# rsync(1) — Linux manual page

rsync(1)                      User Commands                     rsync(1)


## NAME         top

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool


## SYNOPSIS         top

       Local:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source

The online version of this manpage (that includes cross-linking
of topics) is available at


## DESCRIPTION         top

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.
It can copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell,
or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large number of
options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very
flexible specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is
famous for its delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount
of data sent over the network by sending only the differences
between the source files and the existing files in the
destination.  Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring and
as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick
check" algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have
changed in size or in last-modified time.  Any changes in the
other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on
the destination file directly when the quick check indicates that
the file's data does not need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and
permissions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS
would ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons
(ideal for mirroring)


## GENERAL         top

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on
the current host (it does not support copying files between two
remote hosts).

There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote
system: using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as
ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The
remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination
path contains a single colon (:) separator after a host
specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon directly happens when
the source or destination path contains a double colon (::)
separator after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is
SHELL CONNECTION section for an exception to this latter rule).

As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to
"ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a
option).

Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side
as the server.  Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A
daemon is always a server, but a server can be either a daemon or
a remote-shell spawned process.


## SETUP         top

       See the file README.md for installation instructions.

Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can
access via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access
using the rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a
modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have
been configured to use a different remote shell by default, such
as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using
the -e command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH
environment variable.

Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and
destination machines.


## USAGE         top

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a
source and a destination, one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the
current directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If
any of the files already exist on the remote system then the
rsync remote-update protocol is used to update the file by
sending only the differences in the data.  Note that the
expansion of wildcards on the command-line (*.c) into a list of
files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by
rsync itself (exactly the same as all other Posix-style
programs).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This would recursively transfer all files from the directory
src/bar on the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on
the local machine.  The files are transferred in archive mode,
which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes,
permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.
Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the size of data
portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid
creating an additional directory level at the destination.  You
can think of a trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the
contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by
name", but in both cases the attributes of the containing
directory are transferred to the containing directory on the
destination.  In other words, each of the following commands
copies the files in the same way, including their setting of the
attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note also that host and module references don't require a
trailing slash to copy the contents of the default directory.
For example, both of these copy the remote directory's contents
into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source
and destination don't have a ':' in the name.  In this case it
behaves like an improved copy command.

Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::


## COPYING TO A DIFFERENT NAME         top

       When you want to copy a directory to a different name, use a
trailing slash on the source directory to put the contents of the
directory into any destination directory you like:

rsync -ai foo/ bar/

Rsync also has the ability to customize a destination file's name
when copying a single item.  The rules for this are:

o      The transfer list must consist of a single item (either a
file or an empty directory)

o      The final element of the destination path must not exist
as a directory

o      The destination path must not have been specified with a
trailing slash

Under those circumstances, rsync will set the name of the
destination's single item to the last element of the destination
path.  Keep in mind that it is best to only use this idiom when
copying a file and use the above trailing-slash idiom when
copying a directory.

The following example copies the foo.c file as bar.c in the save
dir (assuming that bar.c isn't a directory):

rsync -ai src/foo.c save/bar.c

The single-item copy rule might accidentally bite you if you
unknowingly copy a single item and specify a destination dir that
doesn't exist (without using a trailing slash).  For example, if
src/*.c matches one file and save/dir doesn't exist, this will
confuse you by naming the destination file save/dir:

rsync -ai src/*.c save/dir

To prevent such an accident, either make sure the destination dir
exists or specify the destination path with a trailing slash:

rsync -ai src/*.c save/dir/


## SORTED TRANSFER ORDER         top

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal
transfer list.  This handles the merging together of the contents
of identically named directories, makes it easy to remove
duplicate filenames. It can, however, confuse someone when the
files are transferred in a different order than what was given on
the command-line.

If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another,
either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider
using --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted transfer
order, but does make the final file-updating phase happen much
more rapidly).


## MULTI-HOST SECURITY         top

       Rsync takes steps to ensure that the file requests that are
shared in a transfer are protected against various security
issues.  Most of the potential problems arise on the receiving
side where rsync takes steps to ensure that the list of files
being transferred remains within the bounds of what was
requested.

Toward this end, rsync 3.1.2 and later have aborted when a file
list contains an absolute or relative path that tries to escape
out of the top of the transfer.  Also, beginning with version
3.2.5, rsync does two more safety checks of the file list to (1)
ensure that no extra source arguments were added into the
transfer other than those that the client requested and (2)
ensure that the file list obeys the exclude rules that were sent
to the sender.

For those that don't yet have a 3.2.5 client rsync (or those that
want to be extra careful), it is safest to do a copy into a
dedicated destination directory for the remote files when you
don't trust the remote host.  For example, instead of doing an
rsync copy into your home directory:

rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~

Dedicate a "host1-files" dir to the remote content:

rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~/host1-files

See the --trust-sender option for additional details.

CAUTION: it is not particularly safe to use rsync to copy files
from a case-preserving filesystem to a case-ignoring filesystem.
If you must perform such a copy, you should either disable
--munge-links (and make sure you use the right local or remote
option).  This will prevent rsync from doing potentially
dangerous things if a symlink name overlaps with a file or
directory. It does not, however, ensure that you get a full copy
of all the files (since that may not be possible when the names
overlap). A potentially better solution is to list all the source
files and create a safe list of filenames that you pass to the
--files-from option.  Any files that conflict in name would need
to be copied to different destination directories using more than
one copy.

While a copy of a case-ignoring filesystem to a case-ignoring
filesystem can work out fairly well, if no --delete-during or
--delete-before option is active, rsync can potentially update an
existing file on the receiveing side without noticing that the
upper-/lower-case of the filename should be changed to match the
sender.


       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is
done by specifying additional remote-host args in the same style
as the first, or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all
these work:

rsync -aiv host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -aiv host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/extra /dest/
rsync -aiv host::modname/first ::extra-file{1,2} /dest/

Note that a daemon connection only supports accessing one module
per copy command, so if the start of a follow-up path doesn't
begin with the modname of the first path, it is assumed to be a
path in the module (such as the extra-file1 & extra-file2 that
are grabbed above).

Really old versions of rsync (2.6.9 and before) only allowed
specifying one remote-source arg, so some people have instead
relied on the remote-shell performing space splitting to break up
an arg into multiple paths. Such unintuitive behavior is no
longer supported by default (though you can request it, as
described below).

Starting in 3.2.4, filenames are passed to a remote shell in such
a way as to preserve the characters you give it. Thus, if you ask
for a file with spaces in the name, that's what the remote rsync
looks for:

rsync -aiv host:'a simple file.pdf' /dest/

If you use scripts that have been written to manually apply extra
quoting to the remote rsync args (or to require remote arg
splitting), you can ask rsync to let your script handle the extra
escaping.  This is done by either adding the --old-args option to
the rsync runs in the script (which requires a new rsync) or
exporting RSYNC_OLD_ARGS=1 and RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS=0 (which works
with old or new rsync versions).


## CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON         top

       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the
transport.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote
rsync daemon, typically using TCP port 873. (This obviously
requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer
to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section
below for information on that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote
shell except that:

o      Use either double-colon syntax or rsync:// URL syntax
instead of the single-colon (remote shell) syntax.

o      The first element of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      Additional remote source args can use an abbreviated
syntax that omits the hostname and/or the module name, as

o      The remote daemon may print a "message of the day" when
you connect.

o      If you specify only the host (with no module or path) then
a list of accessible modules on the daemon is output.

o      If you specify a remote source path but no destination, a
listing of the matching files on the remote daemon is
output.

o      The --rsh (-e) option must be omitted to avoid changing
the connection style from using a socket connection to
USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION.

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named
"src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If
so, you will receive a password prompt when you connect.  You can
avoid the password prompt by setting the environment variable
--password-file option.  This may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
users.  On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing
support proxy connections to port 873.

You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a
proxy by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to
the commands you wish to run in place of making a direct socket
connection.  The string may contain the escape "%H" to represent
the hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you
need a single "%" in your string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a
proxyhost, which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon)
on the targethost (%H).

Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set,
that program will be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command
instead of using the default shell of the system() call.


## USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION         top

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon
(such as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket
connections into a system (other than what is already required to
allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host
using a remote shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon"
server that expects to read its config file in the home dir of
the remote user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt a
daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon is started up
fresh by the remote user, you may not be able to use features
such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon. (For another
way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync
daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from
"localhost".)

From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you
must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line
with the --rsh=COMMAND option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the
environment will not turn on this functionality.) For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in
mind that the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the
rsync-user value (for a module that requires user-based
authentication).  This means that you must give the '-l user'
option to ssh when specifying the remote-shell, as in this
example that uses the short version of the --rsh option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user"
will be used to log-in to the "module".

In this setup, the daemon is started by the ssh command that is
accessing the system (which can be forced via the
~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, if desired).  However, when
accessing a daemon directly, it needs to be started beforehand.


## STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS         top

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs
to have a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured
something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming
connections on a particular port).  For full information on how
to start a daemon that will handling incoming socket connections,
see the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage -- that is the config file for the
daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the
daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the
transfer, there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.


## EXAMPLES         top

       Here are some examples of how rsync can be used.

To backup a home directory, which consists of large MS Word files
and mail folders, a per-user cron job can be used that runs this
each day:

rsync -aiz . bkhost:backup/joe/

To move some files from a remote host to the local host, you
could run:

rsync -aiv --remove-source-files rhost:/tmp/{file1,file2}.c ~/src/


## OPTION SUMMARY         top

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Each
option also has its own detailed description later in this
manpage.

--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
--stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
--quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
--no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
--checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
--archive, -a            archive mode is -rlptgoD (no -A,-X,-U,-N,-H)
--no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
--recursive, -r          recurse into directories
--relative, -R           use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
--backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace                update destination files in-place
--append                 append data onto shorter files
--append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
--dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
--old-dirs, --old-d      works like --dirs when talking to old rsync
--mkpath                 create destination's missing path components
--perms, -p              preserve permissions
--executability, -E      preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
--acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
--xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
--owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
--group, -g              preserve group
--devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
--copy-devices           copy device contents as a regular file
--write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
--specials               preserve special files
-D                       same as --devices --specials
--times, -t              preserve modification times
--atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
--open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
--crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
--omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
--fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
--sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
--preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
--dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
--whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
--checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
--one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
--block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
--rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing               skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                    an alias for --delete-during
--delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
--partial                keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
--prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
--ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only              skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
--temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
--fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
--compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
--compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
--compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
--skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
--cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
--filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
-F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
--from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
--old-args               disable the modern arg-protection idiom
--secluded-args, -s      use the protocol to safely send the args
--trust-sender           trust the remote sender's file list
--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
--port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                  give some file-transfer stats
--8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress               show progress during transfer
-P                       same as --partial --progress
--itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
--remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
--early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
--list-only              list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
--fsync                  fsync every written file
--write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
--help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following
options are accepted:

--daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
--dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach              do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)


## OPTIONS         top

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-
dash + letter) options.  The full list of the available options
are described below.  If an option can be specified in more than
one way, the choices are comma-separated.  Some options only have
a long variant, not a short.

If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed
after the long variant, even though it must also be specified for
the short.  When specifying a parameter, you can either use the
form --option=param, --option param, -o=param, -o param, or
-oparam (the latter choices assume that your option has a short
variant).

The parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it to
survive the shell's command-line parsing.  Also keep in mind that
a leading tilde (~) in a pathname is substituted by your shell,
so make sure that you separate the option name from the pathname
using a space if you want the local shell to expand it.

--help Print a short help page describing the options available
in rsync and exit.  You can also use -h for --help when it
is used without any other options (since it normally means

--version, -V
Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.  When
repeated, the information is output is a JSON format that
is still fairly readable (client side only).

The output includes a list of compiled-in capabilities, a
list of optimizations, the default list of checksum
algorithms, the default list of compression algorithms,
the default list of daemon auth digests, a link to the
rsync web site, and a few other items.

--verbose, -v
This option increases the amount of information you are
given during the transfer.  By default, rsync works
silently.  A single -v will give you information about
what files are being transferred and a brief summary at
the end.  Two -v options will give you information on what
the end.  More than two -v options should only be used if
you are debugging rsync.

