-bit-output, -8
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're
              valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.
              All control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,
              regardless of this option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal
              digits.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A
              literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless
              it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       --human-readable, -h
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are 3
              possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between
              each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on
              if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma);
              (2) output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix
              for larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option
              increases the level by one.  You can take the level down to 0
              (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifying the --no-
              human-readable (--no-h) option.

              The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
              (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For
              example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2
              (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0
              do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to
              level 0.  Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave
              in a comparable manner in old and new versions as long as you
              didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h
              options.  See the --list-only option for one difference.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file
              if the transfer is interrupted.  In some circumstances it is
              more desirable to keep partially transferred files.  Using the
              --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which
              should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much

              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option
              is to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data
              (instead of writing it out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
              to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any
              partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being
              updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files
              without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last
              dir -- not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a
              relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have
              rsync create the partial-directory in the destination file's
              directory when needed, and then remove it again when the
              partial file is deleted.  Note that the directory is only
              removed if it is a relative pathname, as it is expected that
              an absolute path is to a directory that is reserved for
              partial-dir work.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will
              add an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.
              This will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that
              may exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the
              untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side.
              An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the
              equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any
              other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to
              add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir
              because (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end
              of your other rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync's
              exclude choice.  For instance, if you want to make rsync
              clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around,
              you should specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter
              rule, e.g.  -f 'R .rsync-partial/'. (Avoid using --delete-
              before or --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use
              any of the left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does
              not force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where
              partial files go when --partial is specified.  For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with
              --progress, you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your
              environment and then just use the -P option to turn on the use
              of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times
              that the --partial option does not look for this environment
              value are (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace
              conflicts with --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates
              was specified (see below).

              When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the
              partial-dir, that partial file is now updated in-place instead
              of creating yet another tmp-file copy (so it maxes out at dest
              + tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires both
              ends of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

              For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options"
              setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so
              that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow
              the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,
              while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file
              into a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at
              which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid
              succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the files a
              little more atomic.  By default the files are placed into a
              directory named .~tmp~ in each file's destination directory,
              but if you've specified the --partial-dir option, that
              directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the
              --partial-dir section for a discussion of how this .~tmp~ dir
              will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if you
              want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that might be lying
              around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full
              file list in memory in order to be able to iterate over it at
              the end.

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit
              per file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space
              on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the
              updated files.  Note also that you should not use an absolute
              path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of
              the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the
              updated files will be put into a single directory if the path
              is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the
              hierarchy (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't
              be renamed into place).

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"
              subdir for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it
              uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       --prune-empty-dirs, -m
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty
              directories from the file-list, including nested directories
              that have no non-directory children.  This is useful for
              avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when
              the sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files
              using include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size
              option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in
              a directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option
              also affects what directories get deleted when a delete is
              active.  However, keep in mind that excluded files and
              directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due
              to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting
              destination files.  See the perishable filter-rule option for
              how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For
              instance, this option would ensure that the directory
              "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

                  --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
              only creating the necessary destination directories to hold
              the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and
              directories in the destination are removed (note the hide
              filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

                  rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,
              the more time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*'
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more
              natural to you).

              This option tells rsync to print information showing the
              progress of the transfer.  This gives a bored user something
              to watch.  With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
              --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings
              for those info flags takes precedence (e.g.
              "--info=flist0 --progress").

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                  782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes
              or 63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a
              rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will
              finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until
              the end.

              These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file
              consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the
              reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the
              receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer will
              probably take much longer to finish than the receiver
              estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                  1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total,
              the average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38
              kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to
              complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the
              current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the
              receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not)
              remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total
              number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of
              the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the
              scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for
              incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the
              point that it knows the full size of the list, at which point
              it will switch to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets
              you know that the total count of files in the file list is
              still going to increase (and each time it does, the count of
              files left to check will increase by the number of the files
              added to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its
              purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options
              for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs
              statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than individual
              files.  Use this flag without outputting a filename (e.g.
              avoid -v or specify --info=name0) if you want to see how the
              transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of
              names. (You don't need to specify the --progress option in
              order to use --info=progress2.)

              Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending
              rsync a signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD
              systems, a SIGINFO is generated by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux
              doesn't currently support a SIGINFO signal).  When the client-
              side process receives one of those signals, it sets a flag to
              output a single progress report which is output when the
              current file transfer finishes (so it may take a little time
              if a big file is being handled when the signal arrives).  A
              filename is output (if needed) followed by the
              --info=progress2 format of progress info.  If you don't know
              which of the 3 rsync processes is the client process, it's OK
              to signal all of them (since the non-client processes ignore
              the signal).

              CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will
              kill it.

              This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an
              rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.
              The file should contain just the password on the first line
              (all other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error
              if FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds
              a non-root-owned file.