The end-of-run summary tells you the number of bytes sent
to the remote rsync (which is the receiving side on a
local copy), the number of bytes received from the remote
host, and the average bytes per second of the transferred
data computed over the entire length of the rsync run. The
second line shows the total size (in bytes), which is the
sum of all the file sizes that rsync considered
transferring.  It also shows a "speedup" value, which is a
ratio of the total file size divided by the sum of the
sent and received bytes (which is really just a feel-good
bigger-is-better number).  Note that these byte values can

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the
setting of groups of --info and --debug options.  You can
place of using --verbose, as any fine-grained settings
override the implied settings of -v.  Both --info and
--debug have a way to ask for help that tells you exactly
what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity"
setting will limit how high of a level the various
individual flags can be set on the daemon side.  For
instance, if the max is 2, then any info and/or debug flag
that is set to a higher value than what would be set by
-vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in the daemon's
logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
information output you want to see.  An individual flag
name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to
silence that output, 1 being the default output level, and
higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for
those that support higher levels).  Use --info=help to see
all the available flag names, what they output, and what
flag names are added for each increase in the verbose
level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-
format and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the
server side might reject your attempts at fine-grained
control (if one or more flags needed to be send to the
server and the server was too old to understand them).
with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
debug output you want to see.  An individual flag name may
be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence
that output, 1 being the default output level, and higher
numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those that
support higher levels).  Use --debug=help to see all the
available flag names, what they output, and what flag
names are added for each increase in the verbose level.
Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note that some debug messages will only be output when the
--stderr=all option is specified, especially those
pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

Beginning in 3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-
forwarded to the server side in order to allow you to
specify different debug values for each side of the
transfer, as well as to specify a new debug option that is
only present in one of the rsync versions.  If you want to
duplicate the same option on both sides, using brace
expansion is an easy way to save you some typing.  This
works in zsh and bash:

rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

--stderr=errors|all|client
This option controls which processes output to stderr and
if info messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode
strings can be abbreviated, so feel free to use a single
letter value.  The 3 possible choices are:

o      errors - (the default) causes all the rsync
processes to send an error directly to stderr, even
if the process is on the remote side of the
transfer.  Info messages are sent to the client
side via the protocol stream.  If stderr is not
available (i.e. when directly connecting with a
daemon via a socket) errors fall back to being sent
via the protocol stream.

o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error) to
get written directly to stderr from all (possible)
processes.  This causes stderr to become line-
buffered (instead of raw) and eliminates the
ability to divide up the info and error messages by
file handle.  For those doing debugging or using
several levels of verbosity, this option can help
to avoid clogging up the transfer stream (which
should prevent any chance of a deadlock bug hanging
things up).  It also allows --debug to enable some
extra I/O related messages.

o      client - causes all rsync messages to be sent to
the client side via the protocol stream.  One
client process outputs all messages, with errors on
stderr and info messages on stdout.  This was the
default in older rsync versions, but can cause
error delays when a lot of transfer data is ahead
of the messages.  If you're pushing files to an
older rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all since
that idiom has been around for several releases.

This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also
began the forwarding of a non-default setting to the
remote side, though rsync uses the backward-compatible
options --msgs2stderr and --no-msgs2stderr to represent
the all and client settings, respectively.  A newer rsync
will continue to accept these older option names to
maintain compatibility.

--quiet, -q
This option decreases the amount of information you are
given during the transfer, notably suppressing information
messages from the remote server.  This option is useful
when invoking rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This option affects the information that is output by the
client at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses
the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects
the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to
the "rsync host::" request (due to a limitation in the
rsync protocol), so omit this option if you want to
request the list of modules from the daemon.

--ignore-times, -I
Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the
same size and have the same modification timestamp.  This
option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all
files to be updated.

This option can be confusing compared to --ignore-existing
and --ignore-non-existing in that that they cause rsync to
transfer fewer files, while this option causes rsync to
transfer more files.

--size-only
This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding
files that need to be transferred, changing it from the
default of transferring files with either a changed size
or a changed last-modified time to just looking for files
that have changed in size.  This is useful when starting
to use rsync after using another mirroring system which
may not preserve timestamps exactly.

--modify-window=NUM, -@
When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps
as being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-
window value.  The default is 0, which matches just
integer seconds.  If you specify a negative value (and the
receiver is at least version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will
also be taken into account.  Specifying 1 is useful for
copies to/from MS Windows FAT filesystems, because FAT
represents times with a 2-second resolution (allowing
times to differ from the original by up to 1 second).

If you want all your transfers to default to comparing
nanoseconds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these
lines in it:

rsync alias -a -a@-1
rsync alias -t -t@-1

With that as the default, you'd need to specify --modify-
window=0 (aka -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds,
e.g. if you're copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the
receiving rsync is older than 3.1.3.

--checksum, -c
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been
changed and are in need of a transfer.  Without this
option, rsync uses a "quick check" that (by default)
checks if each file's size and time of last modification
match between the sender and receiver.  This option
changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all
the data in the files in the transfer, so this can slow
things down significantly (and this is prior to any
reading that will be done to transfer changed files)

The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing
the file-system scan that builds the list of the available
files.  The receiver generates its checksums when it is
scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file
that has the same size as the corresponding sender's file:
files with either a changed size or a changed checksum are
selected for transfer.

Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file
was correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by
checking a whole-file checksum that is generated as the
file is transferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer
verification has nothing to do with this option's before-
the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.

The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client
and the server, but can be overridden using either the
--checksum-choice (--cc) option or an environment variable
that is discussed in that option's section.

--archive, -a
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of
saying you want recursion and want to preserve almost
everything.  Be aware that it does not include preserving
ACLs (-A), xattrs (-X), atimes (-U), crtimes (-N), nor the
finding and preserving of hardlinks (-H).

The only exception to the above equivalence is when
--files-from is specified, in which case -r is not
implied.

--no-OPTION
You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing
the option name with "no-".  Not all positive options have
a negated opposite, but a lot do, including those that can
be used to disable an implied option (e.g.  --no-D, --no-
perms) or have different defaults in various circumstances
(e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
Every valid negated option accepts both the short and the
long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is
the same as --no-relative).

As an example, if you want to use --archive (-a) but don't
want --owner (-o), instead of converting -a into -rlptgD,
you can specify -a --no-o (aka --archive --no-owner).

The order of the options is important: if you specify
--no-r -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the
opposite of -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of
the --files-from option are NOT positional, as it affects
the default state of several options and slightly changes
the meaning of -a (see the --files-from option for more
details).

--recursive, -r
This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See
also --dirs (-d) for an option that allows the scanning of
a single directory.

See the --inc-recursive option for a discussion of the
incremental recursion for creating the list of files to
transfer.

--inc-recursive, --i-r
This option explicitly enables on incremental recursion
when scanning for files, which is enabled by default when
using the --recursive option and both sides of the
transfer are running rsync 3.0.0 or newer.

Incremental recursion uses much less memory than non-
incremental, while also beginning the transfer more
quickly (since it doesn't need to scan the entire transfer
hierarchy before it starts transferring files).  If no
recursion is enabled in the source files, this option has
no effect.

Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so
these options disable the incremental recursion mode.
These include:

o      --delete-before (the old default of --delete)

o      --delete-after

o      --prune-empty-dirs

In order to make --delete compatible with incremental
recursion, rsync 3.0.0 made --delete-during the default
delete mode (which was first added in 2.6.4).

One side-effect of incremental recursion is that any
missing sub-directories inside a recursively-scanned
directory are (by default) created prior to recursing into
the sub-dirs.  This earlier creation point (compared to a
non-incremental recursion) allows rsync to then set the
modify time of the finished directory right away (without
having to delay that until a bunch of recursive copying
has finished).  However, these early directories don't yet
have their completed mode, mtime, or ownership set -- they
have more restrictive rights until the subdirectory's
copying actually begins.  This early-creation idiom can be
avoided by using the --omit-dir-times option.

Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-
recursive (--no-i-r) option.

--no-inc-recursive, --no-i-r
Disables the new incremental recursion algorithm of the
--recursive option.  This makes rsync scan the full file
list before it begins to transfer files.  See --inc-

--relative, -R
Use relative paths.  This means that the full path names
specified on the command line are sent to the server
rather than just the last parts of the filenames.  This is
particularly useful when you want to send several
different directories at the same time.  For example, if
you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on
the remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra
path elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the
"foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these
implied directories as real directories in the file list,
even if a path element is really a symlink on the sending
side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when
copying the full path of a file that you didn't realize
had a symlink in its path.  If you want to duplicate a
path, and referent directory via its real path.  If you're
dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path
information that is sent as implied directories for each
path you specify.  With a modern rsync on the sending side
(beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash
into the source path, like this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.
(Note that the dot must be followed by a slash, so
"/foo/." would not be abbreviated.) For older rsync
versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the
source path.  For example, when pushing files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-
shell, so that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect
for future commands.) If you're pulling files from an
older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon
transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This option affects the default behavior of the --relative
option.  When it is specified, the attributes of the
implied directories from the source names are not included
in the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path
elements on the destination system are left unchanged if
they exist, and any missing implied directories are
created with default attributes.  This even allows these
implied path elements to have big differences, such as
being a symlink to a directory on the receiving side.

For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry
told rsync to transfer the file "path/foo/file", the
directories "path" and "path/foo" are implied when
--relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar"
on the destination system, the receiving rsync would
ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-
implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates "path/foo/file"
using the existing path elements, which means that the
file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to
accomplish this link preservation is to use the --keep-
directories in the rest of the transfer).

When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may
need to use this option if the sending side has a symlink
in the path you request and you wish the implied
directories to be transferred as normal directories.

--backup, -b
With this option, preexisting destination files are
renamed as each file is transferred or deleted.  You can
control where the backup file goes and what (if any)
suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix
options.

If you don't specify --backup-dir:

1.     the --omit-dir-times option will be forced on

2.     the use of --delete (without --delete-excluded),
causes rsync to add a "protect" filter-rule for the
backup suffix to the end of all your existing
filters that looks like this: -f "P *~".  This rule
prevents previously backed-up files from being
deleted.

Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you
may need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule
somewhere higher up in the list so that it has a high
enough priority to be effective (e.g. if your rules
specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-
added rule would never be reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
This implies the --backup option, and tells rsync to store
all backups in the specified directory on the receiving
side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can
additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix
option (otherwise the files backed up in the specified
directory will keep their original filenames).

Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup
directory will be relative to the destination directory,
so you probably want to specify either an absolute path or
a path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the
receiver, the backup dir cannot go outside the module's
path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete it or
copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override the default backup
suffix used with the --backup (-b) option.  The default
suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise
it is an empty string.

--update, -u
This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the
destination and have a modified time that is newer than
the source file. (If an existing destination file has a
modification time equal to the source file's, it will be
updated if the sizes are different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs,
symlinks, or other special files.  Also, a difference of
file format between the sender and receiver is always
considered to be important enough for an update, no matter
what date is on the objects.  In other words, if the
source has a directory where the destination has a file,
the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any
exclude side effects.

A caution for those that choose to combine --inplace with
--update: an interrupted transfer will leave behind a
partial file on the receiving side that has a very recent
modified time, so re-running the transfer will probably
not continue the interrupted file.  As such, it is usually
best to avoid combining this with --inplace unless you
have implemented manual steps to handle any interrupted
in-progress files.

--inplace
This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its
data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of
creating a new copy of the file and moving it into place
when it is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data
directly to the destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data
will be visible through other hard links to the
destination file.  Moreover, attempts to copy
differing source files onto a multiply-linked
destination file will result in a "tug of war" with
the destination data changing back and forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS
will prevent this from happening, or binaries that
attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or
crash).

o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state
during the transfer and will be left that way if
the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be
updated.  While a super user can update any file, a
normal user needs to be granted write permission
for the open of the file for writing to be
successful.

o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm
may be reduced if some data in the destination file
is overwritten before it can be copied to a
position later in the file.  This does not apply if
you use --backup, since rsync is smart enough to
use the backup file as the basis file for the
transfer.

WARNING: you should not use this option to update files
that are being accessed by others, so be careful when
choosing to use this for a copy.

This option is useful for transferring large files with
block-based changes or appended data, and also on systems
that are disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help
keep a copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging
the entire contents of a file that only has minor changes.

The option implies --partial (since an interrupted
transfer does not delete the file), but conflicts with
--partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4
--inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and

--append
This special copy mode only works to efficiently update
files that are known to be growing larger where any
existing content on the receiving side is also known to be
the same as the content on the sender.  The use of
--append can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all
the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.  You
should thus use filter rules to ensure that you weed out
any files that do not fit this criteria.

Rsync updates these growing file in-place without
verifying any of the existing content in the file (it only
verifies the content that it is appending).  Rsync skips
any files that exist on the receiving side that are not
shorter than the associated file on the sending side
(which means that new files are transferred).  It also
skips any files whose size on the sending side gets
shorter during the send negotiations (rsync warns about a
"diminished" file when this happens).

This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-
content attributes (e.g.  permissions, ownership, etc.)
when the file does not need to be transferred, nor does it
affect the updating of any directories or non-regular
files.

--append-verify
This special copy mode works like --append except that all
the data in the file is included in the checksum
verification (making it less efficient but also
potentially safer).  This option can be dangerous if you
aren't 100% sure that all the files in the transfer are
shared, growing files.  See the --append option for more
details.

Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked
like --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an
older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol prior to
30), specifying either append option will initiate an
--append-verify transfer.

--dirs, -d
Tell the sending side to include any directories that are
encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents
are not copied unless the directory name specified is "."
or ends with a trailing slash (e.g.  ".", "dir/.", "dir/",
etc.).  Without this option or the --recursive option,
rsync will skip all directories it encounters (and output
a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify
both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or
the --list-only option (including an implied --list-only
usage) if --recursive wasn't specified (so that
directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs
(or --no-d) if you want to turn this off.

There is also a backward-compatibility helper option,
--old-dirs (--old-d) that tells rsync to use a hack of
-r --exclude='/*/*' to get an older rsync to list a single
directory without recursing.

--mkpath
Create all missing path components of the destination
path.

By default, rsync allows only the final component of the
destination path to not exist, which is an attempt to help
you to validate your destination path.  With this option,
rsync creates all the missing destination-path components,
just as if mkdir -p $DEST_PATH had been run on the receiving side. When specifying a destination path, including a trailing slash ensures that the whole path is treated as directory names to be created, even when the file list has a single item. See the COPYING TO A DIFFERENT NAME section for full details on how rsync decides if a final destination-path component should be created as a directory or not. If you would like the newly-created destination dirs to match the dirs on the sending side, you should be using --relative (-R) instead of --mkpath. For instance, the following two commands result in the same destination tree, but only the second command ensures that the "some/extra/path" components match the dirs on the sending side: rsync -ai --mkpath host:some/extra/path/*.c some/extra/path/ rsync -aiR host:some/extra/path/*.c ./ --links, -l Add symlinks to the transferred files instead of noisily ignoring them with a "non-regular file" warning for each symlink encountered. You can alternately silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0. The default handling of symlinks is to recreate each symlink's unchanged value on the receiving side. See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info. --copy-links, -L The sender transforms each symlink encountered in the transfer into the referent item, following the symlink chain to the file or directory that it references. If a symlink chain is broken, an error is output and the file is dropped from the transfer. This option supersedes any other options that affect symlinks in the transfer, since there are no symlinks left in the transfer. This option does not change the handling of existing symlinks on the receiving side, unlike versions of rsync prior to 2.6.3 which had the side-effect of telling the receiving side to also follow symlinks. A modern rsync won't forward this option to a remote receiver (since only the sender needs to know about it), so this caveat should only affect someone using an rsync client older than 2.6.7 (which is when -L stopped being forwarded to the receiver). See the --keep-dirlinks (-K) if you need a symlink to a directory to be treated as a real directory on the receiving side. See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info. --copy-unsafe-links This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that point outside the copied tree. Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used. Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is the part of the path that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose output. If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir" directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the top of the transfer (which is /src) so it is legal for created relative symlinks to refer to other names inside the /src and /dest directories. If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a trailing slash) to "/dest/subdir" that would not allow symlinks to any files outside of "subdir". Note that safe symlinks are only copied if --links was also specified or implied. The --copy-unsafe-links option has no extra effect when combined with --copy-links. See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info. --safe-links This tells the receiving rsync to ignore any symbolic links in the transfer which point outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored. Since this ignoring is happening on the receiving side, it will still be effective even when the sending side has munged symlinks (when it is using --munge-links). It also affects deletions, since the file being present in the transfer prevents any matching file on the receiver from being deleted when the symlink is deemed to be unsafe and is skipped. This option must be combined with --links (or --archive) to have any symlinks in the transfer to conditionally ignore. Its effect is superseded by --copy-unsafe-links. Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give unexpected results. See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info. --munge-links This option affects just one side of the transfer and tells rsync to munge symlink values when it is receiving files or unmunge symlink values when it is sending files. The munged values make the symlinks unusable on disk but allows the original contents of the symlinks to be recovered. The server-side rsync often enables this option without the client's knowledge, such as in an rsync daemon's configuration file or by an option given to the rrsync (restricted rsync) script. When specified on the client side, specify the option normally if it is the client side that has/needs the munged symlinks, or use -M--munge-links to give the option to the server when it has/needs the munged symlinks. Note that on a local transfer, the client is the sender, so specifying the option directly unmunges symlinks while specifying it as a remote option munges symlinks. This option has no effect when sent to a daemon via --remote-option because the daemon configures whether it wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter. The symlink value is munged/unmunged once it is in the transfer, so any option that transforms symlinks into non- symlinks occurs prior to the munging/unmunging except for --safe-links, which is a choice that the receiver makes, so it bases its decision on the munged/unmunged value. This does mean that if a receiver has munging enabled, that using --safe-links will cause all symlinks to be ignored (since they are all absolute). The method that rsync uses to munge the symlinks is to prefix each one's value with the string "/rsyncd-munged/". This prevents the links from being used as long as the directory does not exist. When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory (though it only checks at startup). See also the "munge-symlinks" python script in the support directory of the source code for a way to munge/unmunge one or more symlinks in-place. --copy-dirlinks, -k This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory. This is useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links. Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as --force or --delete is in effect). See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side. --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the source. If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths match up right. For example: rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/ This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./". See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info. --keep-dirlinks, -K This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the sender. Without this option, the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real directory. For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar" on the receiver. Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a directory, and receives the file into the new directory. With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar". One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks in the copy or enable the --munge- links option on the receiving side! If it is possible for an untrusted user to create their own symlink to any real directory, the user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real directory and affect the content of whatever directory the symlink references. For backup copies, you are better off using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy. See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side. See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info. --hard-links, -H This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together the corresponding files on the destination. Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated as though they were separate files. This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the destination exactly matches that on the source. Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links include the following: o If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is present in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not break them explicitly. However, if one or more of the paths have content differences, the normal file- update process will break those extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option). o If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard links, the linking of the destination files against the --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination to become linked together due to the --link-dest associations. Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside the transfer set. If rsync updates a file that has extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken. If you are tempted to use the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your files are being updated so that you are certain that no unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats). If incremental recursion is active (see --inc-recursive), rsync may transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy. This does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been found later in the transfer in another member of the hard- linked set of files). One way to avoid this inefficiency is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc- recursive option. --perms, -p This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See also the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to be the source permissions.) When this option is off, permissions are set as follows: o Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions, though the --executability option might change just the execute permission for the file. o New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source file's permissions masked with the receiving directory's default permissions (either the receiving process's umask, or the permissions specified via the destination directory's default ACL), and their special permission bits disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent directory. Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1). In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions, use --perms. To give new files the destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get enabled). If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir): rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX You could then use this new option in a command such as this one: rsync -avZ src/ dest/ (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.) The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly- created directories when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7. Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created directory. Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present. (Keep in mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.) --executability, -E This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled. A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions. When an existing destination file's executability differs from that of the corresponding source file, rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows: o To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions. o To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled. If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored. --acls, -A This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be the same as the source ACLs. The option also implies --perms. The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option to work properly. See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compatible. --xattrs, -X This option causes rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be the same as the source ones. For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by a super-user copies all namespaces except system.*. A normal user only copies the user.* namespace. To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user, see the --fake-super option. The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more filter options with the x modifier. When you specify an xattr-affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted. For example, to skip the system namespace, you could specify: --filter='-x system.*' To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could specify a negated-user match: --filter='-x! user.*' To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could specify a receiver-only rule that excludes all names: --filter='-xr *' Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr values (e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option (e.g. -XX). This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super. --chmod=CHMOD This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma- separated "chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the transfer. The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this option can seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is not enabled. In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'. For example, the following will ensure that all directories get marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are user-writable and group-writable, and that both have consistent executability across all bits: --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X Using octal mode numbers is also allowed: --chmod=D2775,F664 It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make. See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer. --owner, -o This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options). Without this option, the owner of new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side. The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discussion). --group, -g This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as the source file. If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side is a member of will be preserved. Without this option, the group is set to the default group of the invoking user on the receiving side. The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric- ids option for a full discussion). --devices This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote system to recreate these devices. If the receiving rsync is not being run as the super-user, rsync silently skips creating the device files (see also the --super and --fake-super options). By default, rsync generates a "non-regular file" warning for each device file encountered when this option is not set. You can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0. --specials This option causes rsync to transfer special files, such as named sockets and fifos. If the receiving rsync is not being run as the super-user, rsync silently skips creating the special files (see also the --super and --fake-super options). By default, rsync generates a "non-regular file" warning for each special file encountered when this option is not set. You can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0. -D The -D option is equivalent to "--devices --specials". --copy-devices This tells rsync to treat a device on the sending side as a regular file, allowing it to be copied to a normal destination file (or another device if --write-devices was also specified). This option is refused by default by an rsync daemon. --write-devices This tells rsync to treat a device on the receiving side as a regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device. This option implies the --inplace option. Be careful using this, as you should know what devices are present on the receiving side of the transfer, especially when running rsync as root. This option is refused by default by an rsync daemon. --times, -t This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the files and update them on the remote system. Note that if this option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a missing -t (or -a) will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used --ignore-times (-I), causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta- transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off using -t). A modern rsync that is using transfer protocol 30 or 31 conveys a modify time using up to 8-bytes. If rsync is forced to speak an older protocol (perhaps due to the remote rsync being older than 3.0.0) a modify time is conveyed using 4-bytes. Prior to 3.2.7, these shorter values could convey a date range of 13-Dec-1901 to 19-Jan-2038. Beginning with 3.2.7, these 4-byte values now convey a date range of 1-Jan-1970 to 7-Feb-2106. If you have files dated older than 1970, make sure your rsync executables are upgraded so that the full range of dates can be conveyed. --atimes, -U This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of the destination files to the same value as the source files. If repeated, it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same access times on the transferred files without needing to run rsync an extra time after a file is transferred. Note that some older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have been built with a pre-release --atimes patch that does not imply --open-noatime when this option is repeated. --open-noatime This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on systems that support it) to avoid changing the access time of the files that are being transferred. If your OS does not support the O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option. Note also that some filesystems are mounted to avoid updating the atime on read access even without the O_NOATIME flag being set. --crtimes, -N, This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the destination files to the same value as the source files. --omit-dir-times, -O This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification, access, and create times. If NFS is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O. This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir. This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of missing sub-directories when incremental recursion is enabled, as discussed in the --inc-recursive section. --omit-link-times, -J This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving modification, access, and create times. --super This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user. These activities include: preserving users via the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups) via the --group option, and copying devices via the --devices option. This is useful for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as the super-user. To turn off super-user activities, the super-user can use --no-super. --fake-super When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as needed). This includes the file's owner and group (if it is not the default), the file's device info (device & special files are created as empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner's access (since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user). This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified). This is a good way to backup data without using a super- user, and to store ACLs from incompatible systems. The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used. To affect the remote side of a remote- shell connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option: rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/ For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination. If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the destination files, specify -M--fake- super. If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source files, combine --fake-super with -M--super. This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super. See also the fake super setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file. --sparse, -S Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on the destination. If combined with --inplace the file created might not end up with sparse blocks with some combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type. If --whole-file is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work because rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated version. Note that versions of rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the combination of --sparse and --inplace. --preallocate This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its eventual size before writing data to the file. Rsync will only use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3), not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into each block. Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy more slowly. If the destination is not an extent-supporting filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have no positive effect at all. If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks (as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if the kernel version and filesystem type support creating holes in the allocated data. --dry-run, -n This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run). It is most commonly used in combination with the --verbose (-v) and/or --itemize-changes (-i) options to see what an rsync command is going to do before one actually runs it. The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug. Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some areas. Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file transfers, so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run where no file transfers were needed. --whole-file, -W This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which causes all transferred files to be sent whole. The transfer may be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem). This is the default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths, but only if no batch-writing option is in effect. --no-whole-file, --no-W Disable whole-file updating when it is enabled by default for a local transfer. This usually slows rsync down, but it can be useful if you are trying to minimize the writes to the destination file (if combined with --inplace) or for testing the checksum-based update algorithm. See also the --whole-file option. --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR This option overrides the checksum algorithms. If one algorithm name is specified, it is used for both the transfer checksums and (assuming --checksum is specified) the pre-transfer checksums. If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first name affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects the pre-transfer checksums (-c). The checksum options that you may be able to use are: o auto (the default automatic choice) o xxh128 o xxh3 o xxh64 (aka xxhash) o md5 o md4 o sha1 o none Run rsync --version to see the default checksum list compiled into your version (which may differ from the list above). If "none" is specified for the first (or only) name, the --whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is performed on the transferred data. If "none" is specified for the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot be used. The "auto" option is the default, where rsync bases its algorithm choice on a negotiation between the client and the server as follows: When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that is also in the server's list of choices. If no common checksum choice is found, rsync exits with an error. If the remote rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, a value is chosen based on the protocol version (which chooses between MD5 and various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age). The default order can be customized by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a space- separated list of acceptable checksum names. If the string contains a "&" character, it is separated into the "client string & server string", otherwise the same string applies to both. If the string (or string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the default checksum list is used. This method does not allow you to specify the transfer checksum separately from the pre- transfer checksum, and it discards "auto" and all unknown checksum names. A list with only invalid names results in a failed negotiation. The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this environment list. --one-file-system, -x This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing. This does not limit the user's ability to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified, and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion. Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the same filesystem. If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy. Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible). If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy- links or --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device is treated like a mount-point. Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option. --ignore-non-existing, --existing This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do not exist yet on the destination. If this option is combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is delete extraneous files). This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side effects. --ignore-existing This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this does not ignore existing directories, or nothing would get done). See also --ignore-non-existing. This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side effects. This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted. Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using [--ignore-existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't get tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked files). This does mean that this option is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself. When --info=skip2 is used rsync will output "FILENAME exists (INFO)" messages where the INFO indicates one of "type change", "sum change" (requires -c), "file change" (based on the quick check), "attr change", or "uptodate". Using --info=skip1 (which is also implied by 2 -v options) outputs the exists message without the INFO suffix. --remove-source-files This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side. Note that you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent. If you are using this to move files that show up in a particular directory over to another host, make sure that the finished files get renamed into the source directory, not directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer a file that is not yet fully written. If you can't first write the files into a different directory, you should use a naming idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "foo.new" when it is written, rename it to "foo" when it is done, and then use the option --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer). Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has not stayed unchanged. Starting with 3.2.6, a local rsync copy will ensure that the sender does not remove a file the receiver just verified, such as when the user accidentally makes the source and destination directory the same path. --delete This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the directories that are being synchronized. You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets a request to transfer individual files, not the files' parent directory. Files that are excluded from the transfer are also excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section). Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless --recursive was enabled. Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied. This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run (-n) option to see what files are going to be deleted. If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files at the destination will be automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on the destination. You can override this with the --ignore- errors option. The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as well as --delete-excluded. However, if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete- during algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, or the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older rsync. See also --delete-delay and --delete-after. --delete-before Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before the transfer starts. See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion. Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer possible. However, it does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified). It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive). --delete-during, --del Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer happens. The per- directory delete scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates, so it behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being updated. This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4. See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file- deletion. --delete-delay Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed during the transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed after the transfer completes. This is useful when combined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave differently, since --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done). If the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it during the transfer). If the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive is doing an incremental scan). See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion. --delete-after Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer has completed. This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete phase of the current transfer. It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file- deletion. See also the --delete-delay option that might be a faster choice for those that just want the deletions to occur at the end of the transfer. --delete-excluded This option turns any unqualified exclude/include rules into server-side rules that do not affect the receiver's deletions. By default, an exclude or include has both a server-side effect (to "hide" and "show" files when building the server's file list) and a receiver-side effect (to "protect" and "risk" files when deletions are occurring). Any rule that has no modifier to specify what sides it is executed on will be instead treated as if it were a server-side rule only, avoiding any "protect" effects of the rules. A rule can still apply to both sides even with this option specified if the rule is given both the sender & receiver modifier letters (e.g., -f'-sr foo'). Receiver-side protect/risk rules can also be explicitly specified to limit the deletions. This saves you from having to edit a bunch of -f'- foo' rules into -f'-s foo' (aka -f'H foo') rules (not to mention the corresponding includes). See the FILTER RULES section for more information. See --delete (which is implied) for more details on deletion. --ignore-missing-args When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source files (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it is normally an error if the file cannot be found. This option suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file. This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file was initially found to be present and later is no longer there. --delete-missing-args This option takes the behavior of the (implied) --ignore- missing-args option a step farther: each missing arg will become a deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the receiving side (should it exist). If the destination file is a non-empty directory, it will only be successfully deleted if --force or --delete are in effect. Other than that, this option is independent of any other type of delete processing. The missing source files are represented by special file- list entries which display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output. --ignore-errors Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors. --force This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to be replaced by a non-directory. This is only relevant if deletions are not active (see --delete for details). Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required when using --delete-after, and it used to be non- functional unless the --recursive option was also enabled. --max-delete=NUM This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories. If that limit is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped through the end of the transfer. At the end, rsync outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions) and exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error condition also occurred). Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max- delete=0 to be warned about any extraneous files in the destination without removing any of them. Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you can use the less obvious --max- delete=-1 as a backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded). --max-size=SIZE This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified SIZE. A numeric value can be suffixed with a string to indicate the numeric units or left unqualified to specify bytes. Feel free to use a fractional value along with the units, such as --max- size=1.5m. This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side effects. The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta). If the string is a single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the units are multiples of 1024. If you use a two-letter suffix that ends with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units that are multiples of 1000. The string's letters can be any mix of upper and lower-case that you want to use. Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is offset by one byte in the indicated direction. The largest possible value is usually 8192P-1. Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max- size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes. Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0. --min-size=SIZE This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring small, junk files. See the --max-size option for a description of SIZE and other info. Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0. --max-alloc=SIZE By default rsync limits an individual malloc/realloc to about 1GB in size. For most people this limit works just fine and prevents a protocol error causing rsync to request massive amounts of memory. However, if you have many millions of files in a transfer, a large amount of server memory, and you don't want to split up your transfer into multiple parts, you can increase the per- allocation limit to something larger and rsync will consume more memory. Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of allocated memory. It is a sanity-check value for each individual allocation. See the --max-size option for a description of how SIZE can be specified. The default suffix if none is given is bytes. Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit. You can set a default value using the environment variable RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC using the same SIZE values as supported by this option. If the remote rsync doesn't understand the --max-alloc option, you can override an environmental value by specifying --max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending the option to the remote side (because "1G" is the default). --block-size=SIZE, -B This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algorithm to a fixed value. It is normally selected based on the size of each file being updated. See the technical report for details. Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with a suffix as detailed in the --max-size option. Older versions only accepted a byte count. --rsh=COMMAND, -e This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for communication between the local and remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network. If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host. See the USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION section above. Beginning with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable will be set when a daemon connection is being made via a remote-shell connection. It is set to 0 if the default daemon port is being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync port that was specified via either the --port option or a non-empty port value in an rsync:// URL. This allows the script to discern if a non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such as an SSL or stunnel helper script to connect to a default or alternate port. Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument. You must use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes). Note that doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing). Some examples: -e 'ssh -p 2234' -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"' (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site- specific connect options in their .ssh/config file.) You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as -e. See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option. --rsync-path=PROGRAM Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up rsync. Often used when rsync is not in the default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync- path=/usr/local/bin/rsync). Note that PROGRAM is run with the help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate. One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the remote machine for use with the --relative option. For instance: rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/ --remote-option=OPTION, -M This option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only. For instance, if you want to pass --log- file=FILE and --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this: rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/ If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side. Like this: rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/ Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync to have a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a cryptic fashion. Note that you should use a separate -M option for each remote option you want to pass. On older rsync versions, the presence of any spaces in the remote-option arg could cause it to be split into separate remote args, but this requires the use of --old-args in a modern rsync. When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the "remote" side is the receiver. Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them that prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short option letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo). If this bug affects your version of popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with rsync. --cvs-exclude, -C This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be ignored. The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section): RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$*.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/ then, files listed in a$HOME/.cvsignore are added to the
list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment
variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by
whitespace).

Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same
directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the
patterns listed therein.  Unlike rsync's filter/exclude
files, these patterns are split on whitespace.  See the

If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you
should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the
end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was
placed on the command-line.  This makes them a lower
priority than any rules you specified explicitly.  If you
want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into
your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-
line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and
--filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the
":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other
rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory
scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does
a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

--filter=RULE, -f
This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude
certain files from the list of files to be transferred.
This is most useful in combination with a recursive
transfer.

You may use as many --filter options on the command line
as you like to build up the list of files to exclude.  If
the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so
that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single
argument.  The text below also mentions that you can use
an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule
from its arg.

See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on
this option.

-F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules
to your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand
for this rule:

--filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter
files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and
use their rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If
-F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

--filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from
the transfer.

See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on
how these options work.

--exclude=PATTERN
This option is a simplified form of the --filter option
that specifies an exclude rule and does not allow the full
rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.  This is
equivalent to specifying -f'- PATTERN'.

See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on
this option.

--exclude-from=FILE
This option is related to the --exclude option, but it
specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per
line).  Blank lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-
that contain those characters are unaffected).

If a line begins with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
space), then the type of rule is being explicitly
specified as an exclude or an include (respectively).  Any
rules without such a prefix are taken to be an exclude.

If a line consists of just "!", then the current filter
rules are cleared before adding any further rules.

If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

--include=PATTERN
This option is a simplified form of the --filter option
that specifies an include rule and does not allow the full
rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.  This is
equivalent to specifying -f'+ PATTERN'.

See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on
this option.

--include-from=FILE
This option is related to the --include option, but it
specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per
line).  Blank lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-
that contain those characters are unaffected).

If a line begins with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
space), then the type of rule is being explicitly
specified as an exclude or an include (respectively).  Any
rules without such a prefix are taken to be an include.

If a line consists of just "!", then the current filter
rules are cleared before adding any further rules.

If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

--files-from=FILE
Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of
files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-'
for standard input).  It also tweaks the default behavior
of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and
directories easier:

o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which
preserves the path information that is specified
for each item in the file (use --no-relative or
--no-R if you want to turn that off).

o      The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will
create directories specified in the list on the
destination rather than noisily skipping them (use
--no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off).

o      The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply
--recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you
want it.

o      These side-effects change the default state of
rsync, so the position of the --files-from option
on the command-line has no bearing on how other
options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before
or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other
options).

The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative
to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and
no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the
source dir.  For example, take this command:

rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"),
the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on
the remote host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing
slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also
be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the
file -- this began in version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if
the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy
would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to
be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not
implied by -a.  Also note that the effect of the (enabled
by default) -r option is to duplicate only the path info
that is read from the file -- it does not force the
duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

remote host instead of the local host if you specify a
"host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end
of the transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify just a
prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the
transfer".  For example:

rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-
list file that was located on the remote "src" host.

If the --iconv and --secluded-args options are specified
and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one
host to another, the filenames will be translated from the
sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset.

NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input
helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-
visiting the path elements that are shared between
adjacent entries.  If the input is not sorted, some path
elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned
multiple times, and rsync will eventually unduplicate them
after they get turned into file-list elements.

--from0, -0
This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a
file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL,
CR, or CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from, --include-
from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in a
--filter rule.  It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since
all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on
whitespace).

--old-args
This option tells rsync to stop trying to protect the arg
values on the remote side from unintended word-splitting
or other misinterpretation.  It also allows the client to
treat an empty arg as a "." instead of generating an
error.

The default in a modern rsync is for "shell-active"
characters (including spaces) to be backslash-escaped in
the args that are sent to the remote shell.  The wildcard
characters *, ?, [, & ] are not escaped in filename args
(allowing them to expand into multiple filenames) while
being protected in option args, such as --usermap.

If you have a script that wants to use old-style arg
splitting in its filenames, specify this option once.  If
the remote shell has a problem with any backslash escapes
at all, specify this option twice.