              This option does not supply a password to a remote shell
              transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the
              remote shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon
              using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes
              into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication
              (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's
              config file).

              This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the
              "early exec" script on its stdin.  One possible use of this
              data is to give the script a secret that can be used to mount
              an encrypted filesystem (which you should unmount in the the
              "post-xfer exec" script).

              The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead
              of transferred.  This option is inferred if there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg
              into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more
              than one source arg (note: be sure to include the
              destination).  Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a
              wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it
              is never safe to try to list such an arg without using this
              option. For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
              affected by the --human-readable option.  By default they will
              contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability
              will output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the
              column width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14
              characters for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you
              want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width of 11

              Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files
              from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may
              encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing.
              This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o
              --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.  To
              avoid this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if
              you don't need to expand a directory's content), or turn on
              recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories:
              -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate
              for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per
              second.  The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to
              indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional value
              (e.g. "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value
              will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or
              "KiB" had been appended).  See the --max-size option for a
              description of all the available suffixes.  A value of 0
              specifies no limit.

              For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be
              rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024
              bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option
              both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and
              tries to keep the average transfer rate at the requested
              limit.  Some burstiness may be seen where rsync writes out a
              block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option
              may not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is
              being sent.  This is because some files can show up as being
              rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other
              can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output
              buffer occurs.  This may be fixed in a future version.

              This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified
              number of minutes has elapsed.

              Rsync also accepts an earlier version of this option: --time-

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this
              option to the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one
              side of the connection quits as specified.  This allows the
              option's use even when only one side of the connection
              supports it.  You can tell the remote side about the time
              limit using --remote-option (-M), should the need arise.

              This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified
              point in time has been reached. The date & time can be fully
              specified in a numeric format of year-month-dayThour:minute
              (e.g. 2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone.  You may choose
              to separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

              The value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such
              as specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off various
              values.  In all cases, the value will be taken to be the next
              possible point in time where the supplied information matches.
              If the value specifies the current time or a past time, rsync
              exits with an error.

              For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at
              midnight local time), "14:00" specifies the next 2 P.M., "1"
              specifies the next 1st of the month at midnight, "31"
              specifies the next month where we can stop on its 31st day,
              and ":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the hour.

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this
              option to the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one
              side of the connection quits as specified.  This allows the
              option's use even when only one side of the connection
              supports it.  You can tell the remote side about the time
              limit using --remote-option (-M), should the need arise.  Do
              keep in mind that the remote host may have a different default
              timezone than your local host.

              Record a file that can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section
              for details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              This option overrides the negotiated checksum & compress lists
              and always negotiates a choice based on old-school
              md5/md4/zlib choices.  If you want a more modern choice, use
              the --checksum-choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc)

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on
              the destination system when creating the batch.  This lets you
              transport the changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to
              some portable media: if this media fills to capacity before
              the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial
              transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process to
              get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a
              partially updated destination system while the multi-update
              cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to
              a remote system because this allows the batched data to be
              diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender
              is remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously
              generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will
              be read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful
              for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older
              version of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used
              with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be
              used to run the --read-batch option, you should use
              "--protocol=28" when creating the batch file to force the
              older protocol version to be used in the batch file (assuming
              you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).

              Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up
              the default character-set via the locale setting.
              Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion to do by
              giving a local and a remote charset separated by a comma in
              the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591.
              This order ensures that the option will stay the same whether
              you're pushing or pulling files.  Finally, you can specify
              either --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any
              conversion.  The default setting of this option is site-
              specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV
              environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv library
              supports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will
              translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that
              are being sent to the remote host.  See also the --files-from

              Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is up to you to
              ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify
              extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences
              on the two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows
              it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset"
              configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you
              actually pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify just the
              local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or
              running ssh.  This affects sockets that rsync has direct
              control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly
              contacting an rsync daemon, as well as the forwarding of the
              -4 or -6 option to ssh when rsync can deduce that ssh is being
              used as the remote shell.  For other remote shells you'll need
              to specify the "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly (or whatever
              ipv4/ipv6 hint options it uses).

              These options also exist in the --daemon mode section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will
              contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte
              checksum seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum
              calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a
              seed).  By default the checksum seed is generated by the
              server and defaults to the current time().  This option is
              used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for
              applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in the
              case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.
              Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for
              checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS         top

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon
              you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using
              the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it
              is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the
              current terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon
              will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made
              by a client and respond to requests accordingly.  See the
              rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as
              a daemon with the --daemon option.  The --address option
              allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to
              bind to.  This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction
              with the --config option.  See also the "address" global
              option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate
              for the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can
              still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value
              will be allowed.  See the client version of this option
              (above) for some extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.
              This is only relevant when --daemon is specified.  The default
              is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in
              that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory
              (typically $HOME).