You may also control this setting via the RSYNC_OLD_ARGS
environment variable.  If it has the value "1", rsync will
default to a single-option setting.  If it has the value
"2" (or more), rsync will default to a repeated-option
setting.  If it is "0", you'll get the default escaping
behavior.  The environment is always overridden by
manually specified positive or negative options (the
negative is --no-old-args).

Note that this option also disables the extra safety check
added in 3.2.5 that ensures that a remote sender isn't
including extra top-level items in the file-list that you
didn't request.  This side-effect is necessary because we
can't know for sure what names to expect when the remote
shell is interpreting the args.

This option conflicts with the --secluded-args option.

--secluded-args, -s
This option sends all filenames and most options to the
remote rsync via the protocol (not the remote shell
command line) which avoids letting the remote shell modify
them.  Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync

This is similar to the default backslash-escaping of args
that was added in 3.2.4 (see --old-args) in that it
prevents things like space splitting and unwanted special-
character side-effects. However, it has the drawbacks of
being incompatible with older rsync versions (prior to
3.0.0) and of being refused by restricted shells that want
to be able to inspect all the option values for safety.

This option is useful for those times that you need the
argument's character set to be converted for the remote
host, if the remote shell is incompatible with the default
backslash-escpaing method, or there is some other reason
that you want the majority of the options and arguments to
bypass the command-line of the remote shell.

If you combine this option with --iconv, the args related
to the remote side will be translated from the local to
the remote character-set.  The translation happens before
option.

You may also control this setting via the
RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment variable.  If it has a non-
zero value, this setting will be enabled by default,
otherwise it will be disabled by default.  Either state is
overridden by a manually specified positive or negative
version of this option (note that --no-s and --no-
secluded-args are the negative versions).  This
environment variable is also superseded by a non-zero
RSYNC_OLD_ARGS export.

This option conflicts with the --old-args option.

This option used to be called --protect-args (before
3.2.6) and that older name can still be used (though
specifying it as -s is always the easiest and most
compatible choice).

--trust-sender
This option disables two extra validation checks that a
local client performs on the file list generated by a
remote sender.  This option should only be used if you
trust the sender to not put something malicious in the
file list (something that could possibly be done via a
modified rsync, a modified shell, or some other similar
manipulation).

Normally, the rsync client (as of version 3.2.5) runs two
extra validation checks when pulling files from a remote
rsync:

o      It verifies that additional arg items didn't get
added at the top of the transfer.

o      It verifies that none of the items in the file list
are names that should have been excluded (if filter
rules were specified).

Note that various options can turn off one or both of
these checks if the option interferes with the validation.
For instance:

o      Using a per-directory filter file reads filter
rules that only the server knows about, so the
filter checking is disabled.

o      Using the --old-args option allows the sender to
manipulate the requested args, so the arg checking
is disabled.

o      Reading the files-from list from the server side
means that the client doesn't know the arg list, so
the arg checking is disabled.

o      Using --read-batch disables both checks since the
batch file's contents will have been verified when
it was created.

This option may help an under-powered client server if the
extra pattern matching is slowing things down on a huge
transfer.  It can also be used to work around a currently-
unknown bug in the verification logic for a transfer from
a trusted sender.

When using this option it is a good idea to specify a
dedicated destination directory, as discussed in the
MULTI-HOST SECURITY section.

--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]
This option instructs rsync to use the USER and (if
specified after a colon) the GROUP for the copy
operations.  This only works if the user that is running
rsync has the ability to change users.  If the group is
not specified then the user's default groups are used.

This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being
run as root into or out of a directory that might have
live changes happening to it and you want to make sure
that root-level read or write actions of system files are
not possible.  While you could alternatively run all of
rsync as the specified user, sometimes you need the root-
level host-access credentials to be used, so this allows
rsync to drop root for the copying part of the operation
after the remote-shell or daemon connection is
established.

The option only affects one side of the transfer unless
the transfer is local, in which case it affects both
sides.  Use the --remote-option to affect the remote side,
such as -M--copy-as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh
(or lsh.sh) support file provides a local-shell helper
script that can be used to allow a "localhost:" or "lh:"
host-spec to be specified without needing to setup any
remote shells, allowing you to specify remote options that
affect the side of the transfer that is using the host-
spec (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the
remote directory to the user's home dir).

For example, the following rsync writes the local files as
user "joe":

sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

This makes all files owned by user "joe", limits the
groups to those that are available to that user, and makes
it impossible for the joe user to do a timed exploit of
the path to induce a change to a file that the joe user
has no permissions to change.

The following command does a local copy into the "dest/"
dir as user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh
into a dir on your $PATH): sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/ --temp-dir=DIR, -T This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each temporary file in the same directory as the associated destination file. Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still have a random suffix added). This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer. In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the destination file, which means that the destination file will contain truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same time. If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.) --fuzzy, -y This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination file that is missing. The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file. If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer. If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any matching alternate destination directories that are specified via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest. Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete- after or specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this. --compare-dest=DIR This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination directory). If a file is found in DIR that is identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination directory. This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup. This option is typically used to copy into an empty (or newly created) directory. Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match. If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --copy-dest and --link- dest. NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy). --copy-dest=DIR This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy. This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred. Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --link-dest. --link-dest=DIR This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR to the destination directory. The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together. An example: rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

If files aren't linking, double-check their attributes.
Also check if some attributes are getting forced outside
of rsync's control, such a mount option that squishes root
to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic
ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this
volume" option).

Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest
directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to
search the list in the order specified for an exact match
(there is a limit of 20 such directories).  If a match is
found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is
a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try
to speed up the transfer.

This option works best when copying into an empty
destination hierarchy, as existing files may get their
attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate
destination files via hard-links.  Also, itemizing of
changes can get a bit muddled.  Note that prior to version
3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would never be
found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination

Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,
rsync will not link any files together because it only
links identical files together as a substitute for
transferring the file, never as an additional check after
the file is updated.

If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the
--copy-dest.

Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that
could prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-
super-user when --owner (-o) was specified (or implied).
You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option (or
using --no-o) when sending to an old rsync.

--compress, -z
With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is
sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount
of data being transmitted -- something that is useful over
a slow connection.

Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will
choose one for you unless you force the choice using the
--compress-choice (--zc) option.

Run rsync --version to see the default compress list

When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync
chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of
choices that is also in the server's list of choices.  If
no common compress choice is found, rsync exits with an
error.  If the remote rsync is too old to support checksum
negotiation, its list is assumed to be "zlib".

The default order can be customized by setting the
environment variable RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST to a space-
separated list of acceptable compression names.  If the
string contains a "&" character, it is separated into the
"client string & server string", otherwise the same string
applies to both.  If the string (or string portion)
contains no non-whitespace characters, the default
compress list is used.  Any unknown compression names are
discarded from the list, but a list with only invalid
names results in a failed negotiation.

There are some older rsync versions that were configured
to reject a -z option and require the use of -zz because
their compression library was not compatible with the
default zlib compression method.  You can usually ignore
this weirdness unless the rsync server complains and tells
you to specify -zz.

--compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
This option can be used to override the automatic
negotiation of the compression algorithm that occurs when
--compress is used.  The option implies --compress unless
"none" was specified, which instead implies --no-compress.

The compression options that you may be able to use are:

o      zstd

o      lz4

o      zlibx

o      zlib

o      none

Run rsync --version to see the default compress list
compiled into your version (which may differ from the list
above).

Note that if you see an error about an option named --old-
compress or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send
the --compress-choice=zlib or --compress-choice=zlibx
option in a backward-compatible manner that more rsync
versions understand.  This error indicates that the older
rsync version on the server will not allow you to force
the compression type.

Note that the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the
"zlib" algorithm with matched data excluded from the
compression stream (to try to make it more compatible with
an external zlib implementation).

--compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
Explicitly set the compression level to use (see
--compress, -z) instead of letting it default.  The
--compress option is implied as long as the level chosen
is not a "don't compress" level for the compression
algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib compression treats
level 0 as "off").

The level values vary depending on the checksum in effect.
Because rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default
(when the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to
combine this option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option
unless you're sure of the choice in effect.  For example:

rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are from 1
to 9 with 6 being the default.  Specifying --zl=0 turns
compression off, and specifying --zl=-1 chooses the
default level of 6.

For zstd compression the valid values are from -131072 to
22 with 3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the
default of 3.

For lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is
always 0.

If you specify a too-large or too-small value, the number
is silently limited to a valid value.  This allows you to
specify something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that
you'll end up with the maximum compression level no matter
what algorithm was chosen.

If you want to know the compression level that is in
effect, specify --debug=nstr to see the "negotiated
string" results.  This will report something like
"Client compress: zstd (level 3)" (along with the checksum
choice in effect).

--skip-compress=LIST
NOTE: no compression method currently supports per-file
compression changes, so this option has no effect.

Override the list of file suffixes that will be compressed
as little as possible.  Rsync sets the compression level
on a per-file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the
compression algorithm has an "off" level, then no
compression occurs for those files.  Other algorithms that
support changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have
the level minimized to reduces the CPU usage as much as
possible for a matching file.

The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the
dot) separated by slashes (/).  You may specify an empty
string to indicate that no files should be skipped.

Simple character-class matching is supported: each must
consist of a list of letters inside the square brackets
(e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are
supported, and '-' has no special meaning).

The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no
special meaning.

Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since
1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

--skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in
this version of rsync are:

3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac
flv gpg gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a
m1v m2a m2ts m2v m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1
mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm
odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv ogx opus otg oth otp ots
ott oxt png qt rar rpm rz rzip spx squashfs sxc sxd
sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo vob war
webm webp xz z zip zst

This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in
all but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add
your skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files
(and its list may be configured to a different default).

--numeric-ids
With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and
user IDs rather than using user and group names and
mapping them at both ends.

By default rsync will use the username and groupname to
determine what ownership to give files.  The special uid 0
and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group
names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

If a user or group has no name on the source system or it
has no match on the destination system, then the numeric
use chroot setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for some
comments on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability
to look up the names of the users and groups and what you

--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
These options allow you to specify users and groups that
should be mapped to other values by the receiving side.
The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values
separated by commas.  Any matching FROM value from the
sender is replaced with a TO value from the receiver.  You
may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO
values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string,
which will be matched against the sender's names (wild-
cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below
for why a '*' matches everything).  You may instead
specify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-
HIGH.  For example:

The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You
should specify all your user mappings using a single
--usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using a
single --groupmap option.

Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are
not transmitted to the receiver, so you should either
match these values using a 0, or use the names in effect
on the receiving side (typically "root").  All other FROM
names match those in use on the sending side.  All TO
names match those in use on the receiving side.

Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are
treated as having an empty name for the purpose of
matching.  This allows them to be matched via a "*" or
using an empty name.  For instance:

--usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not
send any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an
empty name.  This means that you will need to specify
numeric FROM values if you want to map these nameless IDs
to different values.

For the --usermap option to work, the receiver will need
--fake-super options).  For the --groupmap option to work,
the receiver will need to have permissions to set that
group.

Starting with rsync 3.2.4, the --usermap option implies
the --owner (-o) option while the --groupmap option
implies the --group (-g) option (since rsync needs to have
those options enabled for the mapping options to work).

An older rsync client may need to use -s to avoid a
complaint about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync
handles this automatically.

--chown=USER:GROUP
This option forces all files to be owned by USER with
group GROUP.  This is a simpler interface than using
--usermap & --groupmap directly, but it is implemented
using those options internally so they cannot be mixed.
If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the
omitted user/group will occur.  If GROUP is empty, the
trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a

If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly the same
as specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only
easier (and with the same implied --owner and/or --group
options).

An older rsync client may need to use -s to avoid a
complaint about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync
handles this automatically.

--timeout=SECONDS
This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in
seconds.  If no data is transferred for the specified time
then rsync will exit.  The default is 0, which means no
timeout.

--contimeout=SECONDS
This option allows you to set the amount of time that
rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to
succeed.  If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an
error.

By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option
allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname)
to bind to.

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather
than the default of 873.  This is only needed if you are
using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an
rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify
the port as a part of the URL).

--sockopts=OPTIONS
This option can provide endless fun for people who like to
tune their systems to the utmost degree.  You can set all
sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster
(or slower!).  Read the manpage for the setsockopt()
system call for details on some of the options you may be
able to set.  By default no special socket options are
set.  This only affects direct socket connections to a
remote rsync daemon.

--blocking-io
This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a
remote shell transport.  If the remote shell is either rsh
or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise
it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh
prefers non-blocking I/O.)