       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
              This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when
              starting up rsync in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding
              the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the
              first module's definition.  The parameter names can be
              specified without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
              detach itself and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as
              daemontools or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach
              is also recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This
              option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
              listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config
              file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       --verbose, -v
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon
              logs during its startup phase.  After the client connects, the
              daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options
              that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the
              module's config section.

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming
              sockets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for
              connections.  One of these options may be required in older
              versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if
              you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is
              using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting
              the daemon).

              These options also exist in the regular rsync options section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will
              contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

       --help, -h
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page
              describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES         top

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to
       transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules
       either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a
       way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from
       a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude
       patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it
       is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include
       pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is
       found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
       command-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating
       the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME
       that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or
       an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

       exclude, '-'
              specifies an exclude pattern.

       include, '+'
              specifies an include pattern.

       merge, '.'
              specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.

       dir-merge, ':'
              specifies a per-directory merge-file.

       hide, 'H'
              specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.

       show, 'S'
              files that match the pattern are not hidden.

       protect, 'P'
              specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.

       risk, 'R'
              files that match the pattern are not protected.

       clear, '!'
              clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as
       are comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include & --exclude command-line options do not allow
       the full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow
       the specification of include / exclude patterns plus a "!" token to
       clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read
       from a file).  If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or
       "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for
       an include option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to
       the string.  A --filter option, on the other hand, must always
       contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take
       one rule/pattern each.  To add multiple ones, you can repeat the
       options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the
       --filter option, or the --include-from / --exclude-from options.


       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the
       "+", "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES
       section above).  The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern
       that is matched against the names of the files that are going to be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a
              particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is
              matched against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a
              leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus /foo would match a
              name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a
              global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-
              directory rule).  An unqualified foo would match a name of
              "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied
              recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path
              component gets a turn at being the end of the filename.  Even
              the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the
              hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named
              "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
              for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches
              at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a
              directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these
              three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a
              wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no
              wildcards are present.  This means that there is an extra
              level of backslash removal when a pattern contains wildcard
              characters compared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you
              add a wildcard to "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you
              would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
              "**", then it is matched against the full pathname, including
              any leading directories.  If the pattern doesn't contain a /
              or a "**", then it is matched only against the final component
              of the filename. (Remember that the algorithm is applied
              recursively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of
              a path from the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the
              directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified).  This
              behavior was added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied
       by -a), every subdir component of every path is visited left to
       right, with each directory having a chance for exclusion before its
       content.  In this way include/exclude patterns are applied
       recursively to the pathname of each node in the filesystem's tree
       (those inside the transfer).  The exclude patterns short-circuit the
       directory traversal stage as rsync finds the files to send.

       For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz", the directories "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded.  Excluding one of those parent
       directories prevents the examination of its content, cutting off
       rsync's recursion into those paths and rendering the include for
       "/foo/bar/baz" ineffectual (since rsync can't match something it
       never sees in the cut-off section of the directory hierarchy).

       The concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a
       trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't work:

           + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
           + /file-is-included
           - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories
       in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put
       it somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-
       empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include rules
       for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance, this
       set of rules works fine:

           + /some/
           + /some/path/
           + /some/path/this-file-is-found
           + /file-also-included
           - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at
              two levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more
              levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include
              all directories and C source files but nothing else (see also
              the --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo
              directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded
              by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For
              example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any
              time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory,
              and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a
              dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the
              current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if
              the pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would
              exclude all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which
              case default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide
              (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify
              sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the
              receiving side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it
              prevents files from being deleted.  See the s modifier for
              more info.  See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which
              are an alternate way to specify receiver-side

       o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
              ignored in directories that are being deleted.  For instance,
              the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS"
              and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a
              directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on
              the destination.

       o      An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr
              copy/delete operations (and is thus ignored when matching
              file/dir names).  If no xattr-matching rules are specified, a
              default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs


       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either
       a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the
       FILTER RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-
       directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the
       "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every
       directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents
       when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These
       per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because
       it is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files
       to transfer.  These rule files may also need to be transferred to the
       receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get
       deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

           merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
           . /etc/rsync/default.rules
           dir-merge .per-dir-filter
           dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
           :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
              patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include
              patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
              compatible manner.  This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "-

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by

       o      A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace
              instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off
              comments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the
              rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two
              rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"
              rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that modifier set (except for the !
              modifier, which would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
              .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path
              excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make
              all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side.
              If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r
              modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify
              sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the
       directory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was
       used.  Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-
       directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a
       higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-
       merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was
       specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule
       that got specified earlier in the list of global rules.  When the
       list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only
       clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory,
       so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory
       where the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via
       --filter=". file":

           merge /home/user/.global-filter
           - *.gz
           dir-merge .rules
           + *.[ch]
           - *.o
           - foo*

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of
       the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading
       slash matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a
       parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all
       the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory
       for the indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a common
       filter (see -F):

           --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
       directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
       transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file
       in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note:
       for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

           rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the
       parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your
       patterns, you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of
       the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can
       use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of
       the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by
       putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without
       this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at
       the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your
       command-line rules).  For example:

           cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
           + foo.o
           - *.old
           rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list
       rather than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to
       supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient
       to all your rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the
       default list of exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the
       value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and
       instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g.


       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"
       filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The
       "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is
       encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-
       directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a
       subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules).


       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns,
       which are anchored at the merge-file's directory).  If you think of
       the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the
       --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching
       (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on
       the destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an
       absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of
       "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various command choices differ
       for a 2-source transfer:

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
           +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
           Target file: /dest/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
           +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).


       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files
       themselves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the
       'e' modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two
       equivalent commands:

           rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you
       want some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be
       sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The
       easiest way is to include the per-directory merge files in the
       transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the
       receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side
       before it tries to delete anything:

           rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll
       need to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on
       the command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory
       merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this
       (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

           rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
              --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of
       the transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to
       the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified
       after the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter
       files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this
       we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that
       they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to
       control what else should not get deleted.  Like one of these

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

BATCH MODE         top

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
       identical systems.  Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
       number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this
       source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other
       hosts.  In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the
       write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to
       one of the destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the
       rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to
       repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file
       status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when
       updating multiple destination trees.  Multicast transport protocols
       can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many
       hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch
       file, and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree
       using the information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-
       batch option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file
       with ".sh" appended.  This script file contains a command-line
       suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch
       file.  It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell,
       optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is
       then used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful
       when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the
       one used to create the batch file.


           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ scp foo* remote:
           $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored
       in "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is then updated with the
       batched data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences
       between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in
       how you deal with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to
              be local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host
              using either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax,
              as desired.

       o      The first example uses the created "" file to get the
              right rsync options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so
              that the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the script because
              it needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could
              edit the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be
              sure that no other option is trying to use standard input,
              such as the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is
       updating to be identical to the destination tree that was used to
       create the batch update fileset.  When a difference between the
       destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a
       warning (if the file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-
       update may be attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the
       update discarded with an error.  This means that it should be safe to
       re-run a read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you
       wish to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of
       the file's size and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).
       If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a
       partially updated state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its
       regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an
       error if the protocol version in the batch file is too new for the
       batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a
       way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in
       version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions
       will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and
       should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-
       batch, --files-from is dropped, and the --filter / --include /
       --exclude options are not needed unless one of the --delete options
       is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any
       filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as
       a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just
       use the shell script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-
       batch command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the
       latest version uses a new implementation.

SYMBOLIC LINKS         top

       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same
       target on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by
       copying their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
       example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
       links to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using
       --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file
       they point to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause
       unsafe links to be omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify
       --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough ".."  components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The
       list is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options
       isn't mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for
              any other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

DIAGNOSTICS         top

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
       cryptic.  The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
       version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote
       shell facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is
       using for its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem is to run
       your remote shell like this:

           ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then
       out.dat should be a zero length file.  If you are getting the above
       error from rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains
       some text or data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is
       producing it.  The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell
       startup scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output
       statements for non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try
       specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will
       show why each individual file is included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES         top

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to
              manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support
              them; or an option was specified that is supported by the
              client and not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection


              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore
              patterns in .cvsignore files.  See the --cvs-exclude option
              for more details.

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment
              variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

              Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-
              args option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make
              sure that it is disabled by default. (First supported in

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the
              -e option.

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect
              your rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a
              rsync daemon.  You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to
              run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
              user intervention.  Note that this does not supply a password
              to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do
              that, consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to
              determine the default username sent to an rsync daemon.  If
              neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's
              default .cvsignore file.

FILES         top

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

SEE ALSO         top

       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS         top

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

VERSION         top

       This man page is current for version 3.2.3 of rsync.


       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such
       as when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an
       example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used
       with a restricted ssh login.

CREDITS         top

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for details.

       A web site is available at  The site
       includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this
       manual page.

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

THANKS         top

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
       Rothwell and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my
       apologies if I have.

AUTHOR         top

       rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it. It is currently maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the rsync (a fast, versatile, remote (and local)
       file-copying tool) project.  Information about the project can be
       found at ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see ⟨⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the tarball fetched from
       ⟨⟩ on 2020-11-01.  If you dis‐
       cover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
       believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
       you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail

rsync 3.2.3                      06 Aug 2020                        rsync(1)

Pages that refer to this page: pmlogger_check(1)pmlogger_daily(1)rsync-ssl(1)rsyncd.conf(5)