--outbuf=MODE
This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None
(aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may
specify as little as a single letter for the mode, and use
upper or lower case.

The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to
Line buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or
pipe.

--itemize-changes, -i
Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are
being made to each file, including attribute changes.
This is exactly the same as specifying --out-
format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the option, unchanged
files will also be output, but only if the receiving rsync
is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older
versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of
other verbose messages).

The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters
long.  The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax,
where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is
replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent
attributes that may be output if they are being modified.

The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the
remote host (sent).

o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the

o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring
for the item (such as the creation of a directory
or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another

o      A . means that the item is not being updated
(though it might have attributes that are being
modified).

o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area
contains a message (e.g. "deleting").

The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d
for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and
a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

The other letters in the string indicate if some
attributes of the file have changed, as follows:

o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

o      "+" - the file is newly created.

o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots
turn to spaces).

o      "?" - the change is unknown (when the remote rsync
is old).

o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

The attribute that is associated with each letter is as
follows:

o      A c means either that a regular file has a
different checksum (requires --checksum) or that a
symlink, device, or special file has a changed
value.  Note that if you are sending files to an
rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag will be
present only for checksum-differing regular files.

o      A s means the size of a regular file is different
and will be updated by the file transfer.

o      A t means the modification time is different and is
being updated to the sender's value (requires
--times).  An alternate value of T means that the
modification time will be set to the transfer time,
which happens when a file/symlink/device is updated
without --times and when a symlink is changed and
the receiver can't set its time. (Note: when using
an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the s flag
combined with t instead of the proper T flag for
this time-setting failure.)

o      A p means the permissions are different and are
being updated to the sender's value (requires
--perms).

o      An o means the owner is different and is being
updated to the sender's value (requires --owner and
super-user privileges).

o      A g means the group is different and is being
updated to the sender's value (requires --group and
the authority to set the group).

o

o      A u|n|b indicates the following information:

u  means the access (use) time is different
and is being updated to the sender's value
(requires --atimes)

o      n means the create time (newness) is
different and is being updated to the
sender's value (requires --crtimes)

o      b means that both the access and create
times are being updated

o      The a means that the ACL information is being
changed.

o      The x means that the extended attribute information
is being changed.

One other output is possible: when deleting files, the
"%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each item that
is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a
recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of
outputting them as a verbose message).

--out-format=FORMAT
This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client
outputs to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is
a text string containing embedded single-character escape
sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character.  A
default format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name
or -v is specified (this tells you just the name of the
file and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a
full list of the possible escape characters, see the
log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name
option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets
updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a
recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In
addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included
in the string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was
used), the logging of names increases to mention any item
that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side
is at least 2.6.4).  See the --itemize-changes option for
a description of the output of "%i".

Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's
transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is
requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of
the file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect
and --progress is also specified, rsync will also output
the name of the file being transferred prior to its
progress information (followed, of course, by the out-
format output).

--log-file=FILE
This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a
file.  This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,
but can be requested for the client side and/or the server
side of a non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a client
option, transfer logging will be enabled with a default
format of "%i %n%L".  See the --log-file-format option if
you wish to override this.

Here's an example command that requests the remote side to
log what is happening:

rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection
is closing unexpectedly.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging
is put into the file specified by the --log-file option
(which must also be specified for this option to have any
effect).  If you specify an empty string, updated files
will not be mentioned in the log file.  For a list of the
possible escape characters, see the log format setting in
the rsyncd.conf manpage.

The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and
this option is not is '%i %n%L'.

option.

--stats
This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on
the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective
rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.  This
option is equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0
or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or
more -v options.

The current statistics are as follows:

o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the
generic sense), which includes directories,
symlinks, etc.  The total count will be followed by
a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-
zero).  For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2,
dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular
files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special
files.  If any of value is 0, it is completely
omitted from the list.

o      Number of created files is the count of how many
"files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to
updated).  The total count will be followed by a
list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-
zero).

o      Number of deleted files is the count of how many
"files" (generic sense) were deleted.  The total
count will be followed by a list of counts by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that
this line is only output if deletions are in
effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the
default for rsync 3.1.x).

o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of
normal files that were updated via rsync's delta-
transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs,

o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes
in the transfer.  This does not count any size for
directories or special files, but does include the

o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all
files sizes for just the transferred files.

o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data
the updated files.

o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got
locally when recreating the updated files.

o      File list size is how big the file-list data was
when the sender sent it to the receiver.  This is
smaller than the in-memory size for the file list
due to some compressing of duplicated data when
rsync sends the list.

o      File list generation time is the number of seconds
that the sender spent creating the file list.  This
requires a modern rsync on the sending side for
this to be present.

o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds
that the sender spent sending the file list to the

o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that
rsync sent from the client side to the server side.

o      Total bytes received is the count of all non-
message bytes that rsync received by the client
side from the server side. "Non-message" bytes
means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose
message that the server sent to us, which makes the
stats more consistent.

--8-bit-output, -8
This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters
unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to
see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping
the invalid ones.  All control characters (but never tabs)
are always escaped, regardless of this option's setting.

The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a
literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly
3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would output as
"\#012".  A literal backslash that is in a filename is not
escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits
(0-9).

Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are
3 possible levels:

1.     output numbers with a separator between each set of
3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on
if the decimal point is represented by a period or
a comma).

2.     output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character
suffix for larger units -- see below).

3.     output numbers in units of 1024.

The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option
increases the level by one.  You can take the level down
to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifying the

The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are:
K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For
example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in
level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal
point).

Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to
3.1.0 do not support human-readable level 1, and they
default to level 0.  Thus, specifying one or two -h
options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new
versions as long as you didn't specify a --no-h option
prior to one or more -h options.  See the --list-only
option for one difference.

--partial
By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred
file if the transfer is interrupted.  In some
circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially
transferred files.  Using the --partial option tells rsync
to keep the partial file which should make a subsequent
transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

--partial-dir=DIR
This option modifies the behavior of the --partial option
while also implying that it be enabled.  This enhanced
partial-file method puts any partially transferred files
into the specified DIR instead of writing the partial file
out to the destination file.  On the next transfer, rsync
will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the
resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has
served its purpose.

Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any
partial-dir files that are found for a file that is being
updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending
files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing, but just the
last dir -- not the whole path.  This makes it easy to use
a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")
to have rsync create the partial-directory in the
destination file's directory when it is needed, and then
remove it again when the partial file is deleted.  Note
that this directory removal is only done for a relative
pathname, as it is expected that an absolute path is to a
directory that is reserved for partial-dir work.

If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync
will add an exclude rule at the end of all your existing
excludes.  This will prevent the sending of any partial-
dir files that may exist on the sending side, and will
also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on
the receiving side.  An example: the above --partial-dir
option would add the equivalent of this "perishable"
exclude at the end of any other filter rules:
-f '-p .rsync-partial/'

If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need
dir because:

1.     the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end

2.     you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice.

For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-
over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should
specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.
-f 'R .rsync-partial/'. Avoid using --delete-before or
--delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of
the left-over partial-dir data during the current run.

IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by
other users or it is a security risk!  E.g. AVOID "/tmp"!

You can also set the partial-dir value the
RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable.  Setting this in
the environment does not force --partial to be enabled,
but rather it affects where partial files go when
--partial is specified.  For instance, instead of using
--partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could
set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and
then use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-
tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times that the
--partial option does not look for this environment value
are:

1.     when --inplace was specified (since --inplace
conflicts with --partial-dir), and

2.     when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the
partial-dir, that partial file is now updated in-place
instead of creating yet another tmp-file copy (so it maxes
out at dest + tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp).  This
requires both ends of the transfer to be at least version
3.2.0.

For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options"
setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is
so that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to
disallow the overwriting of destination files with a
partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom
provided by --partial-dir.

This option puts the temporary file from each updated file
into a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at
which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid
succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the
files a little more atomic.  By default the files are
placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in each file's
destination directory, but if you've specified the
--partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead.
See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a
discussion of how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from
the transfer, and what you can do if you want rsync to
cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that might be lying around.
Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the
full file list in memory in order to be able to iterate
over it at the end.

This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one
bit per file transferred) and also requires enough free
disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional
copy of all the updated files.  Note also that you should
not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless:

1.     there is no chance of any of the files in the
transfer having the same name (since all the
updated files will be put into a single directory
if the path is absolute), and

2.     there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since
the delayed updates will fail if they can't be
renamed into place).

subdir for an update algorithm that is even more atomic
(it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

--prune-empty-dirs, -m
This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty
directories from the file-list, including nested
directories that have no non-directory children.  This is
useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless
directories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning
a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter rules.

This option can still leave empty directories on the
receiving side if you make use of TRANSFER_RULES.

Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this
option also affects what directories get deleted when a
delete is active.  However, keep in mind that excluded
files and directories can prevent existing items from
being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files
and protecting destination files.  See the perishable
filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories
from the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.
For instance, this option would ensure that the directory
"emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

--filter 'protect emptydir/'

Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a
hierarchy, only creating the necessary destination
directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any
superfluous files and directories in the destination are
removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being

rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination
files, the more time-honored options of
--include='*/' --exclude='*' would work fine in place of
the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you).

--progress
This option tells rsync to print information showing the
progress of the transfer.  This gives a bored user
something to watch.  With a modern rsync this is the same
as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-
supplied settings for those info flags takes precedence
(e.g.  --info=flist0 --progress).

While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a
progress line that looks like this:

782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448
bytes or 63% of the sender's file, which is being
reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second,
and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current
rate is maintained until the end.

These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-
transfer algorithm is in use.  For example, if the
sender's file consists of the basis file followed by
additional data, the reported rate will probably drop
dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data,
and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish
than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the
matched part of the file.

When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the
progress line with a summary line that looks like this:

1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in
total, the average rate of transfer for the whole file was
146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it
took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular
file during the current rsync session, and there are 169
more files for the receiver to check (to see if they are
up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in
the file-list.

In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the
total number of files in the file-list until it reaches
the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer
files during the scan, it will display a line with the
text "ir-chk" (for incremental recursion check) instead of
"to-chk" until the point that it knows the full size of
the list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk".
Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count
of files in the file list is still going to increase (and
each time it does, the count of files left to check will
increase by the number of the files added to the list).

-P     The -P option is equivalent to "--partial --progress".
Its purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two
options for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs
statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than
individual files.  Use this flag without outputting a
filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify --info=name0) if you
want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling
the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need to specify
the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending
rsync a signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD
systems, a SIGINFO is generated by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux
doesn't currently support a SIGINFO signal).  When the
client-side process receives one of those signals, it sets
a flag to output a single progress report which is output
when the current file transfer finishes (so it may take a
little time if a big file is being handled when the signal
arrives).  A filename is output (if needed) followed by
the --info=progress2 format of progress info.  If you
don't know which of the 3 rsync processes is the client
process, it's OK to signal all of them (since the non-
client processes ignore the signal).

CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0)
will kill it.

This option allows you to provide a password for accessing
an rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE
is -.  The file should contain just the password on the
first line (all other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit
with an error if FILE is world readable or if a root-run
rsync command finds a non-root-owned file.

This option does not supply a password to a remote shell
transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult
the remote shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync
daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this option
only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its
authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password
in the daemon's config file).

--early-input=FILE
This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the
"early exec" script on its stdin.  One possible use of
this data is to give the script a secret that can be used
to mount an encrypted filesystem (which you should unmount
in the the "post-xfer exec" script).

The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

--list-only
This option will cause the source files to be listed
instead of transferred.  This option is inferred if there
is a single source arg and no destination specified, so
its main uses are:

1.     to turn a copy command that includes a destination
arg into a file-listing command, or

2.     to be able to specify more than one source arg.
Note: be sure to include the destination.

CAUTION: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card
is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is
never safe to try to specify a single wild-card arg to try
to infer this option. A safe example is:

rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

This option always uses an output format that looks
similar to this:

drwxrwxr-x          4,096 2022/09/30 12:53:11 support
-rw-rw-r--             80 2005/01/11 10:37:37 support/Makefile

The only option that affects this output style is (as of
3.1.0) the --human-readable (-h) option.  The default is
to output sizes as byte counts with digit separators (in a
14-character-width column).  Specifying at least one -h
option makes the sizes output with unit suffixes.  If you
want old-style bytecount sizes without digit separators
(and an 11-character-width column) use --no-h.

Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of
files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you
may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive
listing.  This is because a file listing implies the
--dirs option w/o --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have
that option.  To avoid this problem, either specify the
--no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a
directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude the
content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

--bwlimit=RATE
This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units
per second.  The RATE value can be suffixed with a string
to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
value (e.g. --bwlimit=1.5m).  If no suffix is specified,
the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as
if "K" or "KiB" had been appended).  See the --max-size
option for a description of all the available suffixes.  A
value of 0 specifies no limit.

For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be
rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than
1024 bytes per second is possible.

Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this
option both limits the size of the blocks that rsync
writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the
requested limit.  Some burstiness may be seen where rsync
writes out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the
average rate into compliance.

Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress
option may not be an accurate reflection on how fast the
data is being sent.  This is because some files can show
up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly
buffered, while other can show up as very slow when the
flushing of the output buffer occurs.  This may be fixed
in a future version.

--stop-after=MINS, (--time-limit=MINS)
This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified
number of minutes has elapsed.

For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this
option to the remote rsync since it is usually enough that
one side of the connection quits as specified.  This
allows the option's use even when only one side of the
connection supports it.  You can tell the remote side
about the time limit using --remote-option (-M), should
the need arise.

The --time-limit version of this option is deprecated.

--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m
This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified
point in time has been reached. The date & time can be
fully specified in a numeric format of year-month-
dayThour:minute (e.g. 2000-12-31T23:59) in the local
timezone.  You may choose to separate the date numbers

The value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways,
such as specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off
various values.  In all cases, the value will be taken to
be the next possible point in time where the supplied
information matches.  If the value specifies the current
time or a past time, rsync exits with an error.

For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at
midnight local time), "14:00" specifies the next 2 P.M.,
"1" specifies the next 1st of the month at midnight, "31"
specifies the next month where we can stop on its 31st
day, and ":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the
hour.

For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this
option to the remote rsync since it is usually enough that
one side of the connection quits as specified.  This
allows the option's use even when only one side of the
connection supports it.  You can tell the remote side
about the time limit using --remote-option (-M), should
the need arise.  Do keep in mind that the remote host may
have a different default timezone than your local host.

--fsync
Cause the receiving side to fsync each finished file.
This may slow down the transfer, but can help to provide
peace of mind when updating critical files.

--write-batch=FILE
Record a file that can later be applied to another
identical destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH
MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-batch
option.

This option overrides the negotiated checksum & compress
lists and always negotiates a choice based on old-school
md5/md4/zlib choices.  If you want a more modern choice,
use the --checksum-choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice
(--zc) options.

--only-write-batch=FILE
on the destination system when creating the batch.  This
lets you transport the changes to the destination system
via some other means and then apply the changes via

Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to
some portable media: if this media fills to capacity
before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that
partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole
process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you
don't mind a partially updated destination system while
the multi-update cycle is happening).

Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing
changes to a remote system because this allows the batched
data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file
without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when
pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the
batch).

Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously
generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data
will be read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE"
section for details.

--protocol=NUM
Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is
useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with
an older version of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4
is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync
2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option,
you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the batch
file to force the older protocol version to be used in the
batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the

--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using
this option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to
look up the default character-set via the locale setting.
Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion to do
by giving a local and a remote charset separated by a
comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.
--iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that the option
will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling
files.  Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a
CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The
default setting of this option is site-specific, and can
also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

For a list of what charset names your local iconv library
supports, you can run "iconv --list".

If you specify the --secluded-args (-s) option, rsync will
translate the filenames you specify on the command-line
--files-from option.

Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in
filter files (including include/exclude files).  It is up
to you to ensure that you're specifying matching rules
that can match on both sides of the transfer.  For
instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if
there are filename differences on the two sides that need
to be accounted for.

When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that
allows it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its
"charset" configuration parameter regardless of the remote
charset you actually pass.  Thus, you may feel free to
specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.
--iconv=utf8).

--ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or
running ssh.  This affects sockets that rsync has direct
control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly
contacting an rsync daemon, as well as the forwarding of
the -4 or -6 option to ssh when rsync can deduce that ssh
is being used as the remote shell.  For other remote
shells you'll need to specify the "--rsh SHELL -4" option
directly (or whatever IPv4/IPv6 hint options it uses).

If rsync was compiled without support for IPv6, the --ipv6
option will have no effect.  The rsync --version output
will contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

--checksum-seed=NUM
Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte
checksum seed is included in each block and MD4 file
checksum calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums
don't use a seed).  By default the checksum seed is
generated by the server and defaults to the current
time().  This option is used to set a specific checksum
seed, which is useful for applications that want
repeatable block checksums, or in the case where the user
wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0
causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum
seed.


## DAEMON OPTIONS         top

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

--daemon
This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The
daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync
client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/
syntax.

If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that
it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from
the current terminal and become a background daemon.  The
daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each
connect made by a client and respond to requests
accordingly.

See the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage for more details.

By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
run as a daemon with the --daemon option.  The --address
option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or
hostname) to bind to.  This makes virtual hosting possible
in conjunction with the --config option.

manpage and the client version of the --address option.

--bwlimit=RATE
This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The
client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no
larger value will be allowed.

See the client version of the --bwlimit option for some
extra details.

--config=FILE
This specifies an alternate config file than the default.
This is only relevant when --daemon is specified.  The
default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running
over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the
super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the
current directory (typically $HOME). --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so desire. For instance: rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid --no-detach When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and become a background process. This option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools or AIX's System Resource Controller. --no-detach is also recommended when rsync is run under a debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873. See also the client version of the --port option and the port global setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. --log-file=FILE This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log- file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file. See also the client version of the --log-file option. --log-file-format=FORMAT This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off. See also the client version of the --log-file-format option. --sockopts This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax. See also the client version of the --sockopts option. --verbose, -v This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section. See also the client version of the --verbose option. --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon). See also the client version of these options. If rsync was compiled without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case. --help, -h When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.  ## FILTER RULES top  The filter rules allow for custom control of several aspects of how files are handled: o Control which files the sending side puts into the file list that describes the transfer hierarchy o Control which files the receiving side protects from deletion when the file is not in the sender's file list o Control which extended attribute names are skipped when copying xattrs The rules are either directly specified via option arguments or they can be read in from one or more files. The filter-rule files can even be a part of the hierarchy of files being copied, affecting different parts of the tree in different ways. SIMPLE INCLUDE/EXCLUDE RULES We will first cover the basics of how include & exclude rules affect what files are transferred, ignoring any deletion side- effects. Filter rules mainly affect the contents of directories that rsync is "recursing" into, but they can also affect a top- level item in the transfer that was specified as a argument. The default for any unmatched file/dir is for it to be included in the transfer, which puts the file/dir into the sender's file list. The use of an exclude rule causes one or more matching files/dirs to be left out of the sender's file list. An include rule can be used to limit the effect of an exclude rule that is matching too many files. The order of the rules is important because the first rule that matches is the one that takes effect. Thus, if an early rule excludes a file, no include rule that comes after it can have any effect. This means that you must place any include overrides somewhere prior to the exclude that it is intended to limit. When a directory is excluded, all its contents and sub-contents are also excluded. The sender doesn't scan through any of it at all, which can save a lot of time when skipping large unneeded sub-trees. It is also important to understand that the include/exclude rules are applied to every file and directory that the sender is recursing into. Thus, if you want a particular deep file to be included, you have to make sure that none of the directories that must be traversed on the way down to that file are excluded or else the file will never be discovered to be included. As an example, if the directory "a/path" was given as a transfer argument and you want to ensure that the file "a/path/down/deep/wanted.txt" is a part of the transfer, then the sender must not exclude the directories "a/path", "a/path/down", or "a/path/down/deep" as it makes it way scanning through the file tree. When you are working on the rules, it can be helpful to ask rsync to tell you what is being excluded/included and why. Specifying --debug=FILTER or (when pulling files) -M--debug=FILTER turns on level 1 of the FILTER debug information that will output a message any time that a file or directory is included or excluded and which rule it matched. Beginning in 3.2.4 it will also warn if a filter rule has trailing whitespace, since an exclude of "foo " (with a trailing space) will not exclude a file named "foo". Exclude and include rules can specify wildcard PATTERN MATCHING RULES (similar to shell wildcards) that allow you to match things like a file suffix or a portion of a filename. A rule can be limited to only affecting a directory by putting a trailing slash onto the filename. SIMPLE INCLUDE/EXCLUDE EXAMPLE With the following file tree created on the sending side: mkdir x/ touch x/file.txt mkdir x/y/ touch x/y/file.txt touch x/y/zzz.txt mkdir x/z/ touch x/z/file.txt Then the following rsync command will transfer the file "x/y/file.txt" and the directories needed to hold it, resulting in the path "/tmp/x/y/file.txt" existing on the remote host: rsync -ai -f'+ x/' -f'+ x/y/' -f'+ x/y/file.txt' -f'- *' x host:/tmp/ Aside: this copy could also have been accomplished using the -R option (though the 2 commands behave differently if deletions are enabled): rsync -aiR x/y/file.txt host:/tmp/ The following command does not need an include of the "x" directory because it is not a part of the transfer (note the traililng slash). Running this command would copy just "/tmp/x/file.txt" because the "y" and "z" dirs get excluded: rsync -ai -f'+ file.txt' -f'- *' x/ host:/tmp/x/ This command would omit the zzz.txt file while copying "x" and everything else it contains: rsync -ai -f'- zzz.txt' x host:/tmp/ FILTER RULES WHEN DELETING By default the include & exclude filter rules affect both the sender (as it creates its file list) and the receiver (as it creates its file lists for calculating deletions). If no delete option is in effect, the receiver skips creating the delete- related file lists. This two-sided default can be manually overridden so that you are only specifying sender rules or receiver rules, as described in the FILTER RULES IN DEPTH section. When deleting, an exclude protects a file from being removed on the receiving side while an include overrides that protection (putting the file at risk of deletion). The default is for a file to be at risk -- its safety depends on it matching a corresponding file from the sender. An example of the two-sided exclude effect can be illustrated by the copying of a C development directory between 2 systems. When doing a touch-up copy, you might want to skip copying the built executable and the .o files (sender hide) so that the receiving side can build their own and not lose any object files that are already correct (receiver protect). For instance: rsync -ai --del -f'- *.o' -f'- cmd' src host:/dest/ Note that using -f'-p *.o' is even better than -f'- *.o' if there is a chance that the directory structure may have changed. The "p" modifier is discussed in FILTER RULE MODIFIERS. One final note, if your shell doesn't mind unexpanded wildcards, you could simplify the typing of the filter options by using an underscore in place of the space and leaving off the quotes. For instance, -f -_*.o -f -_cmd (and similar) could be used instead of the filter options above. FILTER RULES IN DEPTH Rsync supports old-style include/exclude rules and new-style filter rules. The older rules are specified using --include and --exclude as well as the --include-from and --exclude-from. These are limited in behavior but they don't require a "-" or "+" prefix. An old-style exclude rule is turned into a "- name" filter rule (with no modifiers) and an old-style include rule is turned into a "+ name" filter rule (with no modifiers). Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command-line and/or read-in from files. New style filter rules have the following syntax: RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below. If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an underscore (_). Any additional spaces and/or underscores are considered to be a part of the pattern name. Here are the available rule prefixes: exclude, '-' specifies an exclude pattern that (by default) is both a hide and a protect. include, '+' specifies an include pattern that (by default) is both a show and a risk. merge, '.' specifies a merge-file on the client side to read for more rules. dir-merge, ':' specifies a per-directory merge-file. Using this kind of filter rule requires that you trust the sending side's filter checking, so it has the side-effect mentioned under the --trust-sender option. hide, 'H' specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. Equivalent to a sender-only exclude, so -f'H foo' could also be specified as -f'-s foo'. show, 'S' files that match the pattern are not hidden. Equivalent to a sender-only include, so -f'S foo' could also be specified as -f'+s foo'. protect, 'P' specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. Equivalent to a receiver-only exclude, so -f'P foo' could also be specified as -f'-r foo'. risk, 'R' files that match the pattern are not protected. Equivalent to a receiver-only include, so -f'R foo' could also be specified as -f'+r foo'. clear, '!' clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) When rules are being read from a file (using merge or dir-merge), empty lines are ignored, as are whole-line comments that start with a '#' (filename rules that contain a hash character are unaffected). Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from / --exclude-from options. PATTERN MATCHING RULES Most of the rules mentioned above take an argument that specifies what the rule should match. If rsync is recursing through a directory hierarchy, keep in mind that each pattern is matched against the name of every directory in the descent path as rsync finds the filenames to send. The matching rules for the pattern argument take several forms: o If a pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing slash) or a "**" (which can match a slash), then the pattern is matched against the full pathname, including any leading directories within the transfer. If the pattern doesn't contain a (non-trailing) / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the filename or pathname. For example, foo means that the final path component must be "foo" while foo/bar would match the last 2 elements of the path (as long as both elements are within the transfer). o A pattern that ends with a / only matches a directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device. o A pattern that starts with a / is anchored to the start of the transfer path instead of the end. For example, /foo/** or /foo/bar/** match only leading elements in the path. If the rule is read from a per-directory filter file, the transfer path being matched will begin at the level of the filter file instead of the top of the transfer. See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer. Rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' : o a '?' matches any single character except a slash (/). o a '*' matches zero or more non-slash characters. o a '**' matches zero or more characters, including slashes. o a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]], that must match one character. o a trailing *** in the pattern is a shorthand that allows you to match a directory and all its contents using a single rule. For example, specifying "dir_name/***" will match both the "dir_name" directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). o a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it is only interpreted as an escape character if at least one wildcard character is present in the match pattern. For instance, the pattern "foo\bar" matches that single backslash literally, while the pattern "foo\bar*" would need to be changed to "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b". Here are some examples of exclude/include matching: o Option -f'- *.o' would exclude all filenames ending with .o o Option -f'- /foo' would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root directory o Option -f'- foo/' would exclude any directory named foo o Option -f'- foo/*/bar' would exclude any file/dir named bar which is at two levels below a directory named foo (if foo is in the transfer) o Option -f'- /foo/**/bar' would exclude any file/dir named bar that was two or more levels below a top-level directory named foo (note that /foo/bar is not excluded by this) o Options -f'+ */' -f'+ *.c' -f'- *' would include all directories and .c source files but nothing else o Options -f'+ foo/' -f'+ foo/bar.c' -f'- *' would include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "- *") FILTER RULE MODIFIERS The following modifiers are accepted after an include (+) or exclude (-) rule: o A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example, -f'-/ /etc/passwd' would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer. o A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match. For instance, -f'-! */' would exclude all non-directories. o A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should follow. o An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side. When a rule affects the sending side, it affects what files are put into the sender's file list. The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes. o An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted. See the s modifier for more info. See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes. o A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination. o An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr copy/delete operations (and is thus ignored when matching file/dir names). If no xattr-matching rules are specified, a default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option). MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-directory (':'). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "." rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules. These per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER- DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below). Some examples: merge /etc/rsync/default.rules . /etc/rsync/default.rules dir-merge .per-dir-filter dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule: o A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed. o A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g. "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules". o An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories. o A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off comments. Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled). o You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier, which would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide). Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used. Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file. Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge- file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter file was found. Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file": merge /home/user/.global-filter - *.gz dir-merge .rules + *.[ch] - *.o - foo* This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of the transfer). If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see -F): --filter=': /.rsync-filter' That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".) Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files: rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part of the transfer. If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner. You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For example: cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b + foo.o :C - *.old EOT rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions, the contents of$HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C". LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules). ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per- directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match. Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination host). The following examples demonstrate this. Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz". Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer: Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") Target file: /dest/foo/bar Target file: /dest/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files). PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands: rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything: rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves): rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules' --delete host:src/dir /dest In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule. In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync- filter files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else should not get deleted. Like one of these commands: rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \ host:src/dir /dest rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest  ## TRANSFER RULES top  In addition to the FILTER RULES that affect the recursive file scans that generate the file list on the sending and (when deleting) receiving sides, there are transfer rules. These rules affect which files the generator decides need to be transferred without the side effects of an exclude filter rule. Transfer rules affect only files and never directories. Because a transfer rule does not affect what goes into the sender's (and receiver's) file list, it cannot have any effect on which files get deleted on the receiving side. For example, if the file "foo" is present in the sender's list but its size is such that it is omitted due to a transfer rule, the receiving side does not request the file. However, its presence in the file list means that a delete pass will not remove a matching file named "foo" on the receiving side. On the other hand, a server-side exclude (hide) of the file "foo" leaves the file out of the server's file list, and absent a receiver-side exclude (protect) the receiver will remove a matching file named "foo" if deletions are requested. Given that the files are still in the sender's file list, the --prune-empty-dirs option will not judge a directory as being empty even if it contains only files that the transfer rules omitted. Similarly, a transfer rule does not have any extra effect on which files are deleted on the receiving side, so setting a maximum file size for the transfer does not prevent big files from being deleted. Examples of transfer rules include the default "quick check" algorithm (which compares size & modify time), the --update option, the --max-size option, the --ignore-non-existing option, and a few others.  ## BATCH MODE top  Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the destination trees. The write-batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees. Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually. To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file. For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh" appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used to create the batch file. Examples:$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
$scp foo* remote:$ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from
/source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is
stored in "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated
with the batched data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The
differences between the two examples reveals some of the
flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:

o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have
to be local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote
host using either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon
syntax, as desired.

o      The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get
the right rsync options when running the read-batch
command on the remote host.

o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input
so that the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the
remote machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh
script because it needed to use a modified --read-batch
option, but you could edit the script file if you wished
to make use of it (just be sure that no other option is
trying to use standard input, such as the --exclude-from=-
option).

Caveats:

The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is
updating to be identical to the destination tree that was used to
create the batch update fileset.  When a difference between the
destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded
with a warning (if the file appears to be up-to-date already) or
the file-update may be attempted and then, if the file fails to
verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the command
got interrupted.  If you wish to force the batched-update to
always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use
the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error occurs, the
destination tree will probably be in a partially updated state.
In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as
new as the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die
with an error if the protocol version in the batch file is too
--protocol option for a way to have the creating rsync generate a
batch file that an older rsync can understand.  (Note that batch
files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older
than that with newer versions will not work.)

When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain
options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set
them to the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can
(and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to
--read-batch, --files-from is dropped, and the --filter /
--include / --exclude options are not needed unless one of the
--delete options is specified.

The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any
filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is
appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An
advanced user can use this to modify the exclude list if a change
in what gets deleted by --delete is desired.  A normal user can
ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy way
to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the


       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a
symbolic link in the source directory.

By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message
"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that
exist.

(instead of being noisily ignored), and the default handling is
to recreate them with the same target on the destination.  Note

copying their referent, rather than the symlink.

Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.
An example where this might be used is a web site mirror that
wishes to ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not
include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of
copied as the file they point to on the destination.  Using

Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute
components to ascend from the top of the transfer.

Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The
list is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options
isn't mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of

Turn all symlinks into normal files and directories
(leaving no symlinks in the transfer for any other options
to affect).

Turn just symlinks to directories into real directories,
leaving all other symlinks to be handled as described
below.

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and create all safe

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe

transfer and creates the safe ones.

For the effect of --munge-links, see the discussion in that
option's section.

the transfer but instead affects how rsync treats a symlink to a
directory that already exists on the receiving side.  See that
option's section for a warning.


## DIAGNOSTICS         top

       Rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
cryptic.  The one that seems to cause the most confusion is
"protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote
shell facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that
rsync is using for its transport.  The way to diagnose this
problem is to run your remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then
out.dat should be a zero length file.  If you are getting the
above error from rsync then you will probably find that out.dat
contains some text or data.  Look at the contents and try to work
out what is producing it.  The most common cause is incorrectly
configured shell startup scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile)
that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try
specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will
show why each individual file is included or excluded.


## EXIT VALUES         top

       o      0 - Success

o      1 - Syntax or usage error

o      2 - Protocol incompatibility

o      3 - Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

o

o      4 - Requested action not supported. Either:

an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
platform that cannot support them

o      an option was specified that is supported by the
client and not by the server

o      5 - Error starting client-server protocol

o      6 - Daemon unable to append to log-file

o      10 - Error in socket I/O

o      11 - Error in file I/O

o      12 - Error in rsync protocol data stream

o      13 - Errors with program diagnostics

o      14 - Error in IPC code

o      20 - Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

o      21 - Some error returned by waitpid()

o      22 - Error allocating core memory buffers

o      23 - Partial transfer due to error

o      24 - Partial transfer due to vanished source files

o      25 - The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

o      30 - Timeout in data send/receive

o      35 - Timeout waiting for daemon connection


## ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES         top

       CVSIGNORE
The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore
patterns in .cvsignore files.  See the --cvs-exclude
option for more details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment
variable. First supported in 3.0.0.

RSYNC_OLD_ARGS
Specify a "1" if you want the --old-args option to be
enabled by default, a "2" (or more) if you want it to be
enabled in the repeated-option state, or a "0" to make
sure that it is disabled by default. When this environment
variable is set to a non-zero value, it supersedes the
RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS variable.

This variable is ignored if --old-args, --no-old-args, or
--secluded-args is specified on the command line.

First supported in 3.2.4.

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the
--secluded-args option to be enabled by default, or a zero
value to make sure that it is disabled by default.

This variable is ignored if --secluded-args, --no-
secluded-args, or --old-args is specified on the command
line.

First supported in 3.1.0.  Starting in 3.2.4, this
variable is ignored if RSYNC_OLD_ARGS is set to a non-zero
value.

RSYNC_RSH
This environment variable allows you to override the
default shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command
line options are permitted after the command name, just as
in the --rsh (-e) option.

RSYNC_PROXY
This environment variable allows you to redirect your
rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to an
rsync daemon.  You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a
hostname:port pair.

This environment variable allows you to set the password
for an rsync daemon connection, which avoids the password
prompt.  Note that this does not supply a password to a
remote shell transport such as ssh (consult its
documentation for how to do that).

USER or LOGNAME
The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to
determine the default username sent to an rsync daemon.
If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".  If
both are set, USER takes precedence.

RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
This environment variable specifies the directory to use
for a --partial transfer without implying that partial
transfers be enabled.  See the --partial-dir option for
full details.

RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST
This environment variable allows you to customize the
negotiation of the compression algorithm by specifying an
alternate order or a reduced list of names.  Use the
command rsync --version to see the available compression
names.  See the --compress option for full details.

RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST
This environment variable allows you to customize the
negotiation of the checksum algorithm by specifying an
alternate order or a reduced list of names.  Use the
command rsync --version to see the available checksum
names.  See the --checksum-choice option for full details.

RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC
This environment variable sets an allocation maximum as if
you had used the --max-alloc option.

RSYNC_PORT
This environment variable is not read by rsync, but is
instead set in its sub-environment when rsync is running
the remote shell in combination with a daemon connection.
This allows a script such as rsync-ssl to be able to know
the port number that the user specified on the command
line.

HOME   This environment variable is used to find the user's
default .cvsignore file.

RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG
This environment variable is mainly used in debug setups
to set the program to use when making a daemon connection.
See CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for full details.

RSYNC_SHELL
This environment variable is mainly used in debug setups
to set the program to use to run the program specified by
RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG.  See CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for
full details.


## FILES         top

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5), rrsync(1)


## BUGS         top

       o      Times are transferred as *nix time_t values.

o      When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync
unmodified files.  See the comments on the --modify-window
option.

o      File permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native
numerical values.

Please report bugs! See the web site at https://rsync.samba.org/.


## VERSION         top

       This manpage is current for version 3.2.7 of rsync.


## INTERNAL OPTIONS         top

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync,
and should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.
Some awareness of these options may be needed in certain
scenarios, such as when setting up a login that can only run an
rsync command.  For instance, the support directory of the rsync
distribution has an example script named rrsync (for restricted
rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.


## CREDITS         top

       Rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public License.  See
the file COPYING for details.

An rsync web site is available at https://rsync.samba.org/.  The
site includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered
by this manual page.

The rsync github project is https://github.com/WayneD/rsync.

We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written
by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.


## THANKS         top

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley
W. Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin
Pool, and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
Rothwell and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my
apologies if I have.


## AUTHOR         top

       Rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul
Mackerras.  Many people have later contributed to it. It is
currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

Mailing lists for support and development are available at
https://lists.samba.org/.


## COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the rsync (a fast, versatile, remote (and
local) file-copying tool) project.  Information about the project
can be found at ⟨https://rsync.samba.org/⟩.  If you have a bug
report for this manual page, see